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Encyclopedia > African American
African Americans
W.E.B. Du Bois • Martin Luther King, Jr. • Edward Brooke
Malcolm X • Rosa Parks • Sojourner Truth
Total population

39,500,000 Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Du Bois in 1918 William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an American civil rights activist, leader, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Edward William Brooke III (born October 26, 1919) is an American politician and was the first African American to be elected by popular vote to the United States Senate when he was elected as a Republican from Massachusetts in 1966, defeating his Democratic opponent, Endicott Peabody 58%-42%. Born in... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake... Sojourner Truth (c. ...

Regions with significant populations
 United States
(predominantly Southern)
38,662,569 [34][35]
 Liberia
(called Americo-Liberians)
150,000
Languages
Predominantly American English
Religions
Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam
Related ethnic groups

Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liberia. ... Americo-Liberians are the relatively wealthy elite of Liberia. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity and may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe those countries of the African continent that are not... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ...


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An African American is a person in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan Africa. Many African Americans possess European, Native American or Asian ancestry as well. In the United States the term is generally used for Americans with Sub-Saharan African ancestry. An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... The indigenous peoples of Africa are those peoples from the African region whose way of life, attachment or claims to particular lands, and social and political standing in relation to other more dominant groups have resulted in their substantial marginalisation within modern African states. ... A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe those countries of the African continent that are not... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A family of white people Whites redirects here. ... A Hupa man. ... Japanese American James Iha, the guitarist in the band The Smashing Pumpkins. ...

Contents

Early history

African Americans are considered primarily descendants of enslaved Africans transported via slave ships following the sea route known as the Middle Passage from West and Central Africa to North America and the Caribbean from 1565 through 1807 during the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Some sources estimate that as many as sixty million — 60,000,000 — Africans were enslaved in total. The accurate number will never be known because they were not considered human beings and were not "counted" as such. Black immigrants from African and European nations and predominantly black, non-Hispanic Caribbean countries such as Jamaica, and others, though often referred to by their national origins and not culturally defined as African American socially, are classified as "Black or African American" for purposes of the U.S. Census; however in general, the American assumption is that if a person is black, of predominant unmixed African ancestry, English-speaking and living in the United States, he or she is African American. The Middle Passage Atlantic slave trade was the forced transportation of African people from Africa to enslavement in North America, South America and the Caribbean (The Americas). ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...  Central Africa  Middle Africa (UN subregion)  Central African Federation (defunct) Central Africa is a core region of the African continent often considered to include: Burundi Central African Republic Chad Democratic Republic of the Congo Rwanda Middle Africa (as used by the United Nations when categorising geographic subregions) is an analogous... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... West Indian redirects here. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Atlantic slave trade, started by the Portuguese[1], but soon dominated by the English, was the sale and exploitation of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean from the 15th century to the 19th century. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Slave redirects here. ... A Masai man in Kenya Black people or blacks is a political, social or cultural classification of people. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... 1880 US Census of Hoboken, New Jersey The United States Census is mandated by the United States Constitution[1]. The population is enumerated every 10 years and the results are used to allocate Congressional seats (congressional apportionment), electoral votes, and government program funding. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

African American topics
History
African American history
African American military history
Atlantic slave trade
History of slavery in the United States
Civil rights (1896 to 1954)
Civil rights (1955 to 1968)
Jim Crow laws · Civil rights
Reparations · Maafa · Redlining
Religions
Christian churches
Rastafari · Black Jews
Black Hebrew Israelites
Nation of Islam · Islam
Doctrine of Father Divine · Ifá
Vodou · Mami Wata · Orisha
Palo · Akan · Santeria
Hoodoo · Spiritism
Church of God in Christ
African Methodist Episcopal Church
Political movements
Black conservatism · Black supremacy
Black nationalism · Black power
Black populism · Black capitalism
Black leftism
Pan-African · Garveyism
Black Panther Party
Civic organizations
Rights groups
NAACP · SCLC · CORE · SNCC
ASALH · UNCF · NPHC · The Links
Sigma Pi Phi
Economic organizations
NBCC
Sports
Negro League (baseball)
CIAA · SIAC · MEAC · SWAC
Culture
African American studies
Contemporary issues
Black Colleges · Kwanzaa
Art · Dance · Literature
Music · Blackface · Minstrel show
Languages
English · AA English
Gullah · Creole
Lists
African Americans
Landmark legislation
Related topics

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Until the events of the American Civil War (18611865) and, in particular, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (1865) resulted in the abolishment of chattel slavery in the United States, the vast majority of blacks in America were slaves. Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... African American history is the history of an ethnic group in the United States also known as Black Americans. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... The Atlantic slave trade, started by the Portuguese[1], but soon dominated by the English, was the sale and exploitation of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean from the 15th century to the 19th century. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States began soon after Europeans first settled in what became the United States. ... See also: American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968) The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Kiswahili word meaning disaster, terrible occurrence or great tragedy. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... A.U.M.P. Church AME Church National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. ... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion and philosophy that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The Doctrine of Father Divine are the teachings of the late Father Divine (d. ... Ifá is a system of divination that originated in West Africa among the Yoruba people. ... Voodoo redirects here. ... This poster of a Samoan snake charmer inspired the common image of Mami Wata in Africa. ... An Orisha, also spelled Orisa and Orixa, is a spirit that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare (God) in the Yoruba spiritual or religious system. ... Palo, or Las Reglas de Congo are a group of closely related denominations or religions of largely Bantu origin developed by slaves from Central Africa in Cuba. ... Akan may be: Akan people, an ethnic group from western Africa Akan States, any of several states organized in the 16th or 17th century by the Akan people Akan languages, a stock of dialects spoken by the Akan people Akan District, Hokkaido Akan, Hokkaido, a town in Akan District, Hokkaido... Lukumí or Regla de Ocha, most widely known as Santeria, is a set of related religious systems that fuse Catholic beliefs with traditional Yorùbá beliefs. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The seal of the Church of God in Christ The Church of God in Christ, Incorporated is a Pentecostal body, the fourth largest Pentecostal Christian church in the United States. ... The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the AME Church, is a Christian denomination founded by Bishop Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Black supremacy is a racist[1] ideology which holds that black people are superior to other people and is most often thought of in connection with anti-white racism, anti-Semitism and bigotry towards non-black people. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tommie Smith (gold medal) and John Carlos (bronze medal) famously performed the Black Power salute on the 200 m winners podium at the 1968 Olympics. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Black Capitalism is a name for a movement among African Americans to build wealth through the ownership and development of businesses. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Pan-African people are all people with African physical features. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the American political organization. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement of the 20th century. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... The Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) is a non-profit organization founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1915 as The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History by Carter G. Woodson and Jesse E. Moorland. ... United Negro College Fund logo The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) is a Fairfax, Virginia-based American philanthropic organization that fundraises college tuition money for African- American students and general scholarship funds for 39 historically black colleges and universities. ... The National Pan-Hellenic Council, Inc. ... The Links, Incorporated is an exclusive non-profit organization based upon the ideals of combining friendship and community service and was was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 9, 1946, from a group of ladies known as the Philadelphia Club to have focuses on civic, cultural, and educational endeavors[1... Sigma Pi Phi is the the oldest surviving black fraternity and generally considered to be the first black fraternity. ... National Black Chamber of Commerce The National Black Chamber of Commerce, (NBCC), was “incorporated in March of 1993, in Washington D.C.” The organizations mission is “To economically empower and sustain African American communities, through the process of entrepreneurship and capitalistic activity within the United States and via interaction with... Bud Fowler, the first professional black baseball player with one of his teams, Western of Keokuk, Iowa The Negro Leagues were American professional baseball leagues comprising predominantly African-American teams. ... The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... logo of Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SIAC) is a College athletic conference consisting of historically black colleges located in the southern United States. ... The Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) is a collegiate athletic conference which consists of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... The Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black universities in the southern United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In the United States, Historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) are colleges or universities that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the African American community. ... Kwanzaa (or Kwaanza) is a week-long Pan-African festival primarily honoring African-American heritage. ... African American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community. ... African American dances in the vernacular tradition (academically known as African American vernacular dance) are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies. ... African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English, Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Louisiana Creole French (Kreyol Lwiziyen) is a French-based creole spoken in Louisiana. ... Lists of African Americans: // List of African-American writers List of African American nonfiction writers List of composers of African descent African Americans in the United States Congress (includes a long list) List of African American Republicans List of civil rights leaders (not necessarily African American, but mostly) List of... This is a list of landmark legislation, court decisions, executive orders, and proclamations in the United States significantly affecting African Americans. ... This is an alphabetical list of African-American-related topics: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A African American African American contemporary issues African American culture... This article is becoming very long. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit, slavery, and, with limited exceptions such as those convicted of a crime, prohibits involuntary servitude. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States began soon after Europeans first settled in what became the United States. ...


For the more than three hundred years during which African enslavement was practiced, and again during the Jim Crow era, African Americans were subject to de jure segregation and discrimination and were kept almost entirely out of political power. African Americans were treated inhumanely by White Americans. White Americans forcibly bred African American sons and daughters with their own mothers and fathers, forced them to wear mouth bits like horses in order to break their spirits, often worked or beat them to death, lynched them, completely shut them out of the educational system, punished them for learning to read and committed many other gross injustices against them with the acquiescence of the legal system and the Catholic / Protestant church. African Americans were frequently sold to different owners, completely destroying the African American structure of family so thoroughly that the ramifications are still present to this day. The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ...


The American Civil Rights Movement scored a series of victories from the 1940s into the early 1970s that put an end to de jure segregation and discrimination, made inroads against de facto segregation and discrimination, increased opportunities for African Americans to enter the middle class, and brought African American voices into American politics. However, ongoing racism against African Americans and people of darker skin in general has been very well documented in the areas of employment, housing, politics, health care, and education in the United States. Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ...


Definition and nomenclature

African Americans descend primarily from enslaved Africans brought to the United States, especially the American South, between 1565 and 1807, the majority of whom were brought in the 18th century. About three-quarters of the slaves came from West Africa and the remaining quarter came from the Angola-Congo region.[1][2][3] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


Previously acceptable terms that are now viewed as archaic (and, outside of historical contexts, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People or the United Negro College Fund) include Negro and Colored; today, the most common term is African American, with Black also commonly accepted since the late 1960s; the term Afro-American was first prominently used in 1961 by a group of activists including Maya Angelou and Leroi Jones (later known as Amiri Baraka)[4] and became common from the late 1960s into the 1980s; it remains generally acceptable, but less common, and has lately been developing a "period" connotation. Blacks are also included in the broader term "people of color". // Negro means black in Spanish and Portuguese (Latin: niger = black). It is an ethnic term applied to people of African origin; The term Negro is now largely seen as archaic and sometimes almost as offensive as the slur nigger. ... Colored and Colored People (or Colored Folk in the plural sense) are North American terms that were commonly used to describe Black people, but also included Asian (brown)/(yellow), Chicano (bronze or brown), and Native American (red). ... Maya Angelou (born Marguerite Johnson April 4, 1928[1]) is an American poet, memoirist, actress and an important figure in the American Civil Rights Movement. ... we all suck dick poetry. ... Colored and person of color (or people of color in the plural sense) are terms that were commonly used to describe people who do not have white skin or a Caucasian appearance. ...


The history of the use of these terms is evident in the names of various African American organizations founded over time. The civil rights organization the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), founded 1909, is significantly older than the philanthropic organization the United Negro College Fund, founded in 1944. The term colored had come to be seen as politically incorrect by the time of the UNCF's founding. Nonetheless, both Negro and colored remained common until the late 1960s, especially in the Southern United States. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... United Negro College Fund logo The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) is a Fairfax, Virginia-based American philanthropic organization that fundraises college tuition money for African- American students and general scholarship funds for 39 historically black colleges and universities. ... Historic Southern United States. ...


As the Civil Rights Movement evolved in the 1960s into the Black Power/Black Pride movement, these older terms lost favor and became associated with the pre-civil-rights situation of Blacks in America. Through this movement, the terms Black and Afro-American both emerged into common usage in the late 1960s. Due to this legacy, by 1980, the term Black had become accepted by a majority of Americans of African descent, and had also became the referential term applied by White Americans in general. Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... Black Power is a slogan which describes the aspiration of many Africans (whether they be in Africa or abroad) to national self-determination. ... Black pride is a slogan used interchangeably to depict both the movement of and concept within politically active black communities, especially African Americans in the United States. ...


In the late 1980s, Blacks began to abandon the term Afro-American, adopting the autonym African American instead. Some did so out of a desire for an unabbreviated expression of their African heritage that could not be mistaken or derided as an allusion to the afro hairstyle. Others wished to assert their pride in their African origins. The term dated back at least to the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism of Malcolm X, who used the term African American in a 1964 speech: "Twenty-two million African Americans — that's what we are — Africans who are in America."[5] However, it did not become widely used at that time. During the 1980s, the most influential proponent of the widespread adoption of the term was Jesse Jackson. Jackson and like-minded persons argued that African American was more in keeping with the United States tradition of "hyphenated Americans", which links people with their ancestors' geographic points of origin, and allows people to assert pride in their ethnic heritage, while maintaining an American national identity. The 1980s refers to the period where corey sucks peters and has a not little to look at his little penis of and between 1980 and 1989. ... It has been suggested that Ethnonym be merged into this article or section. ... Woman with an afro at the Tribeca Film Festival For the Italian painter known as Afro, see Afro Basaldella. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Jesse Louis Jackson (born October 8, 1941) is an American politician, professional civil rights activist and Baptist minister. ... Hyphenated Americans are Americans who are referred to with a first word indicating an origin or ancestry in a foreign country and a second term (separated from the first with a hyphen) being American (e. ...


This usage of the term African American generally refers to black African ancestry and American nationality. But generally speaking, the term does not include black immigrants from the Caribbean, Latin America and the continent of Africa and whites and Asians from any African country. Still, there is disagreement as to whether the term should refer only to blacks who can trace their American roots to the colonial period or slavery, or whether it also should include black immigrants from Africa, the Caribbean and Latin America and their descendants. To some extent, this is a matter of cultural vs. geographic meaning. In the narrow sense, the term refers only to those descended from a small number of colonial indentured servants and the estimated 500,000 Africans taken to British North America (later becoming the United States) as slaves (of approximately 10 - 12 million Africans taken to the Western Hemisphere in general). In a broader usage, the term can include West Indian and Afro-Latino immigrants whose African ancestors also survived the Middle Passage or recent African immigrants/children of immigrants with American citizenship, but these groups tend to use the ethnic terms Latino or Hispanic, or identify themselves by their countries of origin, (for example, as Nigerian, Dominican or Jamaican), instead of African American. However, under certain circumstances these groups that have existed in the Central American and Caribbean region since the 1600s will be called black by people from these diverse regions. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Geography (from the Greek words Geo (γη) or Gaea (γαια), both meaning Earth, and graphein (γραφειν) meaning to describe or to writeor to map) is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ... Indetured servitude is when a persons passage to America is payed for an American Colonist and then the foreigner must work for the american for a certain amount of time (usually 7 years) and then the person is free to do what they please. ... British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Most Latinos in the United States are of mixed ancestry. ... The Middle Passage Atlantic slave trade was the forced transportation of African people from Africa to enslavement in North America, South America and the Caribbean (The Americas). ... Africans in the United States, in the scope of this article, are recent immigrants to the United States from continental Africa and their descendants. ... // The term Latino is a linguistic identity that refers to an individual that has significant ancestry from a nation-state where a Latin derived language is spoken or is the offical language of the government. ... The Hispanic world. ...


Demographics

In 1790, when the first census was taken, slaves and free Negroes numbered about 760,000—about 19.3% of the population. In 1860, at the start of the American Civil War, the African American population increased to 4.4 million, but the percentage rate dropped to 14% of the overall population of the country. The vast majority were slaves, with only 488,000 counted as "freemen". By 1900, the black population had doubled and reached 8.8 million. 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... // Negro means black in Spanish and Portuguese (Latin: niger = black). It is an ethnic term applied to people of African origin; The term Negro is now largely seen as archaic and sometimes almost as offensive as the slur nigger. ... This article is becoming very long. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... Freeman can mean: A person who has been awarded Freedom of the City. ...


In 1910, about 90% of African Americans lived in the South, but large numbers began migrating north looking for better job opportunities and living conditions, and to escape Jim Crow and racial violence. The Great Migration, as it was called, spanned the 1890s to the 1970s. From 1916 through the 1960s, more than 6 million black people moved north. But in the 1970s and 1980s, that trend reversed, with more African Americans moving south to the Sunbelt than leaving it. A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... The Great Migration was the movement of over 1 million[1] African Americans out of the rural Southern United States from 1914 to 1950. ... {{Otheruses4|north the direction}} [[Image:CompassRose16_N.png|thumb|250px|right|[[Compass rose]] with north highlighted and at top]] {{wiktionary}} <nowiki>North is o<nowiki>ne of the [[4 (numbe</nowiki> Block quote r)|four]] cardinal directions, specifically the direction that, in Western culture, is treated as the primary direction: north... Categories: Stub | Belt regions of the United States ...

Metropolitan Areas with High Populations of African Americans (2000 Census)
Rank Metropolitan Area African American Population % of African Americans
1st New York City, New York 2,299,874 28
2nd Chicago, Illinois 1,557,619 36.39
3rd Atlanta, Georgia 1,189,179 61.39
4th Los Angeles, California 1,024,567 9.78
5th Detroit, Michigan 1,024,353 81.55
6th Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1,023,425 43.2
7th Washington, D.C. 924,518 55.1
8th Houston, Texas 727,165 25.31
9th Baltimore, Maryland 703,323 64.34
10th Dallas, Texas 530,715 25.91
African Americans as percent of population, 2000.

By 1990, the African American population reached about 30 million and represented 12% of the U.S. population, roughly the same proportion as in 1900. In current demographics, according to 2005 U.S. Census figures, some 39.9 million African Americans live in the United States, comprising 13.8 percent of the total population. African Americans were once the largest minority in the United States, but are now second, only behind Hispanics or Latinos of any race. At the time of the 2000 Census, 54.8 percent of African Americans lived in the South. In that year, 17.6 percent of African Americans lived in the Northeast and 18.7 percent in the Midwest, while only 8.9 percent lived in the western states. The west does have a sizable black population in certain areas, however. California, the nation's most populous state, has the fifth largest African American population, only behind New York, Texas, Georgia, and Florida. New York, NY redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: State California County Los Angeles County Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D)  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area  - City  498. ... Nickname: Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Settled 1701 Incorporation 1806 Government  - Type Strong Mayor-Council  - Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Area  - City  143. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... Houston redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Dallas redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1012x691, 77 KB) Summary Map of contiguous US, showing percentage of population self-reported as Black, by census tract, 2000. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1012x691, 77 KB) Summary Map of contiguous US, showing percentage of population self-reported as Black, by census tract, 2000. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Historic Southern United States. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ...


Almost 58 percent of African Americans lived in metropolitan areas in 2000. With over 2 million black residents, New York City had the largest black urban population in the United States in 2000, overall the city has a 28 percent black population. Chicago has the second largest black population, with almost 1.6 million African Americans in its metropolitan area, representing about 18 percent of the total metropolitan population. Among cities of 100,000 or more, Gary, Indiana, had the highest percentage of black residents of any U.S. city in 2000, with 85 percent (though it should be noted that the 2006 Census estimate puts the city's population below 100,000.) Nonetheless, Gary is followed closely by Detroit, Michigan, with 83 percent African American. Atlanta, Georgia, has a substantial African American population of about 65 percent. Baltimore, Maryland, has a high African American population of 64 percent. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with 43 percent, Washington, D.C., with 60 percent, and Memphis, Tennessee with 61 percent, are also large African American population centers. Metropolitan area in Western Tokyo as seen from Tokyo Tower A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or... New York, NY redirects here. ... Crowded Shibuya, Tokyo shopping district An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article is about the city in Indiana, for other uses of Gary, see Gary (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Nickname: Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Settled 1701 Incorporation 1806 Government  - Type Strong Mayor-Council  - Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Area  - City  143. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Hotlanta redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ...


The nation's most affluent county with a majority African American population is Prince George's County, Maryland, with a median income of $62,467. Other affluent African American majority counties include Dekalb County in Georgia, and Charles City County in Virginia. Queens County, New York, which is the only county with a population of 65,000 or more where African Americans have a higher household income than White Americans. Prince Georges County is a suburban county located in the state of Maryland immediately east of Washington, D.C.. It is notable as the wealthiest majority-African-American county in the country. ... DeKalb is the name of some places in the United States of America, named after Johann de Kalb: DeKalb, Illinois DeKalb County, Alabama DeKalb County, Georgia DeKalb County, Illinois DeKalb County, Indiana DeKalb County, Missouri Town of De Kalb, Jefferson County, New York DeKalb County, Tennessee This is a disambiguation... Charles City County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... Queens is geographically the largest of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse county in the U.S. It is coterminous with Queens County in the State of New York and is located on western Long Island. ...


Total African American population

The following gives the African American population in the U.S. over time, based on U.S. Census figures. (Numbers from years 1920 to 2000 are based on U.S. Census figures as given by the Time Almanac of 2005, p 377)

Year Number Percentage of total population Slaves Percentage of African American population in slavery
1790 757,208 19.3% (highest) 697,681 92%
1800 1,002,037 18.9% 893,602 89%
1810 1,377,808 19.0% 1,191,362 86%
1820 1,771,656 18.4% 1,538,022 87%
1830 2,328,642 18.1% 2,009,043 86%
1840 2,873,648 16.8% 2,487,355 87%
1850 3,638,808 15.7% 3,204,287 88%
1860 4,441,830 14.1% 3,953,731 89%
1870 4,880,009 12.7%
1880 6,580,793 13.1%
1890 7,488,788 11.9%
1900 8,833,994 11.6%
1910 9,827,763 10.7%
1920 10.5 million 9.9%
1930 11.9 million 9.7% (lowest)
1940 12.9 million 9.8%
1950 15.0 million 10.0%
1960 18.9 million 10.5%
1970 22.6 million 11.1%
1980 26.5 million 11.7%
1990 30.0 million 12.1%
2000 36.6 million 12.3%

note: The CIA World Factbook gives the current 2006 figure as 12.9% [3] World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...


History

W.E.B. Du Bois, notable proponent of Pan-Africanism, prominent intellectual leader and civil rights activist in the African American community; co-founder of the Niagara Movement and the NAACP.

Blacks in America are descended from many diverse ethnic groups. Members of over 40 identifiable ethnic groups from at least 25 different kingdoms were sold to British North America (which later became Canada and the United States) during the Atlantic slave trade. These African slaves were usually sold to European traders by powerful coastal or interior states in exchange for European goods such as textiles and firearms. Africans were very rarely kidnapped by Europeans because they could not penetrate the interior. The danger of fatal disease was ever-present and the coastal areas were dominated by powerful warrior kingdoms. Africans sold and traded into bondage and shipped to the United States came from eight distinct slave-trading regions in Africa, including the south of Morocco, Mauritania, Senegambia (present-day Senegal, the Gambia, Guinea and Guinea Bissau), Sierra Leone (also includes the area of present-day Liberia), the Windward Coast (present-day Ivory Coast), the Gold Coast (present-day Ghana and surrounding areas), the Bight of Benin (present-day Togo, Benin and western Nigeria), the Bight of Biafra (Nigeria south of the Benue River, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea), Central Africa (Gabon, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo) and Southeast Africa (Mozambique and Madagascar). African American history is the history of an ethnic group in the United States also known as Black Americans. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1051x1512, 115 KB) Photograph taken by J.E. Purdy in 1904. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1051x1512, 115 KB) Photograph taken by J.E. Purdy in 1904. ... Du Bois in 1918 William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an American civil rights activist, leader, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Some members of the Niagara Movement in 1905 The Niagara Movement was founded in 1905 by a group of 32 African-Americans, led by W. E. B. Du Bois, John Hope, and William Monroe Trotter. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ... The Atlantic slave trade, started by the Portuguese[1], but soon dominated by the English, was the sale and exploitation of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean from the 15th century to the 19th century. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... The name also refers to the geographic region around the two countries, covering the watershed of the Senegal River and Gambia River. ... Motto: (Portuguese for Unity, Struggle, Progress) Anthem: Capital Bissau 1 Largest city Official language(s) Portuguese Government President Prime Minister Republic João Bernardo Vieira Aristides Gomes Independence from Portugal  - Declared September 24, 1973  - Recognised September 10, 1974 Area  - Total    - Water (%)   36,120 km² (133rd) 13,946 sq mi  22. ... ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ... Flag of Gold Coast Map from 1896 of the British Gold Coast Colony. ... The Bight of Benin is a bay on the western African coast that extends eastward for about 400 miles (640 km) from Cape St. ... The Benue River or Bénoué River is the major tributary of the Niger River. ...


Enslaved Africans brought their own religious beliefs, languages, and cultural practices with them when they were forced on ships from Africa to the New World; however, slave traders and owners mounted a systematic and brutal campaign to de-Africanize them, eventually nearly completely stripping them of their original names, languages and religious beliefs. As additional means of subjugation, slave owners often intentionally mixed people who spoke many different African languages to discourage communication in any language other than English on their plantations and it became illegal for slaves to be taught to read or write. Over time, Africans in America formed a new and common identity focused on their mutual condition in America as opposed to cultural and historic ties to Africa. Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, c. ...

Booker T. Washington, political leader, educator, author, and one of the dominant figures in African American culture and politics in the early 20th century

Throughout the period of African enslavement, various types of slavery developed. The types of crops grown (rice, cotton, tobacco, etc), led to varying types of slavery. The schedules of planting, tilling, sowing and harvesting throughout the seasons of the year led to different work regimens and different frequencies of owner-'property' interactions. The majority of slaves were owned by farmers who owned less than three slaves. This sometimes led to an intense blending of culture and sexual relations. In these situations it also enabled the enslaved a modicum of power through work stoppage and running away to nearby plantations during critical times of the year to barter for better treatment and working conditions. Download high resolution version (1026x1488, 206 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Booker T. Washington Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (1026x1488, 206 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Booker T. Washington Categories: U.S. history images ... Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. ...


By 1860, there were 3.5 million enslaved Africans in the Southern United States, and another 500,000 Africans lived free across the country. Slavery was a controversial issue in American society and politics. The growth of abolitionism, which opposed the institution of slavery, culminated in the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, and was one reason for the secession of the Confederate States of America, which led to the American Civil War (1861 - 1865). After the Civil War, the United States offered certain civil rights to African Americans. The Emancipation Proclamation of 1862 declared all slaves in the Confederacy free under U.S. law. It included exceptions for those held in all territories that had not seceded, however, and thus did not immediately free a single slave, since U.S. law held no sway over the Confederacy at the time. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865, freed all slaves, including those in states that had not seceded. During Reconstruction, African Americans in the South obtained the right to vote and to hold public office, as well as a number of other civil rights they previously had been denied. However, when Reconstruction ended in 1877, southern, White landowners reinstituted the "Jim Crow" regime of disenfranchisement and racial segregation, and with it a wave of terrorism and repression, including lynchings and other vigilante violence. Historic Southern United States. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States began soon after Europeans first settled in what became the United States. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... This article is becoming very long. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Leland-Boker Authorized Edition, printed in June 1864 with a presidential signature The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order given on January 1, 1863 by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War, which declared the freedom of all slaves in those areas of the rebellious Confederate States... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... Amendment XIII in the National Archives Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit, slavery, and, with limited exceptions such as those convicted of a crime, prohibits involuntary servitude. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... Reconstruction was the attempt from 1865 to 1877 in U.S. history to resolve the issues of the American Civil War, when both the Confederacy and slavery were destroyed. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... Disenfranchising refers to the removal of the ability to vote from a person or group of people. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or... Lynching is a form of violence, usually murder, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


During the Progressive Era, black members of the middle class attempted improving the conditions of their race. This movement was strongest in the Southern United States and it often revolved around black southern universities such as Tuskegee University and Atlanta University, academic journals, and the Episcopal Church. Like white progressives, black progressives helped the working class through charitable means while supporting political changes that increased the role of the state in creating socioeconomic equity, as opposed to equality. Some black progressives were elitist and often condescending towards those they were intent on helping, akin to white progressives' attitudes and actions towards European immigrants. Black progressives were successful in their charitable efforts, but often were not concerned with issues like racial segregation. Instead, they supported a social Darwinist mentality with the hope that blacks through hard work and education could accelerate their social evolution. The plight of most black people did not improve during this time due to racist political policies supported by many Whites in conjunction with white vigilante action. In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1930s. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Tuskegee University is an American institution of higher learning located in Tuskegee, Alabama. ... Clark Atlanta University is a private, undergraduate and graduate institution educational institution in Atlanta, Georgia. ... The arms of the Episcopal Church are based on the St Georges Cross, a symbol of England (mother of world Anglicanism), with a saltire reminiscent of the Cross of St Andrew in the canton in reference to the historical origins of the American episcopate in the Scottish Episcopal Church. ... Progressivism or political progressivism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... Elitism is a belief or attitude that an elite — a selected group of persons whose personal abilities, specialized training or other attributes place them at the top of any field (see below) — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken most seriously, or who are alone... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or... Social Darwinism is a descriptive term given to a kind of social theory that draws an association between Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection, and the sociological relations of humanity. ... Social evolution is a subdiscipline of evolutionary biology that is concerned with social behaviours, i. ...


In the last decade of the nineteenth century in the United States, racially discriminatory laws and racial violence aimed at African Americans began to mushroom. Elected, appointed, or hired government authorities began to require or permit discrimination, specifically in the states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, and Kansas. These discriminatory acts included racial segregation – upheld by the United States Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896 - which was legally mandated by southern states and nationwide at the local level of government, voter suppression or disenfranchisement in the southern states, denial of economic opportunity or resources nationwide, and private acts of violence and mass racial violence aimed at African Americans unhindered or encouraged by government authorities. Although racial discrimination was present nationwide, the combination of law, public and private acts of discrimination, marginal economic opportunity, and violence directed toward African Americans in the southern states became known as Jim Crow. The desperate conditions of African Americans in the South that sparked the Great Migration of the early 20th century, combined with a growing African American intellectual and cultural elite in the Northern United States, led to a movement to fight violence and discrimination against African Americans that, like abolitionism before it, crossed racial lines. One of the most prominent of these groups, the NAACP, galvanized by outspoken journalist and activist Ida B. Wells Barnett, led an anti-lynching crusade. In the 1950s, the organization mounted a series of calculated legal challenges to overturn Jim Crow segregation, culminating in the landmark Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas decision. Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) none Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Holding The separate but equal provision of public accommodations by state governments is constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... The Great Migration was the movement of over 1 million[1] African Americans out of the rural Southern United States from 1914 to 1950. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Ida Wells-Barnett Ida B. Wells, (July 16, 1862 – March 25, 1931), later known as Ida Wells-Barnett, was an African-American civil rights advocate, and led a strong cause against lynching. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ...

Nobel Peace Laureate and civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr., delivering his "I Have a Dream" speech before over 200,000 people in front of the Lincoln Memorial at the 1963 March on Washington.

The Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board was one of defining moments of the modern-day American Civil Rights Movement. It was part of a long-term strategy to strike down Jim Crow segregation in public education, the hospitality industry, public transportation, employment and housing, granting equal access to African Americans and ensuring their right to vote. Image File history File links Martin_Luther_King_-_March_on_Washington. ... Image File history File links Martin_Luther_King_-_March_on_Washington. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... The monument which is in the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a political rally that took place on August 28, 1963. ... George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James Nabrit, congratulating each other, following Supreme Court decision declaring segregation unconstitutional Brown v. ... The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ...


The Civil Rights Movement aimed at abolishing public and private acts of racial discrimination against African Americans between 1954 to 1968, particularly in the southern United States. By 1966, the emergence of the Black Power Movement, which lasted from 1966 to 1975, expanded upon the aims of the Civil Rights Movement to include racial dignity, economic and political self-sufficiency, and freedom from white authority. Several scholars have begun to refer to the Civil Rights Movement as the Second Reconstruction. The Civil Rights Movement and subsequent Black Power Movement was the culmination of generations of oppression and contained several key events in American history, including the murder of Emmett Till, Rosa Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott, the desegregation of Little Rock, Arkansas, multiple sit-ins and freedom rides, the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom and many other notable events. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom and the conditions which brought it into being are credited with putting pressure on President John F. Kennedy and then Lyndon B. Johnson that culminated in the passage the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that banned discrimination in public accommodations, employment, and labor unions. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... Black Power is a slogan which describes the aspiration of many Africans (whether they be in Africa or abroad) to national self-determination. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Second Reconstruction is a term that refers to the American Civil Rights Movement. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Black Power is a slogan which describes the aspiration of many Africans (whether they be in Africa or abroad) to national self-determination. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake... Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Arkansas County Pulaski Founded 1821 Incorporated 1831 Government  - Mayor Mark Stodola Area  - City  116. ... A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for protest, often political, social, or economic change. ... The Freedom Rides were a series of nonviolent, direct demonstrations performed in 1961 as part of the U.S. civil rights movement. ... Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. ... Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...

The "Mississippi Freedom Summer" of 1964 brought thousands of idealistic youth, black and white, to the state to run "freedom schools", to teach basic literacy, history and civics. Other volunteers were involved in voter registration drives. The season was marked by harassment, intimidation and violence directed at Civil Rights workers and their host families. The disappearance of three youths, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner in Philadelphia, Mississippi, captured the attention of the nation. Six weeks later, searchers found the savagely beaten body of Chaney, a black man, in a muddy dam alongside the remains of his two white companions, who had been shot to death. Outrage at the escalating injustices of the "Mississippi Blood Summer", as it by then had come to be known, and at the brutality of the murders brought about the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The Act struck down barriers to black enfranchisement and was the capstone to more than a decade of major civil rights legislation. Image File history File links Malcomxm1carbine3gr. ... Image File history File links Malcomxm1carbine3gr. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... The M1 Carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber . ... Freedom Summer was a campaign in the United States launched during the summer of 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in the southern states. ... Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behavior. ... Intimidation is generally used in the meaning of criminal threatening. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... James Chaney James Earl Chaney (May 30, 1943 – June 21, 1964) was a civil rights worker who was murdered (along with Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman) by members of the Ku Klux Klan. ... Andrew Goodman Andrew Goodman (November 23, 1943 – June 21, 1964) was an American civil rights activist who was murdered by gunshot in 1964 By the Ku Klux Klan. ... Michael Schwerner Michael Schwerner (November 6, 1939 – June 21, 1964), called Mickey by friends and colleagues, was a CORE field worker killed in Philadelphia, Mississippi, by the Ku Klux Klan in response to the civil-rights work he coordinated, which included promoting registration to vote among Mississippi African Americans. ... Philadelphia is a city located in Neshoba County, Mississippi. ... The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ...


By this time, African Americans who questioned the effectiveness of nonviolent protest had gained a greater voice. More militant black leaders, such as Malcolm X of the Nation of Islam and Eldridge Cleaver of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, called for blacks to defend themselves, using violence, if necessary. From the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, the Black Power movement urged African Americans to look to Africa for inspiration and emphasized black solidarity, rather than integration. The movement reached its peak in the 1960s under leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Whitney Young, and Roy Wilkins, Sr. At the same time, Nation of Islam spokesman Malcolm X and, later, Stokely Carmichael, the Black Panther Party, and the Republic of New Africa called for African Americans to embrace black nationalism and black self-empowerment, propounding ideas of African (black) unity, solidarity and pan-Africanism. By the end of the 1960s, however, several civil rights activists, leaders and pan-Africanists were assassinated, including Medgar Evers, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr. and Fred Hampton. Nevertheless, politically and economically, African Americans have made substantial strides in the post-civil rights era. Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Black Panther Party for Self Defense see the Black Panther Party. ... Black Power is a slogan which describes the aspiration of many Africans (whether they be in Africa or abroad) to national self-determination. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... Whitney M. Young Jr. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Carmichael amidst a demonstration near the United States Capitol protesting the House of Representatives action denying Rep. ... This article is about the American political organization. ... The Republic of New Africa flag is that first used by Marcus Garvey. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Medgar Wiley Evers (July 2, 1925 – June 12, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist from Mississippi. ... Fred Hampton (August 30, 1948 – December 4, 1969) was a radical African American activist and deputy chairman of the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party (BPP). ...


Economic status

The collective economic status of African Americans is a matter of contentious debate, with statistics simultaneously suggesting both the residual effects of historical marginalization and sustained progress for large sections of the population in the United States, and the greater affluence of the group when compared to populations outside of the United States. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the median income of African Americans as a group is roughly 65 percent[6] of that of "white" people, that is, "people having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.[7] The only county in the nation with a population over 65,000 where the median income among black households surpasses that of whites is Queens in New York City (the median income among black households there was close to $52,000 in 2005).[8] Racial economic disparities are greatest of all at the highest levels of income, although this economic super elite does not reflect any American population collective, black or otherwise. Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Debate (North American English) or debating (British English) is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. ... A graph of a Normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ... This article is about the sociological concept. ... Wealth is an abundance of items of economic value, or the state of controlling or possessing such items, and encompasses money, real estate and personal property. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Queens Borough in New York City, in yellow Queens is one of the five boroughs of New York City, USA. Geographically the largest borough in the city, Queens is home to many immigrants and two of New Yorks major airports. ... New York, NY redirects here. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ...


According to Forbes magazine's "wealthiest American" lists, a 2000 net-worth of $800 million dollars made (by 2006 1.5 billion USD) Oprah Winfrey the richest African American of the 20th century in sharp contrast to the 20th century's richest White American Bill Gates whose net-worth briefly hit $100 billion in 1999 However, in Forbes' list of 2006, Gates' net worth decreased to $53 billion USD while Winfrey's net worth increased to $1.5 billion USD,[9][10] making her the richest Black person on the face of the planet,[11][12] and the first African American to make Business Week's 50 greatest philanthropists list.[13] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Oprah Winfrey, (born January 29, 1954) is a multiple-Emmy Award winning host of The Oprah Winfrey Show, the highest rated talk show in television history. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American entrepreneur and the co-founder, chairman, former chief software architect, and former CEO of Microsoft, the worlds largest software company. ...

Philanthropist, talk show host, book critic, actor and magazine publisher Oprah Winfrey, richest African American of the 20th century, the world's only Black billionaire for 3 straight years[14][12][15] and elected the Greatest American woman of all time.[16]

BET founder Bob Johnson, was also listed as a billionaire prior to an expensive divorce and has recently regained his fortune through a series of real estate investments. Forbes estimates his net worth at $1.1 billion USD solitifying him as the only male billionaire of predominantly African decent. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (747x955, 580 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Oprah Winfrey ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (747x955, 580 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Oprah Winfrey ... A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, or reputation to a charitable cause. ... Talk Show Host is a song written and performed by Radiohead. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke while waiting between takes during location filming An actor or actress is a person who acts, or plays a role, in a dramatic production. ... Oprah Winfrey, (born January 29, 1954) is a multiple-Emmy Award winning host of The Oprah Winfrey Show, the highest rated talk show in television history. ... The Greatest American is a public vote, modeled after the 100 Greatest Britons competition, in which citizens of the United States are being asked to nominate, and then later vote for, the Greatest American. The competition is being conducted by AOL and the Discovery Channel. ...


Despite the poverty levels of many African American communities in the United States, African Americans collectively are more affluent than most other groups outside of the country. In 2006 the Selig Center estimated African Americans to have $852.8 billion USD in purchasing power, as a country African Americans would be the 18th wealthiest nation. Current information points to a continuation of a long-term trend toward parity with national levels and absolutely higher levels of affluence than those experienced by most populations outside the United States. Packaged Facts estimate African American purchasing power will be $981 billion by 2010.[citation needed] Since the mid to late 1990s, African American incomes have risen at a remarkable pace and the progress shows up at every income level - from the still-large but shrinking underclass, to the fast-developing black middle class, to the growing ranks of wealthy African Americans.[citation needed] Over 1.7 million African Americans have gone off the poverty rolls; earnings by African American women have moved to within a few percentage points of white women's; and unemployment among blacks in recent years has dropped below the 10 percent mark.[citation needed] The poverty rate among African Americans has dropped from 26.5% in 1998 to 24.7% in 2004.[17] The growth in African American incomes is translating into big gains in buying power and opportunities for black businesses.[citation needed] A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Look up Parity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Parity is a concept of equality of status or functional equivalence. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Wealth usually refers to money and property. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


By 2003, sex had replaced race as the primary factor in life expectancy in the United States, with African American females expected to live longer than white males born in that year.[18] In the same year, the gap in life expectancy between American whites (78.0) and blacks (72.8) had decreased to 5.2 years, reflecting a long term trend of this phenomenon.[18] The current life expectancy of African Americans as a group is comparable to those of other groups who live in countries with a high human development index. In 2004, African American workers had the second-highest median earnings of American minority groups after Asian Americans, and African Americans had the highest level of male-female income parity of all ethnic groups in the United States.[19] Also, among American minority groups, only Asian Americans were more likely to hold white collar occupations (management, professional, and related fields),[20] and African Americans were no more or less likely than whites to work in the service industry.[21] In 2001, over half of African American households of married couples earned $50,000 or more.[21] Although in the same year African Americans were over-represented among the nation's poor, this was directly related to the disproportionate percentage of African American families headed by single women; such families are collectively poorer, regardless of ethnicity.[21] This article concerns the term race as used in reference to human beings. ... World map of life expectancy, 2005 Life expectancy is a statistical measure defined as the expected (mean) survival of human beings based upon a number of criteria such as gender and geographic location. ... In probability theory and statistics, a median is a number dividing the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution from the lower half. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... White-collar workers perform tasks which are less laborious yet often more highly paid than blue-collar workers, who do manual work. ...


Collectively, African Americans are more involved in the American political process than other minority groups in the US, indicated by the highest level of voter registration and participation in elections among these groups in 2004. [4] African Americans collectively attain higher levels of education than immigrants to the United States.[22]


Although the unemployment rate among African Americans (in 2002, approximately 11% [5] has typically been twice the rate among European Americans (app. 5% in the same year, [6]), it is still at or below rates found in France and Spain [7], [8], and is slightly higher than the overall rate of the European Union [9].


When compared to populations outside of the United States and European Union, the collective affluence of African Americans is even more striking and disproportionate. Based on worker income alone (excluding purchasing power parity and extra wealth, both of which would accentuate the comparative affluence of African Americans), African Americans produced $586 billion in 2004[10],[11], slightly smaller than the GDP of Brazil in 2006 (even though Brazil's population is about 5 times the size of the African American one) [12], and approximately 80% the size of Russia's 2005 GDP (even though Russia's population is nearly 4 times the size of the African American one [13]. In 2004 this amount would have been ranked as the 15th largest GDP internationally (out of 177 ranked) [14], compared to a population ranking of 33 in 2005 [15]. In 2005, the populations of Poland and African Americans were roughly equal, but the 2004 earnings of the latter group would have been nearly 2.5 times the size of the former's GDP in 2005[16]. In 2005, the Ukraine's population was approximately 10% larger than the African American population, but its GDP was over 8 times smaller than the 2004 earnings of the latter group. Argentina, arguably the most developed country in Latin American (with an overwhelmingly European population (97%)), has an unemployment rate slightly higher than that of African Americans as a group, a poverty rate is almost twice the rate [17], and the 2004 earnings of African American workers were nearly 3.5 times the size of Argentina's 2005 GDP, even though Argentina's population is slightly larger than the African American population [18]. In Mexico, whose human development index is comparable to those of most former Second World countries, and whose economy ranks as a mid-income one, the poverty rate is twice the rate of African Americans as a group [19], and even though its 2005 population was nearly 3 times the population of African Americans, Mexico's GDP from the same year exceeded the 2004 earnings of African American workers by only 25%[20]. The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... A map of countries often considered to have made up the Second World from the 1950s through the 1980s. ...


Contemporary issues

African Americans have improved their social economic standing significantly since the Civil Rights Movement and recent decades have witnessed the expansion of a robust, African American middle class across the United States. Unprecedented access to higher education and employment has been gained by African Americans in the post-civil rights era, however, due in part to the legacy of slavery, racism and discrimination, African Americans as a group remain at a pronounced economic, educational and social disadvantage in many areas relative to whites. Persistent social, economic and political issues for many African Americans include inadequate health care access and delivery; institutional racism and discrimination in housing, education, policing, criminal justice and employment; crime, poverty and substance abuse. One of the most serious and long standing issues within African American communities is poverty. Poverty itself is a hardship as it is related to marital stress and dissolution, health problems, low educational attainment, deficits in psychological functioning, and crime.[23] In 2004, 24.7% of African American families lived below the poverty level.[24] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Slave redirects here. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Ku Klux Klan Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Although the term social is a crucial category in social science and often used in public discourse, its meaning is often vague, suggesting that it is a fuzzy concept. ... Although the term social is a crucial category in social science and often used in public discourse, its meaning is often vague, suggesting that it is a fuzzy concept. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Institutional racism (or structural racism or systemic racism) is a theoretical form of racism that occurs in institutions such as public bodies and corporations, including universities. ... Criminal justice system flowchart Criminal Justice refers to the system used by government to maintain social control, prevent crime, enforce laws, and administer justice. ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Substance abuse refers to the overindulgence in and dependence on a psychoactive leading to effects that are detrimental to the individuals physical health or mental health, or the welfare of others. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


Crime, particularly in impoverished, urban communities, is a serious and ongoing issue in America. The African American population in many urban areas are disproportionately poor, a factor which resonate in the nation's crime statistics for metropolitan areas.


With no system of universal healthcare, access to medical care in the U.S. generally is mediated by income level and employment status. As a result, African Americans, who as a group are disproportionately poor and unemployed, are more often uninsured than non Hispanic whites or Asians.[25] For a great many African Americans, healthcare delivery is limited, or nonexistent. And when they receive healthcare, they are more likely than others in the general population to receive substandard, even injurious medical care.[26] African Americans have a higher prevalence of some chronic health conditions,[27] and a higher rate of out-of-wedlock births relative to the general population. 56% of African American children are born into families where the mother is not married to the biological father. In 1998, single women headed 54% of African American households.[23] Publicly funded medicine is a level of medical service that is paid wholly or in majority part by public funds (taxes or quasi-taxes). ... A household refers to those who live in the same house, who may or may not make up a family. ...


Many of these contemporary issues, problems and potential remedies have been the subject of intense public policy debate in the United States in general, and within the African American community in particular. Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... A community usually refers to a sociological group in a large place or collections of plant or animal organisms sharing an environment. ...


African Americans are the American racial group most affected by HIV and AIDS, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It has been estimated that "184,991 adult and adolescent HIV infections [were] diagnosed during 2001-2005" (1). More than 51 percent occurred among blacks than any other race. Between the ages of 25-44 years 62 percent were African Americans. Dr. Robert Janssen (2007) states, "We have rates of HIV/AIDS among blacks in some American cities that are as high as in some countries in Africa". The rate for African Americans with HIV/AIDS in Washington D.C. is 3 percent, based on cases reported. In a New York Times Article, about 50 percent of AIDS-related deaths were African American woman, which accounted for 25 percent of the city's population. In Many cases there are a higher proportion of black people being tested than any other racial group. Dr. Janssen goes on by saying "We need to do a better job of encouraging African Amercians to test. Studies show that approximately one in five black men between the ages 40 to 49 living in the city is HIV-positive, according to the TIMES. Research indicates that African Americans sexual behavior is no different than any other racial group. Dr. Janssen says "Racial groups tend to have sex with members of their own racial group.(BlackAIDS.ORG,2007,(10). Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


Impact on the United States

From their earliest presence in North America, African Americans have contributed literature, art, agricultural skills, foods, clothing styles, music, language, social and technological innovation to American culture. The cultivation and use of many agricultural products in the U.S., such as yams, peanuts, rice, okra, sorghum, grits, watermelon, indigo dyes, and cotton, can be traced to African and African American influences. A couple of notable examples include George Washington Carver, who created 300 products from peanuts, 118 products from sweet potatoes, and 75 from pecans; and George Crum, who invented the potato chip in 1853.[21] World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... ART is a three-letter acronym that can mean: Adaptive resonance theory Arlington Transit, a bus service that serves Arlington County, Virginia Advanced Rapid Transit metro technology assisted reproductive technology Anaheim Resort Transit Watertown International Airport (IATA airport code: ART) ISO 639 alpha-3 code for otherwise unassigned artificial languages... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Although the term social is a crucial category in social science and often used in public discourse, its meaning is often vague, suggesting that it is a fuzzy concept. ... Technology (Gr. ... Yams at Brixton market For the term yam as used in the United States, see sweet potato. ... Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz, which ran from October 2, 1950, to February 13, 2000 (the day after Schulzs death). ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Brown basmati rice Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... Binomial name Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench Okra, or ladys finger, is a flowering plant in the mallow family Malvaceae, originating somewhere near present-day Ethiopia. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of about 30 species of grasses raised for grain, native to tropical and subtropical regions of Eastern Africa, with one species native to Mexico. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. ... Indigo dye indigo molecule Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... George Washington Carver, 1906 George Washington Carver (c. ...


African American music is one of the most pervasive African American cultural influences in the United States today and is among the most dominant in mainstream popular music. Hip hop, R&B, funk, rock and roll, soul, blues, and other contemporary American musical forms originated in black communities and evolved from other black forms of music including blues, jazz, and gospel music. African American derived musical forms have also influenced and been incorporated into virtually every other popular musical genre in the world, including country and techno. African American genres are the most important ethnic vernacular tradition in America as they have developed independent of African traditions from which they arise more so than any other immigrant groups, including Europeans; make up the broadest and longest lasting range of styles in America; and have, historically, been more influential, interculturally, geographically, and economically, than other American vernacular traditions (Stewart 1998, p.3). African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Rhythm and blues (also known as R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences — first performed by African American artists. ... Funk is an African American musical style. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that typically follows a twelve-bar structure. ... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that typically follows a twelve-bar structure. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... Gospel music refers to the religious music that first came out of African-American churches in the first quarter of the twentieth century or, more loosely, to both black gospel music and to the religious music composed and sung by predominately white Southern Gospel artists. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan (some argue that it may have been born in Europe) during the mid-1980s with influences from Chicago House, electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during...


African Americans have also had an important role in American dance. Bill T. Jones, a prominent modern choreographer and dancer, has included historical African American themes in his work, particularly in the piece "Last Supper at Uncle Tom’s Cabin/The Promised Land". Likewise, Alvin Ailey's artistic work, including his "Revelations" based on his experience growing up as an African American in the South during the 1930s has had a significant impact on modern dance. Another form of dance, Stepping, is an African American tradition whose performance and competition has been formalized through the traditionally black fraternities and sororities at universities. Bill T. Jones is an American artistic director, choreographer and dancer. ... Alvin Ailey, Jr. ... Stepping or step-dancing is a dancing tradition which consists of choreographed dances performed at celebrations, ceremonies, performances and athletic events with rhymes or chants sometimes spoken over the dance. ...


Many African American authors have written stories, poems, and essays influenced by their experiences as African Americans, and African American literature is a major genre in American literature. Famous examples include Langston Hughes, James Baldwin, Richard Wright, Zora Neale Hurston, Ralph Ellison, Toni Morrison, and Maya Angelou. African American inventors have created many widely used devices in the world and have contributed to international innovation. Though most slave inventors were nameless, such as the slave owned by the Confederate President Jefferson Davis who designed the ship propeller used by the entire Confederate navy, but following the Civil War, the growth of industry in the United States was tremendous and much of this was made possible with inventions by ethnic minorities. By 1913 over 1,000 inventions were patented by Black Americans. Among the most notable inventors were Jan Matzeliger, who developed the first machine to mass-produce shoes, and Elijah McCoy, who invented automatic lubrication devices for steam engines. Granville Woods had 35 patents to improve electric railway systems including the first system to allow moving trains to communicate. He even sued Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison for stealing his patents and won both cases. Garrett Morgan developed the first automatic traffic signal and gas mask, and Norbert Rilleux who created the technique for converting sugar cane juice into white sugar crystals. Moreover, Rillieux was so brilliant that in 1854 he left Louisiana and went to France where he spent ten years working with the Champollions deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics from the Rosetta Stone. [22] African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and newspaper columnist. ... James Baldwin may refer to: James Baldwin (schoolbook editor and author) (1841–1925) James Baldwin (writer) (1924–1987) James Baldwin (baseball player) (born 1971) J. Baldwin (born 1934), industrial designer, author, educator James Mark Baldwin (1861–1934), philosopher and psychologist James Baldwin (abolitionist), early American Abolitionist This human name article... Richard Wright is the name of several people, including: Richard Wright, African-American author Richard B. Wright, Canadian author Richard Wright, keyboard player with Pink Floyd Richard Wright, England football goalkeeper Richard Wright, American politician This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ... Ralph Ellison (March 1, 1913[1] – April 16, 1994) was a scholar and writer. ... For the Louisiana politician, see deLesseps Morrison, Jr. ... Maya Angelou (born Marguerite Johnson April 4, 1928[1]) is an American poet, memoirist, actress and an important figure in the American Civil Rights Movement. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Elijah J. McCoy Elijah J. McCoy (May 2 1843?[1] – October 10, 1929) was a Black Canadian inventor. ... Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish scientist, inventor, and innovator. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life around the world. ... Garrett A. Morgan Garrett Augustus Morgan (March 4, 1877, Paris, Kentucky - August 27, 1963, Cleveland, Ohio) was an African American inventor who originated a respiratory protective hood, invented a hair-straightening preparation and patented a type of traffic signal. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... Hieroglyphs are a system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians, using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements. ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ...


Lewis Latimer created an inexpensive cotton-thread filament, which made electric light bulbs practical because Edison's original light bulb only burned for a few minutes. More recent inventors include McKinley Jones, who invented the movable refrigeration unit for food transport in trucks and trains and Lloyd Quarterman who with six other Black scientists, worked on the creation of the atomic bomb along (code named the Manhattan Project.) Quaterman also helped develop the first nuclear reactor, which was used in the atomically powered submarine called the Nautilus. [23] Lewis Howard Latimer (September 4, 1848 - December 11, 1928) was an African American inventor. ... This page is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ...


A few other notable examples include the first successful open heart surgery, performed by Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, the conceptualization and establishment of blood banks around the world by Dr. Charles Drew, the air conditioner, patented by Frederick M. Jones. Dr. Mark Dean holds three of the original nine patents on the computer on which all PCs are based. More current contributors include Otis Bodkin, who invented an electrical device used in all guided missiles and all IBM computers, and Colonel Frederick Gregory, who was not only the first Black astronaut pilot but the person who also redesigned the cockpits for the last three space shuttles. Gregory was also on the team that pioneered the microwave instrumentation landing system. In 2000, Bendix Aircraft Company began a worldwide promotion of this microwave instrumentation landing system. [24] Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart, typically to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (e. ... Daniel Hale Williams, c. ... Dr. Charles Richard Drew (June 3, 1904_April 1, 1950) was a physician and medical researcher. ... Frederick McKinley Jones (May 17, 1892 - February 21, 1961) was an African-American inventor who patented several products in the field of refrigeration. ... Mark Dean Dr. Mark Dean is an inventor and a computer scientist. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ...


Political legacy

The gains made by African Americans in the civil rights and Black Power movements not only obtained certain rights for African Americans, but changed American society in far-reaching and fundamentally important ways. Prior to the 1950s, Americans were still living in the shadow of slavery and Jim Crow, when, in the words of Martin Luther King, Jr., African Americans and their supporters challenged the nation to "rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed that all men are created equal…."[25] Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... Tommie Smith (gold medal) and John Carlos (bronze medal) famously performed the Black Power salute on the 200 m winners podium at the 1968 Olympics. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ...


The Civil Rights Movement marked a sea-change in American social, political, economic and civic life. It brought with it boycotts, sit-ins, demonstrations, court battles, bombings and other violence; prompted worldwide media coverage and intense public debate; forged enduring civic, economic and religious alliances; disrupted and realigned the nation's two major political parties; and over time has changed in fundamental ways the manner in which blacks and whites interact with and relate to one another. Ultimately, the movement resulted in the removal of codified, de jure racial segregation and discrimination from American life and law and heavily influenced the civil and social liberties that many Americans of varied cultural backgrounds expect for themselves. The precedents set by the Civil Rights Movement in terms of strategies and tactics, as well as goals achieved, influenced the Free Speech Movement, the struggles of farm workers and migrant laborers in the United Farm Workers union, the American Indian Movement, the effort to secure equal rights and expand opportunities for women, Latinos, low-income people, LGBT rights, the physically handicapped, the hearing impaired, and other ethnic minorities. Further, the struggle of African Americans for constitutional and human rights endures as a model for disenfranchised and oppressed groups worldwide in their struggles for civil and human rights and self-determination. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This page is about boycott as a form of protest. ... A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for protest, often political, social, or economic change. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Free Speech Movement was a student protest which began in 1964 - 1965 on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of student Mario Savio and others. ... The United Farm Workers of America (UFW) is a labor union that evolved from unions founded in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. ... AIM logo AIM flag The American Indian Movement (AIM), is a Native American activist organization in the United States. ... Latino refers to people living in the US of Latin American nationality and their US-born descendants. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... Look up Civil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word Civil is derived from the Latin word civilis, from civis (citizen). Used as an adjective, it may describe several fields, concepts, and people: Civil death Civil defense Civil disobedience Civil engineering Civil law Civil liberties Civil libertarianism Civil marriage Civil... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


The term "African American"

Political overtones

Barack Obama is an African American senator.

The term African American carries important political overtones. Earlier, terms used to identify Americans of African ancestry were conferred upon the group by Americans of European ancestry and were included in the wording of various laws and legal decisions which became tools of white supremacy and oppression. There developed among blacks in America a growing desire for a term of their own choosing. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 444 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (444 × 600 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Black people University of Chicago Barack... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 444 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (444 × 600 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Black people University of Chicago Barack... “Obama” redirects here. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is... Oppression is the negative outcome experienced by people targeted by the cruel exercise of power in a society or social group. ...


With the political consciousness that emerged from the political and social ferment of the late 1960s and early 1970s, the term Negro fell into disfavor among many blacks. It had taken on a moderate, accommodationist, even Uncle Tom, connotation. In this period, a growing number of blacks in the U.S., particularly African American youth, celebrated their blackness and their historical and cultural ties with the African continent. The Black Power movement defiantly embraced Black as a group identifier—a term they themselves had repudiated only two decades earlier—a term often associated in English with things negative and undesirable, proclaiming, "Black is beautiful". Uncle Tom is a pejorative for an African American who is perceived by others as behaving in a subservient manner to White American authority figures, or as seeking ingratiation with them by way of unnecessary accommodation. ... Black Power is a slogan which describes the aspiration of many Africans (whether they be in Africa or abroad) to national self-determination. ... ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


In this same period, a smaller number favored Afro-American. In the 1980s the term African American was coined on the model of, for example, German American. It was largely popularized by Jesse Jackson, and quickly adopted by major media outlets. Many blacks in America expressed a preference for the term as it was formed in the same way as the names for other ethnic groups. Some argued further that, because of the historical circumstances surrounding the capture, enslavement and systematic attempts to de-Africanize blacks in the U.S. under chattel slavery, most African Americans are unable to trace their ancestry to a specific African nation; hence, the entire continent serves as a geographic marker. Jesse Louis Jackson (born October 8, 1941) is an American politician, professional civil rights activist and Baptist minister. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into slavery. ...


For many, African American is more than a name expressive of cultural and historical roots. The term expresses African pride and a sense of kinship and solidarity with others of the African diaspora—an embracing of the notion of pan-Africanism earlier enunciated by prominent African thinkers such as Marcus Garvey, W.E.B. Dubois, Haile Selassie of Ethiopia and, later, George Padmore. The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... A poster of African Reparation, Reconciliation and Restoration Conference The African diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and cultures of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America) Europe and Asia. ... Marcus Garvey in 1924 Marcus Mosiah Garvey National Hero of Jamaica (August 17, 1887– June 10, 1940) was a publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, Black nationalist, and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). ... W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 &#8211; August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930&#8211;1936; 1941&#8211;1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... George Padmore (1902-1959), born Malcolm Nurse was a Trinidadian communist and later a leading Pan-Africanist with anti-communist sympathies. ...


A discussion of the term African American and related terms can be found in the journal article "The Politicization of Changing Terms of Self Reference Among American Slave Descendants" in American Speech v 66 is 2 Summer 1991 p. 133-46. This article is about the journal as a written medium. ...


Who is African American?

Since 1977, the United States officially categorized Black people (revised to Black or African American in 1997) are classified as A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.[28]. Other Federal offices, such as the United States Census Bureau and the adheres to the OMB standards on race in its data collection and tabulations efforts.[29] The U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation also categorizes Black or African-American people as "A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa" through through racial categories used in the UCR Program adopted from the Statistical Policy Handbook (1978) and published by the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce derived from the 1977 OMB classification.[30] 1880 US Census of Hoboken, New Jersey The United States Census is mandated by the United States Constitution[1]. The population is enumerated every 10 years and the results are used to allocate Congressional seats (congressional apportionment), electoral votes, and government program funding. ...

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is a derivative work from the free-use map available on Wikipedia Commonslink. ...

Black or
African American

Due in part to a centuries-old history within the United States of America, historical experiences pre- and post-slavery, and migrations throughout North America, the vast majority of contemporary African Americans possess varying degrees of admixture with European and Native American ancestry. An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... // Demographics in 2000 US Census Pacific Islander Americans represent the smallest group counted on the 2000 US Census. ... The term White American officially refers to people of European, Middle Eastern, and North African descent residing in the United States. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Some courts have called a person black if the person had any known African ancestry. It became known as the one-drop rule, meaning that a single drop of "black blood" makes a person "black". Some courts have called it the traceable amount rule, and anthropologists used to call it the hypodescent rule, meaning that racially mixed persons were assigned the status of the subordinate group. Prior to the one-drop rule, different states had different laws regarding color; in Virginia, for example, a person was legally black if he or she had at least one-sixteenth black ancestry. The one-drop rule was implemented by states in the southern United States during the early to mid-1880s[citation needed]. This definition was not taken into accounts in regards to the Spanish speaking population (because as it stands, 'one-drop' is racist pseudoscience; it is not scientific concept, but merely a psychological and social one). This definition eventually emerged from the American South to become America's national definition, generally accepted by whites and blacks - but for different reasons. The one-drop rule is a historical colloquial term in the United States that holds that a person with any trace of sub-Saharan ancestry (however small or invisible) cannot be considered white[1] and so unless said person has an alternative non-white ancestry they can claim, such as... Hypodescent is the practice of determining the lineage of a child of mixed race ancestry by assigning the child the race of his or her more socially subordinate parent. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ...


For African Americans, the one-drop system of pigmentocracy was a significant factor in ethnic solidarity. African Americans generally shared a common lot in society and, therefore, common cause -- regardless of their multiracial admixture or social and economic stratification. Pigmentocracy group-based social hierarchy based largely on human skin color. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother and a black father. ...


In the 1980s, parents of mixed-race children began to organize and lobby for the addition of a more inclusive term of racial designation that would reflect the heritage of their children. In recent decades, as the multicultural climate of the United States has continued to expand. Although the terms mixed, biracial and multiracial are increasingly used, it remains common for those who possess any visible traits of black heritage to identify or be identified solely within black/African American ethnic groups. As well, it is very common in the United States for people of mixed ancestry possessing any recent African American or black heritage to self-identify demographically as black/African American while acknowledging both their African American and other cultural heritages socially. Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ... An urban slang term derived from a bunch of Brooklyn desperados (Motion, Stew, Juan, Sar, and Co. ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother and a black father. ...


Genetic studies

Many African Americans have European admixture in their DNA. Proportions of European admixture in African American DNA have been found in studies to be 17 %[31] and between 10.6% and 22.5%.[32]


The Race, Ethnicity, and Genetics Working Group of the National Human Genome Research Institute notes that "although genetic analyses of large numbers of loci can produce estimates of the percentage of a person’s ancestors coming from various continental populations, these estimates may assume a false distinctiveness of the parental populations, since human groups have exchanged mates from local to continental scales throughout history.[33] The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) is a division of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda, Maryland. ...


Terms no longer in common use

The terms Negro or Colored, which were widely used until mid 1960s, have become inappropriate or derogatory. Once widely considered acceptable, Negro and Colored fell into disfavor for reasons already herein stated. The self-referential term of preference for Negro became black. The term survives in certain historical organizations such as the United Negro College Fund and defunct organizations like the Negro Leagues as well as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. // Negro means black in Spanish and Portuguese (Latin: niger = black). It is an ethnic term applied to people of African origin; The term Negro is now largely seen as archaic and sometimes almost as offensive as the slur nigger. ... Colored and Colored People (or Colored Folk in the plural sense) are North American terms that were commonly used to describe Black people, but also included Asian (brown)/(yellow), Chicano (bronze or brown), and Native American (red). ... United Negro College Fund logo The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) is a Fairfax, Virginia-based American philanthropic organization that fundraises college tuition money for African- American students and general scholarship funds for 39 historically black colleges and universities. ... Part of the History of baseball series. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ...


Negroid was a term used by anthropologists first in the 18th century to describe indigenous Africans and their descendants throughout the African diaspora. As with most descriptors of race based on inconsistent, unscientific phenotypical standards, the term is controversial and imprecise. Because of its similarity to Negro, growing numbers of blacks have substituted the term Africoid which, unlike Negroid, encompasses the phenotypes of all indigenous peoples of Africa. Negroid is a largely-archaic term used to describe one of the three races of man, a view now mostly regarded as an over-simplification of the spectrum of human diversity. ... See Anthropology. ... A poster of African Reparation, Reconciliation and Restoration Conference The African diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and cultures of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America) Europe and Asia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The indigenous peoples of Africa are those peoples from the African region whose way of life, attachment or claims to particular lands, and social and political standing in relation to other more dominant groups have resulted in their substantial marginalisation within modern African states. ...


Criticisms of the term

There is some criticism of the term 'African American'. To be African American, some argue that an individual would have to be born in Africa, then immigrate to the U.S., and then obtain citizenship. By this definition, an overwhelming majority of Black Americans would not be African American, but of African descent. The term can also be interpreted to include non-black immigrants from Africa to the United States, such as white South Africans or Arab Africans, although these groups generally do not refer to themselves as African American nor generally thought of as such in the United States.


The term 'African American' has also been misused by some in lieu of 'Black', regardless of an individual's nationality, ethnicity or geography. For example, during the 2005 civil unrest in France, CNN anchorwoman Carol Lin referred to the rioters as "African Americans". [26] This leads to the belief amongst many opponents of the term that African American presents an 'American-centric' view of black people across the world. muslims love pie!! A torched car in Strasbourg, 5 November. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Carol Lin Carol Lin anchors CNN Newsroom on Saturday and Sunday evenings on CNN. She is based in Atlanta. ...


Defenders of the term argue that the term was never meant to encompass all Africans, or even all black people, but only those individuals formerly referred to as 'American Negroes', primarily people whose ancestors survived the Middle Passage and slavery. Further, in the U.S., which is often described as a nation of immigrants, hyphenated American terms historically have been used to indicate one's national origin, or that of one's ancestors. The Middle Passage Atlantic slave trade was the forced transportation of African people from Africa to enslavement in North America, South America and the Caribbean (The Americas). ... Slave redirects here. ... Hyphenated Americans are Americans who are referred to with a first word indicating an origin or ancestry in a foreign country and a second term (separated from the first with a hyphen) being American (e. ...


By virtue of this, any person born in Africa would take on the name of his or her country of origin. For example, an individual from Nigeria would be called a 'Nigerian-American', as the term is descriptive of national origin, as opposed to 'African American'. Many prefer the term 'African American' because, although the historical national origin of the majority of black Americans is untraceable, the continent of Africa serves as an indicator of geographic origin and a descriptive term. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


See also

Africans in the United States, in the scope of this article, are recent immigrants to the United States from continental Africa and their descendants. ... The African American National Biography Project is a joint project of the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research and Oxford University Press. ... Black woman in Africa This article presents the competing definitions of black people, based on a racial, socio-political, lexical, biological, and other viewpoints. ... Lists of African Americans: // List of African-American writers List of African American nonfiction writers List of composers of African descent African Americans in the United States Congress (includes a long list) List of African American Republicans List of civil rights leaders (not necessarily African American, but mostly) List of... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with US per capita income by ancestry. ... This is an alphabetical list of African-American-related topics: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A African American African American contemporary issues African American culture... ... This is a list of the several U.S. cities over 100,000 people that have populations over 30 percent African American. ... This article concerns the term race as used in reference to human beings. ... Hyphenated Americans are Americans who are referred to with a first word indicating an origin or ancestry in a foreign country and a second term (separated from the first with a hyphen) being American (e. ... African American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community. ... Colored and Colored People (or Colored Folk in the plural sense) are North American terms that were commonly used to describe Black people, but also included Asian (brown)/(yellow), Chicano (bronze or brown), and Native American (red). ... The term Creole and its cognates in other languages — such as crioulo, criollo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kriulo, kriol, krio, etc. ... // Negro means black in Spanish and Portuguese (Latin: niger = black). It is an ethnic term applied to people of African origin; The term Negro is now largely seen as archaic and sometimes almost as offensive as the slur nigger. ... African American history is the history of an ethnic group in the United States also known as Black Americans. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A poster of African Reparation, Reconciliation and Restoration Conference The African diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and cultures of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America) Europe and Asia. ... The history of Islam in the United States starts in the 18th century, with the first Muslim inhabitants. ... African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Affirmative action refers to concrete steps that are taken both to increase the representation of underrepresented and arguably underprivileged minorities and to redress the effects of past discrimination. ... Black Indians is a term generally used to describe people who have significant traces of both African and Native American ancestry and/or African Americans who have lived for a long time with Native Americans. ... Atlanticism is a philosophy of cooperation among European and North American nations regarding political, economic, and defense issues. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Black Indians. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...

Further reading

  • Jack Salzman, ed., Encyclopedia of Afro-American culture and history, New York, NY  : Macmillan Library Reference USA, 1996
  • African American Lives, edited by Henry L. Gates, Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Oxford University Press, 2004 - more than 600 biographies
  • From Slavery to Freedom. A History of African Americans, by John Hope Franklin, Alfred Moss, McGraw-Hill Education 2001, standard work, first edition in 1947
  • Black Women in America - An Historical Encyclopedia, Darlene Clark Hine (Editor), Rosalyn Terborg-Penn (Editor), Elsa Barkley Brown (Editor), Paperback Edition, Indiana University Press 2005
  • van Sertima, Ivan "They Came Before Columbus"

John H. Franklin John Hope Franklin (born January 2, 1915) is a United States historian and past president of the American Historical Association. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ethnicities in the United States in The Transatlantic Slave Trade in The African-American Migration Experience, on inmotionaame.org. Accessed 1 December 2006.
  2. ^ AncestryByDNA Experiments, ancestrybydna.com. Accessed 1 December 2006.
  3. ^ Joseph Graves, Jr., The Myth of Race: America's Original Science Fiction, Center for Bioethics, University of Minnesota. Accessed 1 December 2006.
  4. ^ Scott Saul, "On the Lower Frequencies: Rethinking the Black Power movement" p.92-98 in Harper's, December 2006, p.94. The group had protested in the United Nations Security Council against Belgian and U.S. complicity in the assassination of Patrice Lumumba.
  5. ^ Malcolm X, "The Ballot or the Bullet", Cory Methodist Church, Cleveland, Ohio, April 3, 1964. Retrieved on May 7, 2007.
  6. ^ name="DeNavas-Walt">Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, Cheryl Hill Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004PDF (3.64 MiB), U.S. Census P60-229, U.S. Census Bureau, August 2005.
  7. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-4.pdf The White Population: 2000]}}, Census 2000 Brief C2KBR/01-4, U.S. Census Bureau, August 2001.
  8. ^ Sam Roberts, "Black Incomes Surpass Whites in Queens", New York Times, 1 October 2006. Available online; site requires registration.
  9. ^ #242 Oprah Winfrey, the Forbes 400, 2006. Accessed 2006-10-01.
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ a b Malonson, Roy Douglas. Condi and Oprah aren’t good role models for Black motherhood. African-American News & Issues. 2006-05-10. Accessed 2006-09-11
  13. ^ Oprah Winfrey Debuts as First African-American On BusinessWeek's Annual Ranking of 'Americas Top Philanthropists', BusinessWeek via PRNewsWire, November 19, 2004, UrbanMecca.com. Accessed 2006-10-01.
  14. ^ Oprah Winfrey the richest black person in the world. African Echo Vol. 43, 2006-09-11. Accessed 2006-09-11
  15. ^ #562 Oprah Winfrey. Forbes Special Report: The World's Billionaires (2006). Accessed 2006-09-11.
  16. ^ Reagan voted 'greatest American'. BBC News Tuesday, 2005-06-28. Accessed 2006-09-11.
  17. ^ Income, poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, Cheryl Hill Lee, United States Census Bureau, August 2005. Accessed online 30 October 2006.
  18. ^ a b Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2003. Donna L. Hoyert, PhD.; Hsiang-Ching Kung, PhD.; Betty L. Smith, B.S. Ed. Division of Vital Statistics, Center for Disease Control. February 28, 2005. Last accessed September 23, 2006.
  19. ^ Incomes, Earnings, and Poverty from the 2004 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. August 2005. Last accessed October 24, 2006.
  20. ^ Occupations: 2000. Peter Fronczek and Patricia Johnson, United States Census Bureau. August 2003. Last accessed October 24, 2006.
  21. ^ a b c The Black Population in the United States: March 2002. Jesse McKinnon, United States Census Bureau. April 2003. Last accessed October 24, 2006.
  22. ^ Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2004. Kelly Holder, United States Census Bureau. March 2006. Last accessed October 24, 2006.
  23. ^ a b Characteristics of African American Families Based on the Work of Oscar Barbarin, PhD, University of North Carolina. Last accessed September 23, 2006.
  24. ^ Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance in the United States: 2004 United States Census Bureau, issued August 2005. Last accessed September 23, 2006
  25. ^ "Income Stable, Poverty Up, Numbers of Americans With and Without Health Insurance Rise, Census Bureau Reports." U.S. Census Bureau News. 2006-08-26. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  26. ^ "Ethics and Human Rights Position Statements: Discrimination and Racism in Health Care." American Nursing Association. 1998-03-06. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  27. ^ Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease. American Heart Association. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  28. ^ Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. 1997 Office of Management and Budget
  29. ^ The Black Population: 2000 United States Census Bureau
  30. ^ http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/handbook/ucrhandbook04.pdf Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook]}}, U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. P. 97 (2004)
  31. ^ Heather E. Collins-Schramm and others, "Markers that Discriminate Between European and African Ancestry Show Limited Variation Within Africa," Human Genetics 111 (2002): 566-69.
  32. ^ Esteban J. Parra, Amy Marcini, Joshua Akey, Jeremy Martinson, Mark A. Batzer, Richard Cooper, Terrence Forrester, David B. Allison, Ranjan Deka, Robert E. Ferrell, Mark D. Shriver, "[http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/ParraAJHG1998.pdf Estimating African American Admixture Proportions by Use of Population- Specific Alleles]," American Journal of Human Genetics 63:1839–1851, 1998.
  33. ^ "Race, Ethnicity, and Genetics Working Group, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research (citations omitted).
  34. ^ 12.1% of US population, 2005
  35. ^ US Census Bureau, racial breakdown of the United States in 2005. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.

“UNSC” redirects here. ... Patrice Lumumba as the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1960 Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (131st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (239th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (66th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) is a division of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda, Maryland. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Brandon S. Centerwall, "Race, Socioeconomic Status and Domestic Homicide, Atlanta, 1971-72", 74 AM. J. PUB. HLTH. 813, 815 (1984)
  • Darnell F. Hawkins, "Inequality, Culture, and Interpersonal Violence", 12 HEALTH AFFAIRS 80 (1993)
  • Jerome A. Neapolitan, "Cross-National Variation in Homicide; Is Race A Factor?" 36 CRIMINOLOGY 139 (1998)
  • Bohlen, C. "Does She Say the Same Things in her Native Tongue?" New York Times, May 18, 1986
  • Felder, J. (1992) From the Statue of Liberty to the Statue of Bigotry. New York: Jack Felder.
  • Felder, J. "Black Origins and Lady Liberty". Daily Challenge. July 16, 1990
  • Sinclair, T. Was Original Statue a Tribute to Blacks? New York Voice, July 5, 1986
  • The New York Post, "Statue of Liberty" June 17, 1986.
  • Altman, Susan "The Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage"
  • The Music of Black Americans: A History. Eileen Southern. W. W. Norton & Company; 3rd edition, (1997). ISBN 0-393-97141-4
  • Stewart, Earl L. (1998). African American Music: An Introduction. ISBN 0-02-860294-3.

www.blackaids.org www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/africanamericanhealth.html BlackAIDS.ORG,2007,(10). May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eileen Jackson Southern (born 1920 in Minneapolis - died October 13, 2002 in Port Charlotte, Florida) was an African American musicologist, reasearcher, author and teacher. ...


External links

Look up African American in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
African Americans
African American Portal
  • Richard Thompson Ford Name Games, Slate, September 16, 2004. Article discussing the problems of defining African American.
  • "Of Arms & the Law: Don Kates on Afro-American Homicide Rates"
  • Scientific American Magazine (June 2006) Trace Elements Reconnecting African-Americans to an ancestral past.
  • African American Business
  • "The Definition of Political Absurdity", San Francisco Chronicle, March 2, 2007. Editorial discussing prominent Americans arguing whether presidential candidate Barack Obama qualifies as "black enough."
  • African American archaeology in Sacramento, California pdf
  • African American archaeology in Oakland, California - See Part III, Chap 10.

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