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Encyclopedia > African Wild Dog
African Wild dog

African Wild Dog, Melbourne Zoo
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Caninae
Genus: Lycaon
Brookes, 1827
Species: L. pictus
Binomial name
Lycaon pictus
(Temminck, 1820)

African Wild Dog range

The African Wild Dog, Lycaon pictus, also known as the African Hunting Dog, Cape Hunting Dog, Painted Dog, or Painted Wolf, is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family. The Afrikaans name for the African Wild dog is Wildehond, and in Swahili, Mbwa mwitu. It is the only species in the monotypic genus, Lycaon. They are, as their name indicates, found only in Africa, especially in scrub savanna and other lightly wooded areas. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 670 KB) African Wild Dog, Melbourne Zoo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): African Wild Dog ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dē, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dē, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Joshua Brookes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coenraad Jacob Temminck (March 31, 1778 - January 30, 1858) was a Dutch aristocrat and zoologist. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 397 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 794 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): African Wild Dog... Carnivorism redirects here. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dē, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Savannah redirects here. ...

Contents

Anatomy and reproduction

The wild dog's Greek name means painted wolf and it is characteristic of the species that no two individuals have the same pattern of coat. Individuals can easily be recognized on the basis of their differing coat patterns. The pelage is an irregular pattern of black, yellow, and white. The wild dog is unusual among canids, due to the fact that they are the only species to lack dewclaws on the forelimbs. In mammals, pelage is the hair, fur, or wool that covers the animal. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Dusicyon Fennecus Lycalopex Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. ... The dogs front dewclaw grows on the side of the foot, above the other four toes but below the rear heelpad. ...


Adults typically weigh between 17-36 kilograms (37-79 pounds).[1] A tall, lean animal, they stand about 30 inches (75 cm) at the shoulder, with a head and body length averaging about 40 inches (100cm) and a tail of between 12 and 18 inches (30-45cm) Animals in southern Africa are generally larger than those in the east or west of the continent.


There is little sexual dimorphism, though judging by skeletal dimensions, males are usually 3-7% larger. They have a dental formula of Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Dentition is the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. ...

3.1.4.2
3.1.4.3

for a total of 42 teeth. The premolars of this species are relatively large compared to other canids, allowing them to consume a large quantity of bone, much like hyenas.[2] Genera Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Proteles Hyenas (or Hyaenas) are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa and Asia, and members of the family Hyaenidae. ...


Indeed, according to the comparative bite force test of carnivores conducted by Wroe et al[3] the African Wild dog, with a BFQ (Bite Force Quotient) of 142 (essentially the strength of bite as measured against the animal's mass) is the highest of any extant carnivorous mammal.


Wild dogs will reproduce any time of year, with a peak between March and June during the second half of the rainy season. 2-19 pups can be born per litter, though 10 is the most usual number. The time between births is usually 12-14 months, though it can also be as short as 6 months if all of the previous young die. Pups are usually born in an abandoned den dug by other animals such as aardvarks. Weaning takes place at about 10 weeks. After 3 months, the den is abandoned and the pups begin to run with the pack. At the age of 8-11 months they can kill small prey, but they are not proficient until about 12-14 months, at which time they can fend for themselves. Pups reach sexual maturity at the age of 12-18 months. For other uses, see Aardvark (disambiguation). ...


Females will disperse from their birth pack at 14-30 months of age and join other packs that lack sexually mature females. Males typically do not leave the pack they were born to.[1] This is the opposite situation to that in most other social mammals, where a group of related females forms the core of the pack or similar group. In the African wild dog, the females compete for access to males that will help to rear their offspring. In a typical pack, males outnumber females by a factor of two to one, and only the dominant female is usually able to rear pups. This unusual situation may have evolved to ensure that packs do not over-extend themselves by attempting to rear too many litters at the same time.[4]


Hunting

African Wild Dogs are pack hunters. Their main prey varies among populations, but always focuses on medium sized ungulates such as impala. A few packs, however, will also include much larger animals, such as zebras, in their prey. This requires a closely coordinated attack, beginning with a rapid charge to stampede the herd. One wild dog then grabs the victim's tail, while another attacks the upper lip, and the remainder disembowel the zebra while it is immobilised. Remarkably, this appears to be a learned tactic, passed on from generation to generation within specific hunting packs, rather an instinctive behaviour found commonly within the species. Some studies have also shown that other information, such as the location of watering holes, may be passed on in a similar fashion. [4] Ungulates (meaning roughly hoofed or hoofed animal) make up several orders of mammals, of which six survive: Artiodactyla: even-toed ungulates, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, and many others Cetacea: whales and dolphins (which evolved from hoofed land animals) Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinos Proboscidea: elephants... For other uses, see Impala (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For other uses, see Instinct (disambiguation). ...


Like most members of the dog family, they are cursorial hunters, meaning that they pursue their prey in a long, open chase, rather than relying on stealth as most members of the cat family. During pursuit, they may reach speeds of up to 45 mph.[5] Nearly 80% of all hunts end in a kill. Members of a pack vocalize to help coordinate their movements. Their voice is characterized by an unusual chirping or squeaking sound, similar to a bird. After a successful hunt, dogs regurgitate meat for those that remained at the den during the hunt, such as the dominant female and the pups. They will also feed other pack members such as the sick, injured or very old that cannot keep up.


The home range of packs varies enormously, depending on the size of the pack, and the nature of the terrain. In the Serengeti, the average range has been estimated at 1,500 square kilometres (580 square miles), although individual ranges overlap extensively. [4] A zebra and wildebeests during migration The Serengeti is a 60,000 square kilometer savanna which lies over Tanzania. ...

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Threats

Wild dogs are endangered, primarily because they use very large territories (and consequently can persist only in large wildlife protected areas) and they are strongly affected by competition with larger carnivores that rely on the same prey base, particularly lions and spotted hyenas. The dogs are also killed by livestock herders and game hunters, though they are typically no more (perhaps less) persecuted than other carnivores that pose more threat to livestock. Like other carnivores, wild dogs are sometimes affected by outbreaks of viral diseases such as rabies, distemper and parvovirus. Although these diseases are not more pathogenic or virulent for wild dogs, the small size of most wild dog populations makes them vulnerable to local extinction due to diseases or other problems. For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a mammal of the order Carnivora. ... Distemper can refer to Canine distemper, a disease of dogs Other forms of the distemper virus A mixture, used by artists, of paint usually with parts of an egg This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Species Canine minute virus Canine parvovirus Chicken parvovirus Feline panleukopenia virus Feline parvovirus HB virus H-1 virus Kilham rat virus Lapine parvovirus LUIII virus Mice minute virus Mink enteritis virus Mouse parvovirus 1 Porcine parvovirus Raccoon parvovirus RT parvovirus Tumor virus X Parvovirus, commonly called parvo, is a genus...


The current estimate for remaining wild dogs in the wild is approximately 3,000[citation needed]. Of these, the majority live in the two remaining large populations associated with the Selous Game Reserve in Tanzania and the population centered in northern Botswana and eastern Namibia. Smaller but apparently secure populations of several hundred individuals are found in Zimbabwe, South Africa (Kruger National Park) and in the Ruaha/Rungwa/Kisigo complex of Tanzania. Isolated populations persist in Zambia, Kenya and Mozambique. The Selous Game Reserve is one of the largest fauna reserves of the world, located in the south of Tanzania. ... Kruger National Park is the largest game reserve in South Africa. ...


The African Wild Dog is primarily found in the eastern and southern portions of Africa. They were once found in 39 nations with an estimated population of 500,000 dogs. Now of the 39 countries only 25 remain with an estimated population of 3,000 dogs. It was not uncommon to find packs of 100 or more but now they are listed as the second most endangered carnivore in Africa. They are listed as a critical risk by the San Diego Zoo. The world-famous San Diego Zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, California is one of the largest, most progressive zoos in the world with over 4,000 animals of more than 800 species. ...


Habitat loss and hunting are the main reasons for their endangerment. Along with human expansion comes more farming and ranching needs. Most of Africa's National Parks are not large enough for even one pack of African Wild Dogs so they have to expand to the unprotected regions of the continent which tends to be ranching or farming land. This makes ranchers and farmers uneasy, so in order to defend their domestic animals they kill the Wild Dogs, significantly contributing to the high percentage of death. This article is about national parks. ...


The people of Africa are realizing the problem and the near extinction of the African Wild Dog and have established a conservation effort called Painted Dog Conservation or PDC. It is based in Hwange National Park in western Zimbabwe. The group works with local communities to create new strategies for conserving the wild dog and its habitat. Hwange National Park is the largest game reserve in Zimbabwe. ...

Image File history File linksMetadata Wilddog. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wilddog. ...

Name controversy

A controversy began in the late 1990s when conservationists working to protect them said that their most common name, "African Wild Dog", was a source of confusion and prejudice. Conservationist Greg Rasmussen wrote in 1998: Conservationists are those people who tend to more highly rank the wise use of the Earths resources and ecosystems. ...

"The name 'wild dog' developed during an era of persecution of all predators when the name applied to feral dogs, hyenas, jackals and cape hunting dogs (Pringle, 1980). 'Painted' aside from being a direct translation of the specific epithet, accurately describes the unique varicoloured markings of each individual. Apart from being misleading, continued use of the name 'wild dog' does little more than further fuel negative attitude and prejudice which is detrimental to conservation efforts."[6]

This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... For other meanings, see Pariah Kritikos Lagonikos, a. ... Subfamilies and Genera Hyaeninae Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Protelinae Proteles Hyenas or Hyænas are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa, Arabia, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. ... Species Canis aureus Canis adustus Canis mesomelas A jackal (from Turkish çakal, via Persian shaghal ultimately from Sanskrit sṛgālaḥ [1][2]) is any of three (sometimes four) small to medium-sized members of the family Canidae, found in Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. ...

Gallery

Wikispecies has information related to:
Lycaon
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lycaon pictus

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 733 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1620 × 1326 pixel, file size: 607 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Hyänenhund, Lycaon pictus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 294 pixelsFull resolution (3016 × 1109 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Animal Info - Wild Dog. Retrieved on 2007-06-08.
  2. ^ African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus). Lioncrusher's Domain. Retrieved on 2007-06-08.
  3. ^ Wroe, Stephen & McHenry, Colin (16 October 2004), "Bite club: comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa", Proc. R. Soc. B, DOI:10.1098/rspb.2004.2986, <http://intern.forskning.no/dokumenter/wroe.pdf>
  4. ^ a b c Malcolm, James (1984). in Macdonald, D.: The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File, 31. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. 
  5. ^ http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004737.html
  6. ^ The Name</ref. Rasmussen is one of the founders of Painted Dog Conservation. He advocates using the name "Painted Dog" for them.<ref>[http://www.smithsonianmagazine.com/issues/2007/april/wilddogs.php Curse of the Devil's Dogs]</li></ol></ref>

    References

    • McNutt et al (2004). Lycaon pictus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 10 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is endangered
    • Nowak, Ronald M. (2005). Walker's Carnivores of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. ISBN 0-8018-8032-7
    • Creel, Scott & Creel, Nancy. (2002). The African Wild Dog: Behavior, Ecology and Conservation. Princeton University Press.

    External links

    • African Wild Dog Conservancy: Dedicated to conserving wild dogs through research and education
    • Namibia Nature Foundation Wild Dog Project: Conservation of African wild dogs in Namibia
    • African Wild Dogs: Wildlife summary from the African Wildlife Foundation
    • Perth Zoo
    • Edinburgh Zoo Fact Sheet
    • BBC - Pictures of African Wild Dog Puppies
    • Short Video about the African Wild Dog
    • Painted Dog Conservation: Working to conserve the species in Zimbabwe
    • Save the African Wild Dog: Features a number of projects with donation details
    • Video of wild dogs hunting springbok in Botswana Watch them escape with the help of a group of Oryx protecting their young in the Central Kalahari
    • More video of wild dogs in the Central Kalahari More video of wild dogs seen in Botswana
    • www.dottyrhino.com Animated website for kids. Meet Dotty Rhino & her friends who live in Mkomazi, a real-life game reserve in Africa.

    See also

    • Dhole - Asiatic Wild Dog

  Results from FactBites:
 
African Wild Dog - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (395 words)
The African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus), also called African Hunting Dog, is a mammal of the Canidae family, and thus related to the domestic dog.
Wild dogs will often regurgitate meat to other members of the group: older dogs, the young, and adults that have stayed behind to guard the young during hunting sojourns.
The current estimate for remaining wild dogs in the wild is approximately 5,600.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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