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Encyclopedia > African Union
African Union
الاتحاد الأفريقي
Union africaine
Unión Africana
União Africana
Umoja wa Afrika
Flag Emblem
Anthem
Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1]
Administrative Centre Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Working languages Arabic
English
Spanish
French
Portuguese
Swahili
Membership 53 African states
Leaders
 -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete
 -  Commission Chairperson Jean Ping
Establishment
 -  as the OAU May 25, 1963 
 -  as the African Union July 9, 2002 
Area
 -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1)
11,489,589 sq mi 
Population
 -  2005 estimate 850 million 
 -  Density 25.7/km² (177th1)
66.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2003 estimate
 -  Total US$ 1.515 Trillion (16th1)
 -  Per capita $1,896 
GDP (nominal) 2003 estimate
 -  Total $514 billion 
 -  Per capita $643 
Time zone (UTC-1 to +4)
1 If the African Union considered as a single entity.
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Life in the African Union
Image File history File links Flag_of_the_African_Union. ... Image File history File links Logo_of_the_African_Union. ... Flag of the African Union, formerly used by the Organisation of African Unity. ... The palm leaves shooting up on either side of the outer circle stand for peace. ... The African Union adopted a new anthem. ... Location of the African Union. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the language. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The AU Chairman is chosen by the Assembly, which consists of the heads of state of member countries, to serve a 1-year term. ... Colonel Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete (born October 7, 1950) is a Tanzanian politician and Current President. ... The Commission of the African Union serves as the AUs administrative branch. ... Jean Ping (born 1942) is the foreign minister of Gabon since 1999. ... OUA redirects here. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare sizes of different areas, here is a list of areas between 10 million km² and 100 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... Image File history File links African_Union. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Main article: Economy of the African Union Main article: Languages of the African Union The African Union promotes the use of African languages wherever possible in its official work. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_African_Union. ...

The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages) is an intergovernmental organization consisting of fifty-three African nations. Established on July 9, 2002, the AU was formed as a successor to the amalgamated African Economic Community (AEC) and the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). Its headquarters is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Eventually, the AU aims to have a single currency (the Afro) and a single integrated defense force, as well as other institutions of state, including a cabinet for the AU Head of State. The purpose of the union is to help secure Africa's democracy, human rights, and a sustainable economy, especially by bringing an end to intra-African conflict and creating an effective common market. When the African Union (AU) was founded in 2002, it represented almost the entire African continent. ... The individual member states of the African Union (AU) coordinate foreign policy through this agency, in addition to conducting their own international relations on a state-by-state basis. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...  members of AEC pillar blocs  states signatories to the AEC Treaty, but not participating in any of the pillars The member states of the African Union are mounting efforts to collaborate economically, but they are impeded by the civil wars raging in several parts of Africa. ... OUA redirects here. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... The afro is the proposed official currency of the Afrozone (also known as the Afro Area or the Afro Land), which consists of the African states of Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The economy of Africa consists of the trade, industry, and resources of the peoples of Africa. ...

Contents

Overview

AU Assembly of Heads of State, currently chaired by Jakaya Kikwete, president of Tanzania, elected at the 9th ordinary meeting of the Assembly in January 2008. Its secretariat is the AU Commission, whose chair is Jean Ping of Gabon. This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Commission of the African Union consists of a number of Commissoners dealing with different areas of policy, it is headquartered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... Jean Ping (born 1942) is the foreign minister of Gabon since 1999. ...


Other institutions of the AU include the Executive Council, made up of foreign ministers; the Permanent Representatives Committee, made up of the ambassadors to Addis Ababa of AU member states; the Pan African Parliament; and the Economic Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC), a civil society consultative body (see further below). The Pan-African Parliament is the governing body of the African Union, however at present it can only exercise advisory and consultative powers. ...


The AU covers the entire continent except for Morocco, which opposes the membership of Western Sahara as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. However, Morocco has a special status within the AU and benefits from the services available to all AU states from the institutions of the AU, such as the African Development Bank. Moroccan delegates also participate at important AU functions, and negotiations continue to try to resolve the conflict with the Polisario Front in Tindouf, Algeria and parts of Western Sahara. Motto: حرية ديمقراطية وحدة (Arabic) Liberty, Democracy, Unity Anthem: Yābaniy Es-Saharā  listen This map indicates the territory claimed by the SADR, viz. ... The African Development Bank (ADB) is a development bank established in 1964 with the intention of States dollar|$]]47. ... The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and [[Río de Oro]]) is a Sahrawi rebel movement working for the separation... Tindouf, also written Tinduf, (Arabic: تندوف) is a city and wilaya in the west of Algeria, population 30,000. ... Main article: Western Sahara The Free Zone is the part of Western Sahara that lies to the east of the Border Wall and the actual border with Algeria (for map, see external links). ...


The AU's first military intervention in a member state was the May 2003 deployment of a peacekeeping force of soldiers from South Africa, Ethiopia, and Mozambique to Burundi to oversee the implementation of the various agreements. AU troops are also deployed in Sudan for peacekeeping in the Darfur conflict. The AU also has pledged to send peacekeepers to Somalia, of which the peacekeepers from Uganda have already reached Somalia. Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the...


The AU has adopted a number of important new documents establishing norms at continental level, to supplement those already in force when it was created. These include the African Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption (2003) and the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance (2007), as well as the New Partnership for Africa's Development and its associated Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance.[2] New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) is an economic development programme of the African Union. ...


Membership

Map of the African Union.
Current members

 Algeria
 Angola
 Benin
 Botswana
 Burkina Faso
 Burundi
 Cameroon
 Cape Verde
 Central African Republic
 Chad
 Comoros
 Côte d'Ivoire
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Republic of the Congo
 Djibouti
 Egypt
 Equatorial Guinea
 Eritrea When the African Union (AU) was founded in 2002, it represented almost the entire African continent. ... Map of the member states of the African Union. ... Map of the member states of the African Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Benin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Botswana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burkina_Faso. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cameroon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cape_Verde. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Comoros. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Djibouti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Equatorial_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Eritrea. ...

 Ethiopia
 Gabon
 Gambia
 Ghana
 Guinea
 Guinea-Bissau
 Kenya
 Lesotho
 Liberia
 Libya
 Madagascar
 Malawi
 Mali
 Mauritania
 Mauritius
 Mozambique
 Namibia
 Niger Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gabon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_The_Gambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea-Bissau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kenya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lesotho. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liberia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Madagascar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malawi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mali. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritius. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mozambique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Niger. ...

 Nigeria
 Rwanda
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
 São Tomé and Príncipe
 Senegal
 Seychelles
 Sierra Leone
 Somalia
 South Africa
 Sudan
 Swaziland
 Tanzania
 Togo
 Tunisia
 Uganda
 Zambia
 Zimbabwe Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rwanda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Western_Sahara. ... Motto: حرية ديمقراطية وحدة (Arabic) Liberty, Democracy, Unity Anthem: Yābaniy Es-Saharā  listen This map indicates the territory claimed by the SADR, viz. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sao_Tome_and_Principe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Senegal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Seychelles. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sierra_Leone. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Swaziland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tanzania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Togo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ...

Former members

 Morocco left the AU's predecessor (the Organization of African Unity) in 1984; See below. Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... “OUA” redirects here. ...


Morocco's withdrawal

The only African state that is not a member of the African Union is Morocco, which left the AU's predecessor, the Organization of African Unity (OAU), in 1984, when many of the other member states supported the Sahrawi nationalist Polisario Front's Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.[3][4] Morocco's ally, Zaire, similarly opposed the OAU's admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, and the Mobutu regime boycotted the organisation from 1984 to 1986.[5] Some countries have since retracted their support for the Sahrawi Republic.[6] Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... “Sahraoui” redirects here. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and [[Río de Oro]]) is a Sahrawi rebel movement working for the separation... Motto: حرية ديمقراطية وحدة (Arabic) Liberty, Democracy, Unity Anthem: Yābaniy Es-Saharā  listen This map indicates the territory claimed by the SADR, viz. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power... This article is about the year. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...

See also: List of African Union member states by political system and List of African Union member states by population

African Union (AU) member states, have various forms of government. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of African Union members by population. ...

Organs of the AU

The African Union has a number of official bodies:

Pan-African Parliament (PAP) 
To become the highest legislative body of the African Union. The seat of the PAP is at Midrand, South Africa. The Parliament is composed of 265 elected representatives from all fifty-three AU states, and intended to provide popular and civil-society participation in the processes of democratic governance. The current President of the Pan African Parliament is Gertrude Mongella of Tanzania.
Assembly of the African Union 
Composed of heads of state and heads of government of AU states, the Assembly is currently the supreme governing body of the African Union. It is gradually devolving some of its decision-making powers to the Pan African Parliament. It meets once a year and makes its decisions by consensus or by a two-thirds majority. The current Chairman of the Assembly is Jakaya Kikwete, president of Tanzania.
African Union Commission 
The secretariat of the African Union, composed of ten commissioners and supporting staff and headquartered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In a similar fashion to its European counterpart, the European Commission, it is responsible for the administration and co-ordination of the AU's activities and meetings.
African Court of Justice 
To rule on human rights abuses in Africa. The court will consist of eleven judges elected by the Assembly. Kenya and Uganda have expressed interest in hosting the court.
Executive Council
Composed of ministers designated by the governments of members states. It decides on matters such as foreign trade, social security, food, agriculture and communications, is accountable to the Assembly, and prepares material for the Assembly to discuss and approve.
Permanent Representatives' Committee
Consisting of nominated permanent representatives of member states, the Committee prepares the work for the Executive Council. (European Union equivalent: the Committee of Permanent Representatives (COREPER).
Peace and Security Council
Proposed at the Lusaka Summit in 2001. It has fifteen members responsible for monitoring and intervening in conflicts, with an African force at its disposal. Similar in intent and operation to the United Nations Security Council.
Economic, Social and Cultural Council
An advisory organ composed of professional and civic representatives, similar to the European Economic and Social Committee. The interim chair of ECOSOCC is Nobel prizewinner Wangari Maathai of Kenya.
Specialised Technical Committees
These address Rural Economy and Agricultural Matters; Monetary and Financial Affairs; Trade, Customs, and Immigration Matters; Industry, Science and Technology, Energy, Natural Resources, and Environment; Transport, Communications, and Tourism; Health, Labour, and Social Affairs; Education, Culture, and Human Resources.
Financial institutions
African Central Bank, African Investment Bank, African Monetary Fund.
Human rights institutions
The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights is not established under the Constitutive Act of the African Union, but is a key African continental organ, with responsibility for monitoring compliance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (the African Charter). The African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights was established in 2006, to supplement the work of the Commission, following the entry into force of a protocol to the African Charter providing for its creation. It is likely that the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights will be merged with the African Court of Justice: a protocol providing for merger of the two bodies is under discussion and likely to be adopted during 2007.

The Pan-African Parliament is the legislative body of the African Union; at present it exercises oversight, and has advisory and consultative powers. ... Midrand is a town located in the Johannesburg conurbation in Gauteng Province, South Africa. ... Gertrude Ibengwe Mongella is the president of the Pan-African Parliament. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Colonel Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete (born October 7, 1950) is a Tanzanian politician and Current President. ... The Commission of the African Union consists of a number of Commissoners dealing with different areas of policy, it is headquartered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... Secretariat may refer to: A racehorse who won the Triple Crown in 1973, see Secretariat (horse) In a Communist Party, a Secretariat is a key body that controls the central administration of the party, and if it is a ruling party, the country. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... EU redirects here. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... The African Court of Justice will at some point in the future be merged with the African Court on Human and Peoples Rights and be the African Unions legal organ. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Executive Council of the African Union is made up of ministers designated by the governments of member countries. ... The Permanant Representativs Committe of the African Union is made up of nominated representatives of the AU. They prepare the work for the Executive Council. ... COREPER, from French Comité des représentants permanents, is the Committee of Permanent Representatives in the European Union, made up of the head or deputy head of mission from the EU member states in Brussels. ... The Peace and Security Council of the African Union is the organ in charge of enforcing Union decisions. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... The Economic, Social and Cultural Council is an advisory body of the African Union charged with overseeing the development of those particular areas within the continent. ... The European Unions Economic and Social Committee is the consultative assembly of European social and economic partners. This phrase refers mainly to representatives of business, employers and trade unions. ... Dr. Wangari Muta Maathai born April 1, 1940 in Ihithe village, Tetu division, Nyeri District of Kenya is an environmental and political activist. ... The Specialised Technical Committees are bodies in the African Union responsible to the Executive Council. ... The African Central Bank is one of the three finacial institutions of the African Union. ... The African Investment Bank is one of three financial institutions of the African Union along with the African Monetary Fund and the African Central Bank. ... The Africa Monetary Fund will be an African Union financial institution, though in time its responsibilities will be transfered to the African Central Bank. ... The African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights (ACHPR) is an supranational body tasked with promoting and protecting human rights throughout the African continent. ... ... The African Court on Human and Peoples Rights will merge with the African Court of Justice in the future, it will be situated in Eastern Africa and will rule on human rights abuses under the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights and under general international human rights law, currently...

Role of the diaspora

The Constitutive Act of the AU declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our Continent, in the building of the African Union". The African Union Government has defined the African diaspora as "consisting of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union".[7] The African diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and cultures of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America); Europe and Asia. ...


Current issues

The AU faces many challenges, including health issues such as combating malaria and the AIDS/HIV epidemic; political issues such as confronting undemocratic regimes and mediating in the many civil wars; economic issues such as improving the standard of living of millions of impoverished, uneducated Africans; ecological issues such as dealing with recurring famines, desertification, and lack of ecological sustainability; as well as the legal issue of the still-unfinished decolonisation of Western Sahara. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ...


Union Government

The principal topic for debate at the July 2007 AU summit held in Accra, Ghana, was the creation of a Union Government[8], with the aim of moving towards a United States of Africa. A study on the Union Government was adopted in late 2006,[9] and proposes various options for 'completing' the African Union project. There are divisions among African states on the proposals, with some (notably Libya) following a maximalist view leading to a common government with an AU army; and others (especially the southern African states) supporting rather a strengthening of the existing structures, with some reforms to deal with administrative and political challenges in making the AU Commission and other bodies truly effective.[10]


Following a heated debate in Accra, the Assembly of Heads of State and Government agreed in the form of a declaration to review the state of affairs of the AU with a view to determining its readiness towards a Union Government.[11] In particular, the Assembly agreed to:

  • Accelerate the economic and political integration of the African continent, including the formation of a Union Government of Africa;
  • Conduct an audit of the institutions and organs of the AU; review the relationship between the AU and the RECs; find ways to strengthen the AU and elaborate a timeframe to establish a Union Government.

The declaration lastly noted the ‘importance of involving the African peoples, including Africans in the Diaspora, in the processes leading to the formation of the Union Government.’


Following this decision, a panel of eminent persons was set up to conduct the ‘audit review’. The review team began its work on 1 September 2007. The final text of the review was, according to the terms of reference, to be presented to the Assembly of Heads of State and Government at the January 2008 summit in Addis Ababa.


Choosing the chair of the Union

Controversy arose at the 2006 summit when Sudan announced a candidate for the AU's chairmanship. Five member states threatened to withdraw support for a Sudanese candidate because of tensions over Darfur (see also below). Sudan ultimately withdrew its candidacy and Denis Sassou-Nguesso of the Republic of the Congo was elected to a one-year term. At the January 2007 summit, Sassou-Nguesso was replaced by President Kufuor of Ghana, despite another attempt by Sudan to gain the chair. 2007 is the 50th anniversary of Ghana's independence, a symbolic moment for the country to hold the chair of the AU. For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... Time in Office 18 March 1977 – 3 April 1977 (part of the Military Committee of the Congolese Labour Party); 8 February 1979 – 3 August 1992 (first time); 25 October 1997 – Predecessor Marien Ngouabi (as a part of the Military Committee of the CLP); Jean-Pierre Thystère Tchicaya (first time...


Zimbabwe

The political crisis in Zimbabwe has been debated both by the African Union and in particular by the Southern African Development Community. At African Union level, the situation in Zimbabwe has been a controversial focus of discussions in the Executive Council of the activity reports of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights in which human rights abuses in Zimbabwe have been a leading subject since the early 2000s. SADC-only (yellow) and SADC+SACU members Headquarters Gaborone, Botswana Working languages Membership 15 African states Leaders  -  Secretary General Establishment  -  as the SADCC April 1, 1980   -  as the SADC August 17, 1992  Website http://www. ... The African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights (ACHPR) is an supranational body tasked with promoting and protecting human rights throughout the African continent. ...


AIDS in Africa

One of the most serious issues to face Africa is not a dispute between nations, but rather the rapid spread of HIV and the AIDS pandemic. Sub-Saharan Africa, especially southern Africa, is by far the worst affected area in the world, and as the infection is now starting to claim lives by the millions. While the measurement of HIV prevalence rates has proved methodologically challenging, more than 20% of the sexually active population of many countries of southern Africa may be infected, with South Africa, Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe all expected to have a decrease in life expectancy by an average of 6.5 years. The effects on South Africa, which composes 30% of the AU's economy, threatens to significantly stunt GDP growth, and thus internal and external trade for the continent. AIDS education at a school in Uganda. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ...


Interventions in support of democracy

Togo

In response to the death of Gnassingbé Eyadéma, President of Togo, on February 5, 2005, AU leaders described the naming of his son Faure Gnassingbé the successor as a military coup.[12] Togo's constitution calls for the speaker of parliament to succeed the president in the event of his death. By law, the parliament speaker must call national elections to choose a new president within sixty days. The AU's protest forced Gnassingbé to hold elections. Under heavy allegations of election fraud, he was officially elected President on May 4, 2005. General Gnassingbé Eyadéma, formerly Étienne Eyadéma (December 26, 1937 – February 5, 2005), was the President of Togo from 1967 until his death. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé (born June 6, 1966), also known as Faure Eyadéma, has been the President of Togo since May 4, 2005; he was previously president for twenty days from February 5 to February 25, 2005. ... Coup redirects here. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mauritania

On August 3, 2005 a coup occurred in Mauritania that led the African Union to suspend the country from all organisational activities. The Military Council that took control of Mauritania promised to hold elections within two years. These were held in early 2007, the first time that the country had held elections that were generally agreed to be of an acceptable standard.[citation needed] is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Regional conflicts and military interventions

Darfur, Sudan

AMIS peacekeepers in Darfur

In response to the ongoing Darfur conflict in Sudan, the AU has deployed 7,000 peacekeepers, many from Rwanda and Nigeria, to Darfur. While a donor's conference in Addis Ababa in 2005 helped raise funds to sustain the peacekeepers through that year and into 2006, in July 2006 the AU said it would pull out at the end of September when its mandate expires.[13] Critics of the AU peacekeepers, including Dr. Eric Reeves, have said these forces are largely ineffective due to lack of funds, personnel, and expertise. Monitoring an area roughly the size of France has made it even more difficult to sustain an effective mission. In June 2006, the United States Congress appropriated US$173 million for the AU force. Some, such as the Genocide Intervention Network, have called for United Nations (UN) or NATO intervention to augment and/or replace the AU peacekeepers. The UN has considered deploying a force, though it would not likely enter the country until at least October of 2007.[14] The under-funded and badly equipped AU mission was set to expire on December 31, 2006 but has been extended to June 30, 2007 and will merge with the United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur. AMIS soldier (CIDA, 2005) “AMIS” redirects here. ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Eric Miller Reeves is a Democratic member of the North Carolina General Assembly representing the states sixteenth Senate district, including constituents in Wake county. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... The Genocide Intervention Network (or GI-Net) is a non-profit organization that envisions a world in which the global community is willing and able to protect civilians from genocidal violence. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) is a joint African Union and UN peacekeeping mission formally approved by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 on 31 July 2007 to bring stability to the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan while peace talks on a final settlement continue. ...


Somalia

Somalia has been effectively without a government since the early 1990s. A peace agreement aimed at ending the Somali Civil War that broke out following the fall of the regime of Siad Barre, was finally signed in 2006 after many years of peace talks. However, the new government was almost immediately threatened by further violence. On March 6, 2007, Ugandan AU soldiers arrived in Mogadishu as part of a peacekeeping force that is intended by the AU to eventually be 8,000 strong. Burundi, Nigeria, Malawi and Ghana are also expected to contribute, but have yet to do so.[15] Somaliland, in the north of Somalia, effectively operates as an independent country, though neither the AU nor any other international organisation has recognised it. The African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) was authorized on January 19, 2007 to provide for security and peacekeeping in the wake of the ongoing war in Somalia. ... The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ...


Anjouan, Comoros

Main article: 2008 invasion of Anjouan

Mohamed Bacar, who had lead the separatist government since 2001, was elected for a 5-year term as President of Anjouan. His term expired the 14th of April 2007, and the president of the assembly, Houmadi Caambi, became acting president from 15th of April 2007 to 10th of May 2007. Citing irregularities and intimidation in the run-up to voting, the African Union (AU) and the Union government postponed the polls on Anjouan, but a defiant island president Mohamed Bacar printed his own ballots, held elections anyway and claimed a landslide victory of 90 percent on the 11th of May 2007.[16] Current President of the Island of Anjouan, which is one of three island that make up the Union of Comoros. ... Capital (and largest city) Mutsamudu Official languages Comorian (Shindzuan dialect), Arabic, French Government Autonomous Island  -  President Dhoihirou Halidi Area  -  Total 424 km²  863 sq mi   -  Water (%) negligible Population  -  1991 estimate 240,000  Currency Comorian franc (KMF) Time zone EAT  -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3) Internet TLD . ... April 2007 is the fourth month of the year. ... May 2007 is the fifth month of that year. ...


In October 2007, the African Union imposed travel sanctions on Anjouan's President Mohamed Bacar and other government officials and freezed their foreign assets while calling for fresh elections. Additionally, a naval blockade of the island was implemented.[17] In February 2008, the Comoros rejected the African Union's extended sanctions against Anjouan and instead opted for a military solution. In March 2008, hundreds of Union government troops began assembling on Moheli, which is closer to Anjouan than the larger island Grand Comore. Sudan and Senegal were expected to provide a total of 750 troops, while Libya has offered logistical support for the operation. In addition, 500 Tanzanian troops were due to arrive soon after.[18][19] October 2007 is the tenth month of that year. ... February 2008 is the second month of the leap year and has yet to occur. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The forces invaded Anjouan on March 25, 2008. is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Economy

The combined states of the African Union constitute the world's 17th largest economy with a nominal GDP of US$500 billion, ranking after the Netherlands. By measuring GDP by PPP, the African Union's economy totals US$1.515 trillion, ranking it 11th after Brazil. At the same time, they have a combined total debt of US$200 billion. Main articles: African Economic Community and Economy of Africa The combined states of the African Union constitute the worlds 17th largest economy with a nominal GDP of US$500 billion, ranking after the Netherlands. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ... USD redirects here. ...


The AU future confederation's goals include the creation of a free trade area, a customs union, a single market, a central bank, and a common currency, thereby establishing economic and monetary union. The current plan is to establish an African Economic Community with a single currency by 2023[20]. A free trade area is a designated group of countries that have agreed to eliminate tariffs, quotas and preferences on most (if not all) goods between them. ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... A single market is a customs union with common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of all the four factors of production (land, enterprise, capital and labour). ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency (also known as a unitary or common currency) among them, for example, the East Caribbean dollar. ... Also see Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. ...  members of AEC pillar blocs  states signatories to the AEC Treaty, but not participating in any of the pillars The member states of the African Union are mounting efforts to collaborate economically, but they are impeded by the civil wars raging in several parts of Africa. ... 2023 (MMXXIII) will be a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Languages

According to the Constitutive Act of the African Union, its working languages are Arabic, English, French, and Portuguese, as well as African languages 'if possible'.[21] A protocol amending the Constitutive Act adopted in 2003 but (as of 2007) not yet in force added Spanish, Swahili and 'any other African language' and termed all six 'official' (rather than 'working') languages of the African Union.[22] In practice, translation of documents of the AU into even the four current working languages causes significant delays and difficulties to the conduct of business. The languages of the African Union (AU) are languages used by citizens within the member states of the AU. The Union has defined all languages of Africa as official, and currently uses Arabic, English, French, and Portuguese as its working languages [1], due to the Arab conquest of North Africa... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... This article is about the language. ...


Founded in 2001, the African Academy of Languages promotes the usage and perpetuation of African languages amongst African people. The African Academy of Languages (Fr. ...


Geography

Member states of the African Union cover almost the entirety of continental Africa and several off-shore islands. Consequently, the geography of the African Union is wildly diverse, including the world's largest hot desert (the Sahara), huge jungles and savannas, and the world's longest river (the Nile). Member states of the African Union cover almost the entirety of continental Africa and several off-shore islands. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Box Log Falls, Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia Jungle usually refers to a dense forest in a hot climate, such as a tropical rainforest. ... Savannah redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ...


The AU presently has an area of 29,922,059 km² (18,592,705 mi²), with 24,165 km² (15,015 mi²) of coastline. The vast majority of this area is on continental Africa, while the only significant territory off the mainland is the island of Madagascar (the world's fourth largest), accounting for slightly less than 2% of the total. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... This is a list of islands in the world ordered by area. ...


Foreign relations

The individual member states of the African Union coordinate foreign policy through this agency, in addition to conducting their own international relations on a state-by-state basis. The AU represents the interests of African peoples at large in intergovernmental organizations (IGO's); for instance, it is a permanent observer at the United Nations' General Assembly. Both the African Union and the United Nations work in tandem to address issues of common concerns in various areas. The African Union Mission in United Nations aspires to serve as a bridge between the two Organizations. (AU Mission website). The individual member states of the African Union (AU) coordinate foreign policy through this agency, in addition to conducting their own international relations on a state-by-state basis. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... In addition to the current 191 member states, the United Nations welcomes several other international agencies, entities, and one non-member state (for several years prior to their admission after a referendum in 2002, Switzerland was also an observer state). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ...


Membership of the AU overlaps with other IGO's, and occasionally these third-party organizations and the AU will coordinate matters of public policy.


The African Union maintains special diplomatic representation with the United States and the European Union. This is a list of ambassadors from the United States. ...


History of the African Union

Main article: History of the African Union

The historical foundations of the African Union originated in the Union of African States, an early confederation that was established by Kwame Nkrumah in the 1960s, as well as subsequent attempts to unite Africa, including the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), which was established on May 25, 1963, and the African Economic Community in 1981. Critics argued that the OAU in particular did little to protect the rights and liberties of African citizens from their own political leaders, often dubbing it the "Dictators' Club".[23] The Union of African States, was a short lasting union of 3 African states in West Africa, in the 1960’s. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Kwame Nkrumah (September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972)[1], one of the most influential Pan-Africanists of the 20th century, served as the founder, and first President of Ghana. ... OUA redirects here. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...  members of AEC pillar blocs  states signatories to the AEC Treaty, but not participating in any of the pillars The member states of the African Union are mounting efforts to collaborate economically, but they are impeded by the civil wars raging in several parts of Africa. ...


The idea of creating the AU was revived in the mid-1990s under the leadership of Libyan head of state Muammar al-Gaddafi: the heads of state and government of the OAU issued the Sirte Declaration (named after Sirte, in Libya) on September 9, 1999, calling for the establishment of an African Union. The Declaration was followed by summits at Lomé in 2000, when the Constitutive Act of the African Union was adopted, and at Lusaka in 2001, when the plan for the implementation of the African Union was adopted. During the same period, the initiative for the establishment of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), was also established. Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi1 (Arabic:   ) (born c. ... The Sirte Declaration was the resolution by the Organisation of African Unity in September 1999, at Sirte, Libya, to create the African Union. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Lomé, estimated population 700,000 (1998), is the capital of Togo. ... The Constitutive Act of the African Union was the codified framework by wich the African Union would conduct itself. ... Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. ... New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) is an economic development programme of the African Union. ...


The African Union was launched in Durban on July 9, 2002, by its first president, South African Thabo Mbeki, at the first session of the Assembly of the African Union. The second session of the Assembly was in Maputo in 2003, and the third session in Addis Ababa on July 6, 2004. For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki ,KStJ [2][3] (born June 18, 1942)[2] is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Maputo is the capital of Mozambique. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Symbols

The emblem of the African Union consists of a gold ribbon bearing small interlocking red rings, from which palm leaves shoot up around an outer gold circle and an inner green circle, within which is a gold representation of Africa. The red interlinked rings stand for African solidarity and the blood shed for the liberation of Africa; the palm leaves, for peace; the gold, for Africa's wealth and bright future; the green, for African hopes and aspirations. To symbolise African unity, the silhouette of Africa is drawn without internal borders. The palm leaves shooting up on either side of the outer circle stand for peace. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ...


The flag of the African Union bears a broad green horizontal stripe, a narrow band of gold, the emblem of the African Union at the centre of a broad white stripe, another narrow gold band and a final broad green stripe. Again, the green and gold symbolise Africa's hopes and aspirations as well as its wealth and bright future, and the white represents the purity of Africa's desire for friends throughout the world. The flag has led to the creation of the "national colours" of Africa of gold and green (sometimes together with white). These colours are visible in one way or another in the flags of many African nations. Together the colours green, gold, and red constitute the Pan-African colours. Flag of the African Union, formerly used by the Organisation of African Unity. ... National colours are frequently part of a countrys set of national symbols. ... African coutries using Pan-African colours in their flags, shown in red. ...


The African Union has adopted a new anthem, Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together, and has the chorus O sons and daughters of Africa, flesh of the sun and flesh of the sky, Let us make Africa the tree of life. The African Union adopted a new anthem. ...


See also

The African Century is a term that has a variety of meanings. ... The African Development Bank (ADB) is a development bank established in 1964 with the intention of States dollar|$]]47. ... The African diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and cultures of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America); Europe and Asia. ... African nationalism is the nationalist political movement for one united Africa, or the lesser goal of the recognition of African tribes by establishing their own state and preservation of their native cultures. ... The African Renaissance is a concept popularized by South African President Thabo Mbeki in which the African people and nations are called upon to solve the many problems troubling the African continent. ... The African Unification Front is an organisation aiming to promote a political, social and economic union in Africa. ... Africanization, as used in this article, refers to the modification of place names or personal names to better reflect an African identity. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A continental union, often abbreviated to CU, is an inter-governmental or supra-national political union of nations located in the same continent, or close to it. ... The Asian Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) is a body created in 2002 to promote Asian cooperation at a continental level, helping to integrate the previously separate regional organizations of political or economical cooperation such as ASEAN, SAARC or the Gulf Cooperation Council. ... Map of the North American Economic and Security Community Hypothetical flag of the North American Union The Independent Task Force on North America was a project organized by the Council on Foreign Relations (U.S.), the Canadian Council of Chief Executives, and the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations. ... Proposed Central Asian Union A Central Asian Union was proposed by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev on April 26, 2007, consisting of the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... In 2004, a committee of the Australian Senate called for the formation of a Pacific Union to comprise the member-states of the Pacific Islands Forum, but with a common charter, institutions and currency. ... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... The indigenous peoples of Africa are those peoples from the African region whose way of life, attachment or claims to particular lands, and social and political standing in relation to other more dominant groups have resulted in their substantial marginalisation within modern African states. ... New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) is an economic development programme of the African Union. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The United States of Africa is a name sometimes given to one version of the possible future unification of Africa as a national and sovereign federation of states similar in formation to the United States of America, mirroring the idea of the United States of Europe. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ AU treaties available at: http://www.africa-union.org/root/au/Documents/Treaties/treaties.htm
  3. ^ BBC News (July 8 2001) - "OAU considers Morocco readmission" (accessed July 9, 2006).
  4. ^ Arabic News (July 9 2002) - "South African paper says Morocco should be one of the AU and NEPAD leaders" (Accessed July 9, 2006)
  5. ^ Zaire: A Country Study, "Relations with North Africa" (accessed May 18, 2007)
  6. ^ [http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/politics/togo_confirms_to_au/view Togo confirms to AU withdrawal of recognition of SADR (accessed July 9, 2006).
  7. ^ Pan-Africanism and the African Union, Dallas L. Browne.
  8. ^ Decision on the Report of the 9th Extraordinary session of the executive council on the proposals for the Union Government, DOC.Assembly/AU/10 (VIII), Assembly/AU/Dec.156 (VIII).
  9. ^ Study on an African Union Government: Towards a United States of Africa, 2006. See also, Decision on the Union Government, Doc. Assembly/AU/2(VII).
  10. ^ For further discussion of this proposal see http://www.pambazuka.org/aumonitor/
  11. ^ Accra Declaration, Assembly of the Union at its 9th Ordinary session in Accra, Ghana, 1-3 July 2007.
  12. ^ "AU denounces Togo 'military coup'", BBC News, 2005-02-06. Retrieved on 2006-07-10. 
  13. ^ BBC NEWS | Africa | AU Darfur mission 'to end soon'
  14. ^ Security Council Authorizes Deployment Of United Nations-African Union ‘Hybrid’ Peace Operation In Bid To Resolve Darfur Conflict
  15. ^ BBC NEWS | Africa | African Union replaces dictators' club
  16. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2008/01/mil-080131-irin07.htm
  17. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1070770.stm
  18. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7289318.stm
  19. ^ http://www.polity.org.za/article.php?a_id=129050
  20. ^ "Profile: African Union", BBC News, 2006-07-01. Retrieved on 2006-07-10. 
  21. ^ Article 25, Constitutive Act of the African Union.
  22. ^ Article 11, Protocol on Amendments to the Constitutive Act of the African Union
  23. ^ African Union replaces dictators' club, BBC, 8 July 2002

is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Towards a People Driven African Union: Current Challenges and New Opportunities AfriMAP, AFRODAD and Oxfam GB, January 2007
  • The New African Initiative and the African Union: A Preliminary Assessment and Documentation by Henning Melber, Publisher: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Sweden; ISBN 91-7106-486-9; (October 2002)
  • "The African Union, NEPAD and Human Rights: The Missing Agenda" Human Rights Quarterly Vol.26, No.4, November 2004.
  • Bibliography on the AU at the Peace Palace Library

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
African Union
Wikinews has related news:
African Union Summit ends in Accra
  • African Union official site
  • African Union Mission in the United Nations
  • African Union Summit 2002 in Durban, South Africa
  • African Union Summit 2003 in Maputo, Mozambique
  • African Union Summit 2005 in Sirte, Libya.
  • 6th African Union Summit 2006 in Kartoum, Sudan.
  • 7th African Union Summit 2006 in Banjul, The Gambia.
  • 7th African Union Summit 2006 in Banjul, The Gambia, website created by the host government.
  • African Economic Community
  • BBC Profile: African Union
  • Africa turns from instability and conflict to mutual co-operation Jane's Intelligence Review, September 2006
  • Open Directory Project - African Union directory category
  • AfriMAP
  • Southern Africa Regional Poverty Network page on the AU and NEPAD - many useful links
  • Institute for Security Studies (South Africa) Page on regional organisations
  • AU Monitor
  • US-Africa.org
  • African Elections Database
  • Africare.org
  • Femmes Africa Solidarité
  • Picture of the African Union
Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... World empire redirects here. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Intergovernmentalism is a theory of decision-making in international organizations, where power is possessed by the member-states and decisions are made by unanimity. ... Anti-nationalism is the idea that nationalism is undesirable or even dangerous in one form or another, and sometimes, though less often, the idea that all nationalism is dangerous and unfavourable in all cases. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... Mundialization is the name of one of the movements aiming at democratic globalization. ... In computer security, PaX is a patch for the Linux kernel that implements least privilege protections for memory pages. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IMF redirects here. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... WTO redirects here. ... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The Pan-African Parliament is the legislative body of the African Union; at present it exercises oversight, and has advisory and consultative powers. ... 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Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Permanent Court of International Justice, sometimes called World Court, was the international court of the League of Nations established in 1922. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... World empire redirects here. ... A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, or United Nations Peoples Assembly (UNPA), is a proposed addition to the United Nations System that eventually would allow for direct election of UN delegates by citizens of member states. ... Proposed Central Asian Union A Central Asian Union was proposed by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev on April 26, 2007, consisting of the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... In 2004, a committee of the Australian Senate called for the formation of a Pacific Union to comprise the member-states of the Pacific Islands Forum, but with a common charter, institutions and currency. ... The United States of Europe (sometimes abbreviated U.S.E. or USE) is a name given to several similar speculative scenarios of the unification of Europe, as a single nation and a single federation of states, similar to the United States of America, both as projected by writers of speculative... Federal Union is a British group launched in November 1938, to advocate a Federal Union of Europe as a post-war aim. ... The World Federalist Movement (WFM) is a global citizens movement with member and associated organizations around the globe. ... A global citizens movement refers to a number of organized and overlapping citizens groups who seek to influence public policy often with the hope of establishing global solidarity on an issue. ... World Union is a non-profit, non-political organisation founded on the 26th November 1958 in Pondicherry, inspired by Sri Aurobindos vision of carrying forward a movement for Human Unity, World Peace and Progress on a Spiritual Foundation. ...

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NATO Topics: NATO's assistance to the African Union for Darfur (243 words)
Following a request by the African Union (AU), NATO has helped the AU expand its peacekeeping mission in Darfur by providing airlift for additional AU peacekeepers into the region and by training AU personnel.
In 2005, the African Union began to significantly expands its peacekeeping mission in Darfur in an attempt to halt the continuing violence in the region.
On 26 April 2005 the African Union asked NATO to consider the possibility of providing logistical support to its operation in Darfur.
African Union - MSN Encarta (813 words)
African Union, formerly the Organization of African Unity (OAU), organization of African nations created to promote continental peace, unity, and cooperation.
The OAU formed the African Liberation Committee in 1963 to channel financial support to movements trying to defeat Portuguese colonial rule in Guinea-Bissau, Angola, and Mozambique.
It promoted decisions that led to South Africa being barred from participating in the UN’s General Assembly in 1974, and to the admission of the People’s Republic of China to the UN in 1971.
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