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Encyclopedia > African National Congress
African National Congress
Leader Thabo Mbeki
Founded 8 January 1912
Headquarters 54 Sauer Street
Johannesburg
Official ideology/
political position
National liberation, anti-apartheid (historically), social democracy or democratic socialism, left-wing
International affiliation Socialist International
Website http://www.anc.org.za

The African National Congress (ANC) has been South Africa's governing party, supported by its tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP), since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. It defines itself as a "disciplined force of the left".[1] Members founded the organization as the South African Native National Congress (SANNC) on 8 January 1912 in Bloemfontein to increase the rights of the black South African population. John Dube, its first president, and poet and author Sol Plaatje are among its founding members. The organization became the ANC in 1923 and formed a military wing, the Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) in 1961. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag of Mozambique — independent since 1975, with the Kalashnikov as symbol of the armed struggle against the Portuguese empire, the book as symbol of instruction and a farm instrument as symbol of economic growth Wars of national liberation are conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ... Left wing redirects here. ... The official symbol of Socialist International. ... Northern Rhodesian African National Congress was a political party in Zambia. ... The Zambian African National Congress was a political organisation dedicated to promoting the rights of black people in Zambia. ... The Tripatite alliance refers to the parliamentary wing of a three part alliance between the ANC, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP). ... The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa. ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bloemfontein (pronounced , Afrikaans and Dutch for spring of Bloem (bloom), flower spring or fountain of flowers is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... John Langalibalele Dube (1871 - 1946) was a South African black leader and activist. ... Sol Plaatje as a young man South African History Online[1] Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje (1876-1932) was an accomplished South African intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator, and writer. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ...


It has been the ruling party in South Africa on the national level since 1994. It gained support in the 1999 elections, and further increased its majority in 2004. South Africas second non-racial general election, held on 1999-06-02, was won by the African National Congress (ANC), who increased their number of seats by 14. ... Legislative elections were held in South Africa on Wednesday, 14 April 2004. ...

South Africa

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
South Africa
Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_South_Africa. ... // Constitution Following the 1994 elections, South Africa was governed under an interim constitution. ...









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Contents

The President of South Africa, in full, the President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... The Deputy President of South Africa is appointed by the President of South Africa. ... Mrs Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka (born November 3, 1955) is the current Deputy President of South Africa. ... Ministers, in the South African government, are Members of Parliament who hold a ministerial warrant to perform certain functions of government. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Parliament of South Africa is South Africas legislature and is composed of the National Assembly of South Africa and the National Council of Provinces. ... The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. ... The Speaker of the National Assembly presides over the South African National Assembly. ... Baleka Mbete (born September 24, 1949) is a South African politician and the current Speaker of the South African National Assembly. ... Tony Leon Anthony James Leon (born 15 December 1956) is a South African politician and the leader of the Democratic Alliance, South Africas main opposition party and current leader of the opposition. ... Helen Zille (b. ... Celia-Sandra Botha is a South African politician who currently holds the position of Leader of the opposition in the National Assembly, on behalf of the Democratic Alliance and its leader, Helen Zille. ... Elections in South Africa take place on national, provincial, and local levels. ... The Judiciary of South Africa is an independent branch of government, subject only to the South African Constitution and the laws of the country. ... The South African Constitutional Court was established in 1994 by South Africas first democratic constitution: the Interim Constitution of 1993. ... The South African Supreme Court of Appeal (Afrikaans; Hoogste Hof van Appel van Suid Afrika) is the South African court that has the final say on all matters other than those that involve the interpretation of the constitution. ... The High Court of South Africa is a court of law in South Africa. ... Magistrates Courts in South Africa are the lower courts and the courts of of first instance and decide all matters as provided for by an act of parliament. ... A map of the nine provinces of South Africa South Africa is currently divided into nine provinces. ... A map of the 52 districts of South Africa South Africa is divided into 52 districts (Metropolitan and District municipalities). ... Municipalities in South Africa are a division of local government that lie one level down from provincial government, and form the lowest level of democratically elected government structures in the country. ... Political parties in South Africa lists political parties in South Africa. ... Foreign Relations of South Africa South African forces fought on the Allied side in both World War I and World War II, and it participated in the postwar United Nations force in the Korean War. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ...

Origins

Formed initially on 8th January 1912 by John Dube, Pixley ka Isaka Seme and Sol Plaatje along with chiefs, people's representatives, and church organizations, and other prominent individuals to bring all Africans together as one people to defend their rights and freedoms, the ANC from its inception represented both traditional and modern elements, from tribal chiefs to church and community bodies and educated black professionals, though women were only admitted as affiliate members from 1931 and as full members in 1943. John Langalibalele Dube (1871 - 1946) was a South African black leader and activist. ... Pixley ka Isaka Seme (October 1, 1881-1951) was a founder and President of the African National Congress. ... Sol Plaatje as a young man South African History Online[1] Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje (1876-1932) was an accomplished South African intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator, and writer. ...


The formation of the ANC Youth League in 1944 by Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, and Oliver Tambo heralded a new generation committed to building non-violent mass action against the legal underpinnings of the white minority's supremacy. In 1947 the ANC allied with the Natal Indian Congress and Transvaal Indian Congress, broadening the basis of its opposition to the government. The African National Congress Youth League is the youth wing of the African National Congress. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... The African National Congress (ANC) is a centre-left political party, and has been South Africas governing party (in a coalition) since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. ... The South African Indian Congress was an organization founded in 1924 in Natal (now KwaZulu-Natal), South Africa. ...


Opposition to Apartheid

The return of an Afrikaner-led National Party government by the overwhelmingly white electorate in 1948 signaled the advent of the policy of apartheid. During the 1950s, non-whites were removed from electoral rolls, residence and mobility laws were tightened and political activities restricted. This article is about the Southern African ethnic group. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


In June 1952, the ANC joined with other anti-apartheid organizations in a Defiance Campaign against the restriction of political, labour and residential rights, during which protesters deliberately violated oppressive laws, following the example of Mahatma Gandhi's passive resistance in KwaZulu-Natal and in India. The campaign was called off in April 1953 after new laws prohibiting protest meetings were passed. The Defiance Campaign was presented by the African National Congress (ANC) at a conference held in Bloemfontein, South Africa in December 1951. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Gandhi in South Africa (1895) Gandhi in the uniform of a sergeant of the Indian Ambulance Corps. ... Flag of KwaZulu KwaZulu was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Zulu people. ... KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ...


In June 1955 the Congress of the People, organised by the ANC and Indian, Coloured and White organizations at Kliptown near Johannesburg, adopted the Freedom Charter, henceforth the fundamental document of the anti-apartheid struggle with its demand for equal rights for all regardless of race. As opposition to the regime's policies continued, 156 leading members of the ANC and allied organisations were arrested in 1956; the resulting "Treason Trial" ended with their acquittal five years later. The Congress of the people met in Kliptown, a suburb of Johannesburg, in 1955 to lay out the vision of the South African people. ... The Cape Coloureds are modern-day descendants of slaves imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers. ... Kliptown, a suburb of the former black township of Soweto in Gauteng, South Africa, located about 17km south-west of Johannesburg. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... The Freedom Charter was adopted at the Congress of the People in Kliptown, South Africa on 26 June 1955 by the African National Congress and its allies. ... The Treason Trial was a trial in which 156 people including Nelson Mandela were arrested in a raid and accussed of treason in 1956. ...


The ANC first called for an academic boycott of South Africa in protest of its apartheid policies in 1958 in Ghana. The call was repeated the following year in London.[1] The Academic boycotts of South Africa were a series of boycotts of South African academic institutions and scholars initiated in the 1960s, at the request of the African National Congress, with the goal of using such international pressure to force the end South Africas system of apartheid. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In 1959 a number of members broke away from the ANC because they objected to the ANC's reorientation from African nationalist policies. They formed the rival Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), led by Robert Sobukwe. African nationalism is the nationalist political movement for one united Africa, or the lesser goal of the recognition of African tribes by establishing their own state and preservation of their native cultures. ... PAC symbol The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. ... Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe (5 December 1924 ; 27 February 1978) was a South African political dissident, who founded the Pan Africanist Congress in opposition to the Apartheid regime. ...


Protest and banning

The ANC planned a campaign against the Pass Laws, which required blacks to carry an identity card at all times to justify their presence in White areas, to begin on 31 March 1960. The PAC pre-empted the ANC by holding unarmed protests 10 days earlier, during which 69 protesters were killed and 180 injured by police fire in what became known as the Sharpeville massacre. The Pass Laws Act of 1952 made it compulsory for all black South Africans over the age of 16 to carry a pass book, at all times. ... Look up black in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... German identity document sample An identity document is a piece of documentation designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 21 March) March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ...


In the aftermath of the tragedy, both organisations were banned from political activity. International opposition to the regime increased throughout the 1950s and 1960s, fueled by the growing number of newly independent nations, the Anti-Apartheid Movement in Britain and the civil rights movement in the United States. In 1960, the leader of the ANC, Albert Lutuli, won the Nobel Peace Prize, a feat that would be repeated in 1993 by the next leader of the ANC, Nelson Mandela, and F.W. de Klerk jointly, for their actions in helping to negotiate peaceful transition after Mandela's release from prison, which was a great step towards better rights for blacks. Individual rights Free speech, free press Soap box, Speakers corner (Hyde Park), blog (weblog) prior restraint, censorship, self-censorship, censor Right to assembly Gay rights, Stonewall Feminism, ERA, equal pay, Title IX Famous political dissenters Gandhi Steve Biko Nelson Mandela Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Anti-Apartheid Movement, originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organization that was at the center of the international movement opposing South Africas system of apartheid and supporting South Africas Blacks. ... Various movements seeking civil rights, human rights and social justice since the Second World War have become known as a civil rights movement. ... Albert John Lutuli (also known by his Zulu name Mvumbi; his surname is sometimes and probably more phonetically spelt Luthuli) (1898? – 21 July 1967) was a South African teacher and politician. ... The Nobel Peace Prize (where Nobel is pronounced with the stress on the second syllable) is one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... == == Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of Apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ...


Violent political resistance


Underground or in exile, the ANC leadership concluded that the methods of non-violence such as those utilised by Gandhi against the British Empire during their colonisation of India, were not suitable against the apartheid system.[citation needed] It was decided that violent tactics had to be used, which primarily involved targeting and sabotaging the government's resources, with an initial wish to minimise the bloodshed of civilians. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ...


Unfortunately, a degree of collateral damage occurred to civilians when the ANC eventually made the decision to target Apartheid regime leadership, command and control, secret police, and military-industrial complex assets and personnel in decapitation strikes, targeted killings, and guerilla actions such as bomb explosions in facilities frequented by those Apartheid regime elements. Examples of these include the Amanzimtoti bombing[2], the Sterland bomb in Pretoria[3], the Wimpy bomb in Pretoria[4], the Juicy Lucy bomb in Pretoria[3] and the Magoo's bar bombing in Durban.[5] ANC acts of sabotage aimed at government institutions included the bombing of the Johannesburg Magistrates Court, the attack on the Koeberg nuclear power station and the rocket attack on Voortrekkerhoogte in Pretoria. The Church Street bomb in Pretoria was an attack on the South African Air Force, but in reality the bomb was placed in front of civilian buildings during rush hour and most of those injured and killed were civilians. Other actions included the execution of collaborators, often by necklacing, [6] [7] who spied for the Apartheid regime or otherwise aided and abetted crimes against humanity. (Compare to French executions of Nazi collaborators following the Liberation of France). Collateral damage is a U.S. Military term for unintended or incidental damage during a military operation. ... Koeberg nuclear power station gets its name from the small mountain Koeberg (pronounced: Kooburg) and is located 30 km north of Cape Town and the suburb of Melkbosstrand on the West coast of South Africa. ... Thaba Tshwane is a military base (or military area), in Pretoria, South Africa. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... The South African Air Force (SAAF) (Afrikaans: Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag) is the air force of South Africa. ... Necklacing (sometimes metonymically called Necklace) refers to the practice of execution carried out by forcing a rubber tire, filled with gasoline, around a victims chest and arms, and setting it on fire. ...


The ANC was classified as a terrorist [8] organisation by the South African government and by most Western countries including the United States of America and the United Kingdom. This article is becoming very long. ...


A military wing was formed in 1961, called Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), meaning "Spear of the Nation". However, Mandela, as its first leader, was arrested in 1962, convicted of sabotage in 1964 and sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island, along with Sisulu and other ANC leaders after the Rivonia Trial. For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ... The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to ferment violent revolution. // Origins It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19...


During the 1970s and 1980s the ANC, under the leadership of the exiled Oliver Tambo, engaged in a variety of militant attacks within South Africa, usually from bases in Botswana, Mozambique or Swaziland. One such attack was the 1983 Church Street bombing which killed 16 and wounded 130. Murder was occasionally used for political purposes. Tactics included car bombings as well as targeted assassinations. It has been alleged that people were tortured and detained without trial in ANC prison camps.[9][10] During this same period, the South African military routinely engaged in a number of raids and bombings on ANC bases. Dulcie September, a member of the ANC who was investigating the arms trade between France and South Africa was assassinated in Paris in 1988. The Church Street bombing was a 1983 terrorist attack by the African National Congress in Pretoria, South Africa which killed 16 and wounded 130. ... A car bomb is a bomb that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Dulcie Evonne September (died March 29, 1988) was a notable murder victim. ... The arms industry is a massive global industry. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


As the years progressed, the ANC's attacks, coupled with international pressure and internal dissent, increased in South Africa. The ANC received most of its financial and tactical support from the USSR, which orchestrated military involvement with surrogate Cuban forces through Angola. The campaign gained prominence in the mid-1980s on university campuses in the US. The debate headlined the October 1985 issue (above) of Vassar Colleges student newspaper. ...


In 1985 a group of businessmen led by Dr. Theuns Eloff met with the ANC in Lusaka and again in Dakar in 1987 but they returned empty-handed with the ANC immovable in their demand that there be a total capitulation of the government. Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ...


However, the fall of the USSR after 1989 brought an end to its funding of the ANC and also changed the attitude of some Western governments that had previously supported the apartheid regime as an ally against communism. The South African government found itself under increasing external pressure, and this, together with a more conciliatory tone from the ANC, resulted in peace talks in the early 1990s, which ultimately resulted in a negotiated constitution, which has since been upheld by the courts.


After the ANC showed a willingness to work with the white government on a constitutional settlement rather than total, unconditional capitulation, State President F.W. de Klerk unbanned the ANC and PAC on 2 February 1990, and announced a referendum in March 1992 to end apartheid, which white voters approved, well before the constitution was finalized. President De Klerk served as President Mandela's deputy during a power-sharing period after the ANC won 62% of the vote in the first democratic elections in 1994. From 1961 to 1994, South Africas head of state was called the State President or Staatspresident in Afrikaans. ... == == Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of Apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Muffins

Apartheid in South Africa
Events and Projects

Sharpeville Massacre · Soweto uprising
Treason Trial
Rivonia Trial · Church Street bombing
CODESA · St James Church massacre
For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Treason Trial was a trial in which 156 people including Nelson Mandela were arrested in a raid and accussed of treason in 1956. ... The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to ferment violent revolution. // Origins It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19... The Church Street bombing was a 1983 terrorist attack by the African National Congress in Pretoria, South Africa which killed 16 and wounded 130. ... The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993. ... The St James Church massacre was a massacre perpetrated at St James Church, Cape Town by the Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA). ...

Organizations

ANC · IFP · AWB · Black Sash · CCB
Conservative Party · PP · RP
PFP · HNP · MK · PAC · SACP · UDF
Broederbond · National Party · COSATU The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ... The Black Sash was a non-violent white womens resistance organisation founded in 1955 in South Africa by Jean Sinclair. ... The Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB) was a covert South African apartheid-era hit squad[1]. Inaugurated in 1986, and fully functional by 1988 it was set up to eliminate anti-apartheid activists, destroy ANC facilities, and find means to circumvent the economic sanctions[1] imposed on that country. ... The Conservative Party of South Africa (Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a far-right party formed in 1982 as a breakaway from the ruling National Party. ... The Progressive Party was a liberal South African party that opposed the ruling National Partys policies of apartheid. ... The Reform Party was created by a group who left the United Party led by Harry Schwarz on February 11 1975. ... The Progressive Federal Party (PFP) was a South African political party formed in 1977. ... The Herstigte Nasionale Party van Suid-Afrika (Refounded National Party of South Africa) was formed as a right wing splinter group of the South African National Party. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... PAC symbol This article does not cite any references or sources. ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The United Democratic Front (UDF) was one of the most important anti-apartheid organisations of the 1980s. ... The Afrikanerbond or, formerly, the Afrikaner Broederbond, is an organisation which promotes the interests of the Afrikaners. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa. ...

People

P.W Botha · Oupa Gqozo · DF Malan
Nelson Mandela · Desmond Tutu · F.W. de Klerk
Walter Sisulu · Helen Suzman · Harry Schwarz
Andries Treurnicht · HF Verwoerd · Oliver Tambo
BJ Vorster · Kaiser Matanzima · Jimmy Kruger
Steve Biko · Mahatma Gandhi · Trevor Huddleston Pieter Willem Botha (January 12, 1916 – October 31, 2006), commonly known as PW and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans for The Big Crocodile), was the prime minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive state president from 1984 to 1989. ... Joshua Oupa Gqozo (10 March 1952 - ) was a former Ciskei military ruler. ... Daniel François Malan (May 22, 1874 - February 7, 1959) is seen as the champion of South African nationalism. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... == == Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of Apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Helen Suzman was born Helen Gavronsky on 7th November 1917 in Germiston, South Africa as the daughter of Lithuanian-Jewish immigrants. ... Harry H. Schwarz (born Cologne, Germany, May 13, 1924), is a South African politician, diplomat, and jurist. ... Andries Treurnicht (1921-1993) was the founder and the leader of the Conservative Party in South Africa. ... Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 - 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 to 1966, when he was assassinated. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, 1983), better known as John Vorster, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima (June 15, 1915 - June 15, 2003) was a former leader of the then-bantustan of Transkei in South Africa; He led Transkei to self-government in 1964 and to an internationally unrecognised indepedence in October, 1976. ... James Thomas Jimmy Kruger (1917 - 1987) was a South African politician who rose to the position of Minister of Justice and the Police in the cabinet of Prime Minister John Vorster from 1974 to 1979. ... Steve Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Bronze bust in Bedford. ...

Places

Bantustan · District Six · Robben Island
Sophiatown · South-West Africa
Soweto · Vlakplaas Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986 Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978 Bantustan is a territory designated as a tribal homeland for black South Africans and Namibians during the apartheid era. ... District Six is the name of a former neighborhood of Cape Town, South Africa, best known for the forced removal of its inhabitants during the 1970s. ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ... Sophiatown was a lively, mostly-black suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conquered from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. ... Vlakplaas is a farm that served as the headquarters of a counterinsurgency unit working for the apartheid government in South Africa. ...

Other aspects

Apartheid laws · Freedom Charter
Sullivan Principles · Kairos Document
Disinvestment campaign
South African Police The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... The Freedom Charter was adopted at the Congress of the People in Kliptown, South Africa on 26 June 1955 by the African National Congress and its allies. ... The Sullivan Principles were developed in 1977 by the Rev. ... The Kairos Document (KD) is a provocative theological statement issued by an anonymous group of theologians mostly based in the black townships of Soweto, South Africa, in 1985. ... The campaign gained prominence in the mid-1980s on university campuses in the US. The debate headlined the October 1985 issue (above) of Vassar Colleges student newspaper. ... The South African Police Service is the national police force of South Africa. ...

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African National Congress constituency office in Sea Point, Cape Town, for Annelize van Wyk MP.

In April 1994, in a tripartite alliance with the South African Communist Party and the Congress of South African Trade Unions, the ANC won a landslide victory in the 1994 general election, and Nelson Mandela was elected the first black President of South Africa. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixel Image in higher resolution (1760 × 1168 pixel, file size: 236 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): African National Congress... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixel Image in higher resolution (1760 × 1168 pixel, file size: 236 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): African National Congress... Sea Point is Cape Towns most densely populated suburb, situated between Signal Hill and the Atlantic Ocean to the west of Cape Towns CBD. Sea Point has long had a reputation for being multi-cultural and multi-racial - during apartheid, many Sea Point residents defied the Group Areas... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa. ... 1994 General Election results, National Assembly African National Congress (ANC) 12,237,655 62. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... The President of South Africa, in full, the President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ...


In Kwa-Zulu Natal, the ANC maintained an uneasy coalition with the Inkatha Freedom Party after neither party won a majority in the 1994 and 1999 provincial elections. KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) is a political party in South Africa. ... 1994 General Election results, National Assembly African National Congress (ANC) 12,237,655 62. ... South Africas second non-racial general election, held on 1999-06-02, was won by the African National Congress (ANC), who increased their number of seats by 14. ...


In 2004 the party contested national elections in voluntary coalition with the New National Party (NNP), which it effectively absorbed following the NNP's dissolution in 2005. The New National Party (NNP) was a South African conservative political party formed when the National Party pulled out of the Government of National Unity with the African National Congress and decided to change its name in the process. ...


After the 1994 and 1999 elections it ruled seven of the nine provinces, with Kwa-Zulu Natal under the IFP and the Western Cape Province under the NNP. As of 2004, it gained both the Western Cape and Kwa-Zulu Natal after a combination of the NNP's electoral base being eroded by the DA and a poor showing by the IFP. KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ... Capital Cape Town Largest city Cape Town Premier Ebrahim Rasool Area - Total Ranked 4th 129,370 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 5th 4,524,335 35/km² Languages Afrikaans (55. ...


By 2001 the tripartite alliance between the ANC, COSATU and SACP began showing signs of strain as the ANC moved to more liberal economic policies than its alliance partners were comfortable with. The focus for dissent was the GEAR program, an initialism for "Growth, Employment and Redistribution." The Tripatite alliance refers to the parliamentary wing of a three part alliance between the ANC, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP). ... For other uses, see Gear (disambiguation). ... Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ...


In late 2004 this was again thrown into sharp relief by Zwelinzima Vavi of COSATU protesting the ANC's policy of "quiet diplomacy" towards the worsening conditions in Zimbabwe, as well as Black Economic Empowerment, which he complained benefits a favoured few in the black elite and not the masses. Zwelinzima Vavi is General Secretary of Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), and Vice-Chairperson of the Millennium Labour Council. ... Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) is a program launched by the South African government to redress the inequalities of Apartheid by giving previously disadvantaged groups (black Africans, Coloureds and Indians) economic opportunuties previously not available to them. ...


As of 2005 the alliance was facing a crisis as Jacob Zuma, who was fired from his position as Deputy President of South Africa by Thabo Mbeki, faced corruption charges. Complicating the situation was the fact that Zuma remained Deputy President of the ANC, and maintained a strong following amongst many ANC supporters, and the ANC's alliance partners[11]. In October 2005, top officials in the National Intelligence Agency, who were Zuma supporters, were suspended for illegally spying on an Mbeki supporter, Saki Macozoma, amid allegations that ANC supporters were using their positions within organs of state to spy on, and discredit each other [12]. In December 2005, Zuma was charged with rape [13] and his position as Deputy President of the ANC was suspended but has since been reinstated. [14] Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born Inkandla, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, April 12, 1942) is deputy president of the governing political party, the African National Congress (ANC), and a former Deputy President of the Republic of South Africa. ... The Deputy President of South Africa is appointed by the President of South Africa. ... Logo of South Africas National Intelligence Agency (NIA) The National Intelligence Agency (NIA) is a South African intelligence agency. ... Sakumzi J. Macozoma (Saki) (12 May 1957 - ) is a South African businessman and former political activist. ...


The ANC also faced (sometimes violent) protests in townships over perceived poor service delivery, as well as internal disputes, as local government elections approached in 2006.[15][16] Children in a township near Cape Town in 1989 In South Africa, the term township usually refers to the (often underdeveloped) urban residential areas that, under Apartheid, were reserved for non-whites (principally black Africans and Coloureds, who were put into separate townships or locations) who lived near or worked... The 2006 South African municipal elections were held on March 1, 2006, to elect members to the local governing councils in the municipalities of South Africa. ...


Party list

Politicians in the party win a place in parliament by being on the Party List, which is drawn up before the elections and enumerates, in order, the party's preferred MPs. The number of seats allocated is proportional to the popular national vote, and this determines the cut-off point.


The ANC has also gained members through the controversial floor crossing process. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Key personalities within the ANC

John Langalibalele Dube (1871 - 1946) was a South African black leader and activist. ... Sol Plaatje as a young man South African History Online[1] Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje (1876-1932) was an accomplished South African intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator, and writer. ... Pixley ka Isaka Seme (October 1, 1881-1951) was a founder and President of the African National Congress. ... Alfred Bitini Xuma (1893? - 1962), South African leader & activist; president of African National Congress (ANC) from 1940 to 1949. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ahmed Mohamed Kathrada (sometimes nicknamed Kathy) (born 21 August 1929[1]) is a South African politician and was an anti-apartheid activist and political prisoner. ... Albert John Lutuli (also known by his Zulu name Mvumbi; his surname is sometimes and probably more phonetically spelt Luthuli) (1898? – 21 July 1967) was a South African teacher and politician. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa Mbeki (1910 - 2001) was a South African politician, and father of Thabo Mbeki, the current President of South Africa. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Raymond Mhlaba (February 12, 1920-February 20, 2005) was an anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress (ANC). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (born 17 November 1952) is a South African lawyer, trade union leader, activist, politician and businessman. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Joe Slovo Joe Slovo (May 23, 1926 – January 6, 1995) was a South African Communist politician and long time leader of the South African Communist Party (SACP) and leading member of the African National Congress. ... Tatamkulu Afrika (Xhosa: Grandfather Africa) (December 7, 1920 - December 23, 2002), was a South African poet and writer. ... Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe (5 December 1924 ; 27 February 1978) was a South African political dissident, who founded the Pan Africanist Congress in opposition to the Apartheid regime. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... Dulcie Evonne September (died March 29, 1988) was a notable murder victim. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Fholisani Sydney Mufamadi is the former Minister of Safety & Security and present Minister of Provincial and Local Government of South Africa. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Mrs Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka (born November 3, 1955) is the current Deputy President of South Africa. ... Mosima Gabriel Sexwale (born 5 March 1953), commonly known as Tokyo Sexwale, is a South African businessman and former politician, anti-apartheid activist, and political prisoner. ... Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born Inkandla, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, April 12, 1942) is deputy president of the governing political party, the African National Congress (ANC), and a former Deputy President of the Republic of South Africa. ...

Presidents of the ANC

John Langalibalele Dube (1871 - 1946) was a South African black leader and activist. ... Sefako Mapogo Makgatho (1861-23 May 1951) was a South African politician. ... Pixley ka Isaka Seme (October 1, 1881-1951) was a founder and President of the African National Congress. ... Alfred Bitini Xuma (1893? - 1962), South African leader & activist; president of African National Congress (ANC) from 1940 to 1949. ... Albert John Lutuli (also known by his Zulu name Mvumbi; his surname is sometimes and probably more phonetically spelt Luthuli) (1898? – 21 July 1967) was a South African teacher and politician. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, (born 18 July 1918) is a former President of South Africa, was one of its chief anti-apartheid activists, and was also an anti-apartheid saboteur and guerrilla leader. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the President of the Republic of South Africa. ...

Deputy Presidents of the ANC

For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born Inkandla, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, April 12, 1942) is deputy president of the governing political party, the African National Congress (ANC), and a former Deputy President of the Republic of South Africa. ...

Secretaries-General of the ANC

  • (1912 - 1915) Sol Plaatje
  • (1915 - 1917) Selope Thema
  • (1917 - 1919) H. L. Bud M'belle
  • (1919 - 1923) Saul Msane
  • (1923 - 1927) T. D. Mweli-Skota
  • (1927 - 1930) E. J. Khaile
  • (1930 - 1936) Elijah Mdolomba
  • (1936 - 1949) James Arthur Calata
  • (1949 - 1955) Walter Sisulu
  • (1955 - 1958) Oliver Tambo
  • (1958 - 1969) Duma Nokwe
  • (1969 - 1991) Alfred Nzo
  • (1991 - 1997) Cyril Ramaphosa
  • (1997 - to date) Kgalema Motlanthe

Sol Plaatje as a young man South African History Online[1] Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje (1876-1932) was an accomplished South African intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator, and writer. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... Philemon Pearce Dumasile Nokwe (May 13, 1927 – January 12, 1978) was a South African freedom fighter. ... Alfred Baphethuxolo Nzo (1925-2000) was a South African black political figure. ... Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (born 17 November 1952) is a South African lawyer, trade union leader, activist, politician and businessman. ... Kgalema Motlanthe is a prominent South African political personality and is currently the Secretary-General of the African National Congress. ...

Criticism

Violence

During its days in exile, the ANC was often criticised by western governments who shared the South African government's characterization of the group as a terrorist organization. Several high-profile anti-Apartheid activists such as Archbishop Desmond Tutu criticized the ANC for its willingness to resort to violence, arguing that tactics of non-violent resistance, such as civil disobedience were more productive. The ANC's willingness to ally with Communists was also the subject of both foreign and domestic criticism. A Pentagon report of the late 1980s described the ANC as "a major terrorist organization". Several hardline black nationalists were also critical of the ANC's willingness to embrace whites as equals, even allowing them to serve on the group's executive committee. Archbishop Desmond Tutu Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born October 7, 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Look up pentagon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Black nationalism is a political and social movement prominent in the 1960s and early 70s among African Americans in the United States. ...


Favouritism

Archbishop Desmond Tutu criticized the Party List system in a speech given in 2004 as discouraging debate and encouraging patronage within the ANC. He also singled out business deals that favour the "recycled few" in Black Economic Empowerment deals instead of the poor majority. Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) is a program launched by the South African government to redress the inequalities of Apartheid by giving previously disadvantaged groups (black Africans, Coloureds and Indians) economic opportunuties previously not available to them. ...


Controversy over corrupt members

Another accusation frequently levelled against the ANC is that they protect their high-ranking members in the face of controversy, and as such are seen as supporting criminal behaviour. Recent issues of this nature include the Schabir Shaik fraud trial linked to former Deputy President Jacob Zuma, the sexual misconduct and criminal charges of Beaufort West municipal manager Truman Prince,[17] and the Oilgate scandal, in which millions of Rand in funds from a state-owned company were allegedly funneled into ANC coffers.[18] Links between factions in the ANC, specifically the ANC Youth League leadership, and businessman Brett Kebble gained media attention following Kebble's murder in September 2005. Schabir Shaik Schabir Shaik is a South African businessman from the Berea, Durban, who rose to prominence due to his close association with South African Deputy President Jacob Zuma. ... Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born Inkandla, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, April 12, 1942) is deputy president of the governing political party, the African National Congress (ANC), and a former Deputy President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Beaufort West Municipality is a municipality located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. ... Truman Prince is a South African politician and Central Karoo District Municipality manager. ... Oilgate is a South African political scandal in which the petrol company Imvume Holdings was accused of paying R11 million of state money to the ruling African National Congress shortly before the elections. ... Cover of a recent Brett Kebble biography. ...


References

  1. ^ Building the Academic Boycott in Britain, Hilary Rose, Resisting Israeli Apartheid: Strategies and Principles, An International Conference on Palestine, London, 5 December 2004
  2. ^ five people are killed and over sixty injured in an explosion at an Amanzimtoti shopping centre in December
  3. ^ a b STERLAND THEATRE COMPLEX; LION BRIDGE FEEDS AND VAN ASWEGEN BROTHERS: BOMBINGS
  4. ^ An explosion at 14h00 injures 16 people at a Wimpy Bar
  5. ^ TRC TO HEAR MCBRIDE MAGOOS BAR BOMBING AMNESTY APPLICATION
  6. ^ http://www.rhodesia.nl/trurec1.htm [Truth and Reconsiliation Commission Documents]
  7. ^ South Africa: The Lost Generation
  8. ^ US National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism web site
  9. ^ Cleveland, Todd (2005). ""We Still Want the Truth": The ANC's Angolan Detention Camps and Post-Apartheid Memory". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 25 (1): 63-78. 
  10. ^ "Torture Allegations Bedevil ANC Leadership", Washington Post, 1992-10-26. 
  11. ^ Alliance cracks widen as Zuma goes for broke IOL
  12. ^ New ANC spy vs spy bombshellSunday Independent
  13. ^ Details of the Zuma rape allegations iafrica.com
  14. ^ Jacob Zuma's ANC duties suspended BBC
  15. ^ ANC says more cities to be run by women Mail & Guardian
  16. ^ ANC poll rebels 'have as good as resigned' Cape Argus
  17. ^ Bester, Ronel. "Action against Prince 'a farce'", Die Burger, 5 May 2005. 
  18. ^ "Special Report: Oilgate", Mail & Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-04-27. 

... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Die Burger is a daily Afrikaans language newspaper, published by Naspers. ... The Mail & Guardian is a South African newspaper that was started by a group of journalists in 1985 after the closures of the two leading liberal newspapers, the Rand Daily Mail and Sunday Express. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Anti-Apartheid Movement, originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organization that was at the center of the international movement opposing South Africas system of apartheid and supporting South Africas Blacks. ... The Azanian Peoples Organisation, or AZAPO is a South African political organisation. ... The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa. ... Henri Curiel (September 13, 1914 - May 4, 1978) was a political activist, founder of a communist organization in Egypt. ... PAC symbol The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. ... Radio Freedom was the radio propaganda arm of the African National Congress during the anti-Apartheid struggle from the 1970s through the 1990s. ... On March 28, 1994, a short time before the first democratic elactions in South Africa, 20 000 Inkatha Freedom Party supporters marched past the ANC headquater in Plein Street, Johannesburg, called Shell House. ... 2004 election poster of the Socialist Party of Azania, featuring party president Lybon Mabasa The Socialist Party of Azania (SOPA) is a political party in South Africa. ... The United Democratic Front (UDF) was one of the most important anti-apartheid organisations of the 1980s. ...

External links

  • African National Congress official site
  • Response by the ANC General Secretary to COSATU's assessment, 2004
  • "Today it feels good to be an African" - Thabo Mbeki, Cape Town, 8 May 1996
  • Interview with Nimrod Sejake, an ANC dissident, "The ANC has sold out!" Interviewed by Laurence Coates Offensiv 385 (10 February 2000)

 
 

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