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Encyclopedia > Africa
A world map showing the continent of Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. At about 30,221,532 km² (11,668,545 mi²) including adjacent islands, it covers 6.0% of the Earth's total surface area, and 20.4% of the total land area.[1] With more than 900,000,000 people (as of 2005)[2] in 61 territories, it accounts for about 14% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Suez Canal and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. There are 46 countries including Madagascar, and 53 including all the island groups. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 407 pixel Image in higher resolution (2759 × 1404 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/png) this is a boring map of africa!!!!!!!!!!!! World map depicting Africa; map adapted from PDF world map at CIA World Fact Book File... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 407 pixel Image in higher resolution (2759 × 1404 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/png) this is a boring map of africa!!!!!!!!!!!! World map depicting Africa; map adapted from PDF world map at CIA World Fact Book File... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... The current estimated world human population is 6,427,631,117. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


Africa, especially central eastern Africa, is widely regarded within the scientific community to be the origin of humans and the Hominidae tree, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest Hominids, as well as later ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Africanus, Homo Erectus, with the earliest humans being dated to ca. 200,000 years ago, according to this view. Categories: Africa geography stubs | Eastern Africa ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Binomial name Sahelanthropus tchadensis Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an early fossil hominid, approximately 7 million years old from the Miocene. ... Binomial name †Australopithecus africanus Dart, 1925 Australopithecus africanus was an early hominid, an australopithecine, who lived between 3. ... Binomial name †Homo erectus (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ...


Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Because of the lack of natural regular precipitation and irrigation as well as glaciers or mountain aquifer systems, there is no natural moderating effect on the climate except near the coasts. World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... A glacier is a large, persistent body of ice, formed largely of compacted layers of snow, that slowly deforms and flows in response to gravity. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ...

Contents

Etymology

Afri was the name of several peoples who dwelt in North Africa near the provincial capital, Carthage. The Roman suffix "-ca" denotes "country or land".[3] The Afri (singular, Afer) were a people located on the shores of the southern Mediterranean Sea near the city of Carthage. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ...


Other etymologies that have been postulated for the ancient name 'Africa':

  • the Latin word aprica, meaning "sunny";
  • the Greek word aphrike, meaning "without cold." This was proposed by historian Leo Africanus (1488-1554), who suggested the Greek word phrike (φρίκη, meaning "cold and horror"), combined with the privative prefix "a-", thus indicating a land free of cold and horror.

Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Leo Africanus was the Christianised name of Hasan bin Muhammed al-Wazzan al-Fasi (Hasan, son of Muhammed, the Weigher from Fez) (Granada 1488? – 1554?). A former inhabitant of Granada, his family left the city sometime after the christian conquest of the muslim kingdom in 1492. ... A privative, named from Latin privare[1], to deprive, is a particle that negates or inverts the value of the stem of the word. ... The privative a (also known as privative alpha or α privativum) is the prefix a- expressing negation (e. ...

Geography

Main article: Geography of Africa
A composite satellite image of Africa

Africa is the largest of the three great southward projections from the main mass of the Earth's exposed surface. Separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, it is joined to Asia at its northeast extremity by the Isthmus of Suez (transected by the Suez Canal), 163 km (101 miles) wide.[4] (Geopolitically, Egypt's Sinai Peninsula east of the Suez Canal is often considered part of Africa, as well.[2][3]) From the most northerly point, Ras ben Sakka in Tunisia (37°21' N), to the most southerly point, Cape Agulhas in South Africa (34°51'15" S), is a distance of approximately 8,000 km (5,000 miles);[5] from Cape Verde, 17°33'22" W, the westernmost point, to Ras Hafun in Somalia, 51°27'52" E, the most easterly projection, is a distance of approximately 7,400 km (4,600 miles).[6] The coastline is 26,000 km (16,100 miles) long, and the absence of deep indentations of the shore is illustrated by the fact that Europe, which covers only 10,400,000 km² (4,010,000 square miles) — about a third of the surface of Africa — has a coastline of 32,000 km (19,800 miles).[6] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Maps of Africa Africa is a continent comprised of 61 political territories (including 53 countries), representing the largest of the three great southward projections from the main mass of Earths surface. ... Download high resolution version (1624x1824, 535 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1624x1824, 535 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Ras ben Sakka is the northernmost point of the African continent, located in Tunisia. ... A marker at Cape Agulhas indicates the official dividing line between the Atlantic and Indian oceans. ... Hafun (Xaafuun) is a small low-lying peninsula in the Bari region of northern Somalia. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas, here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ...


Africa's largest country is Sudan, and its smallest country is the Seychelles, an archipelago off the east coast.[7] The smallest nation on the continental mainland is The Gambia. The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ...


According to the ancient Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy (85 - 165 AD), indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa. As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ... Location of the Prime Meridian Prime Meridian in Greenwich The Prime Meridian, also known as the International Meridian or Greenwich Meridian, is the meridian (line of longitude) passing through the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich, England — it is the meridian at which longitude is 0 degrees. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Climate, fauna, and flora

The climate of Africa ranges from tropical to subarctic on its highest peaks. Its northern half is primarily desert or arid, while its central and southern areas contain both savanna plains and very dense jungle (rainforest) regions. In between, there is a convergence where vegetation patterns such as sahel, and steppe dominate. Naples beach in Florida lined with coconut trees is an example of a tropical climate. ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... An arid environment has an extremely low yearly precipitation, receiving much less rain or snowfall annually than would satisfy the climatological demand for evaporation and transpiration. ... Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... Box Log Falls, Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia Jungle usually refers to a dense forest in a hot climate, such as a tropical rainforest. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses...


Africa boasts perhaps the world's largest combination of density and "range of freedom" of wild animal populations and diversity, with wild populations of large carnivores (such as lions, hyenas, and cheetahs) and herbivores (such as buffalo, deer, elephants, camels, and giraffes) ranging freely on primarily open non-private plains. It is also home to a variety of jungle creatures (including snakes and primates) and aquatic life (including crocodiles and amphibians). Wild, in zoology or botany, is a rough if problematic antonym to domesticated: see wildlife. ... This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ... Subfamilies and Genera Hyaeninae Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Protelinae Proteles Hyenas or Hyænas are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa, Arabia, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. ... Binomial name Acinonyx jubatus (Schreber, 1775) Type species Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 (= Felis jubata, Schreber, 1775) by monotypy The range of the cheetah The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is an atypical member of the cat family (Felidae), a poor climber that hunts by speed rather than by stealth. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Binomial name Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779) Subspecies The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a bovid from the family of the Bovidae. ... “Fawn” redirects here. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... blue: sea snakes, black: land snakes Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Families 15, See classification A primate (L. primus, first) is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Insert non-formatted text here An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ... Genera Mecistops Crocodylus Osteolaemus See full taxonomy. ... Subclasses and Orders    Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia    Order Anura    Order Caudata    Order Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectothermic (term for the animals...


History

Main article: History of Africa
1890 map of Africa

Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the middle of the twentieth century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation perhaps as early as 7 million years ago. Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to c. 3.9-3.0 million years BC),[8] Paranthropus boisei (c. 2.3-1.4 million BC)[9] and Homo ergaster (c. 600,000-1.9 million BC) have been discovered.[1] The following is an outline of the history of Africa, followed by a list of articles about the history of particular places in Africa. ... Download high resolution version (787x1054, 410 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (787x1054, 410 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Paeloanthropology is the branch of physical anthropology that focuses on the study of human evolution. ... The Cradle of Humankind is a World Heritage Site first named by Unesco in 1999, about 50 kilometres northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Mitochondrial Eve (mt-mrca) is the name given by researchers to the woman who is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for all living humans. ... Anthropology is the study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials based on a knowledge of the decay rates of naturally occurring isotopes, and the current abundances. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... Binomial name Paranthropus boisei (Mary Leakey, 1959) Paranthropus boisei had a skull highly specialized for heavy chewing. ... Binomial name †Homo ergaster Groves & Mazak, 1975 Homo ergaster (working man) is an extinct hominid species (or subspecies, according to some authorities) which lived throughout eastern and southern Africa between 1. ...


The Ishango bone, dated to about 25,000 years ago, shows tallies in mathematical notation. Throughout humanity's prehistory, Africa (like all other continents) had no nation states, and was instead inhabited by groups of hunter-gatherers such as the Khoi and San.[10][11][12] The Ishango bone is a tally stick, made of bone, which contains sequences of prime numbers, and some series of multiples. ... Tally sticks are an ancient mnemonic device (memory aid) to record and document numbers or quantities even messages. ... Mathematical notation is used in mathematics, and throughout the physical sciences, engineering, and economics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Prehistoric man. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (San). ... The Bushmen (also known as Basarwa in Tswana, or San in Nama) are an indigenous population of the Kalahari Desert, which spans South Africa and neighboring Botswana and Namibia as well southern Angola. ...


At the end of the Ice Ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara had become a green fertile valley again, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the warming and drying climate meant that by 5000 BC the Sahara region was becoming increasingly drier. The population trekked out of the Sahara region towards the Nile Valley below the Second Cataract where they made permanent or semi-permanent settlements. A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa. Since then dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa, especially in Ethiopia in the last 200 years. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe those countries of the African continent that are not... The six cataracts of the Nile There are six classical Cataracts of the Nile between Aswan and Khartoum, counted upstream. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Eastern Africa ...


The domestication of cattle in Africa precedes agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gathering cultures. It is speculated that by 6000 BC cattle were already domesticated in North Africa.[13] In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals including the pack ass, and a small screw horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia.


Agriculturally, the first cases of domestication of plants for agricultural purposes occurred in the Sahel region circa 5000 BC, when sorghum and African rice began to be cultivated. Around this time, and in the same region, the small guinea fowl became domesticated. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of about 30 species of grasses raised for grain, native to tropical and subtropical regions of Eastern Africa, with one species native to Mexico. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Brown basmati rice Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... Genera  Agelastes  Numida  Guttera  Acryllium The guineafowl are a family of birds in the same order as the pheasants, turkeys and other game birds. ...


According to the Oxford Atlas of World History, in the year 4000 BC the climate of the Sahara started to become drier at an exceedingly fast pace.[14] This climate change caused lakes and rivers to shrink rather significantly and caused increasing desertification. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa.[14] This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


By 3000 BC agriculture arose independently in both the tropical portions of West Africa, where African yams and oil palms were domesticated, and in Ethiopia, where coffee and teff became domesticated. No animals were independently domesticated in these regions, although domestication did spread there from the Sahel and Nile regions.[15] Agricultural crops were also adopted from other regions around this time as pearl millet, cowpea, groundnut, cotton, watermelon and bottle gourds began to be grown agriculturally in both West Africa and the Sahel Region while finger millet, peas, lentil and flax took hold in Ethiopia.[16]  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... For the Levantine god of the untamed sea, see Yaw. ... A cup of coffee Workers sorting and pulping coffee beans in Guatemala Coffee is a widely consumed beverage prepared from the roasted seeds — commonly referred to as beans — of the coffee plant. ... Binomial name Eragrostis tef (Zucc. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Pearl millet in the field The millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. ... Binomial name Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ... This article is about peanut, the food. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Binomial name Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. ... Binomial name Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum A pea (Pisum sativum) is the small, edible round green seed which grows in a pod on a leguminous vine, hence why it is called a legume. ... Lens culinaris. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum Linnaeus. ...


The international phenomenon known as the Beaker culture began to affect western North Africa. Named for the distinctively shaped ceramics found in graves, the Beaker culture is associated with the emergence of a warrior mentality. North African rock art of this period depicts animals but also places a new emphasis on the human figure, equipped with weapons and adornments. People from the Great Lakes Region of Africa settled along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea to become the proto-Canaanites who dominated the lowlands between the Jordan River, the Mediterranean and the Sinai Desert. approximate extent of the Beaker culture The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture, Beaker people, or Beaker folk; German: ), ca. ... The Great Lakes and the East African coastline as seen from space. ...


By the 1st millennium BC ironworking had been introduced in Northern Africa and quickly began spreading across the Sahara into the northern parts of sub-saharan Africa[17] and by 500 BC metalworking began to become commonplace in West Africa, possibly after being introduced by the Carthaginians. Ironworking was fully established by roughly 500 BC in areas of East and West Africa, though other regions didn't begin ironworking until the early centuries AD. Some copper objects from Egypt, North Africa, Nubia and Ethiopia have been excavated in West Africa dating from around 500 BC, suggesting that trade networks had been established by this time.[14] Ironwork is any weapon, artwork, utensil or architectural feature made of iron especially used for decorative purposes. ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ...


Early civilisations and trade

About 3300 BC, the historical record opens in Africa with the rise of literacy in the Pharaonic-ruled civilisation of Ancient Egypt, which continued, with varying levels of influence over other areas, until 343 BC.[18][19] Prominent civilisations at different times include Carthage, the Kingdom of Aksum, the Nubian kingdoms, the empires of the Sahel (Kanem-Bornu, Ghana, Mali, and Songhai), Great Zimbabwe, and the Kongo.[20][21] This article refers to the historical Pharaoh. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... The Sahelian kingdoms were a series of empires that had many similarities. ... The Kanem-Bornu Empire existed in Africa, established around 1200 and lasting, in a changed form, until the 1840s. ... The Songhai Empire, c. ... Great Zimbabwe is the name given to the remains of stone, sometimes referred to as the Great Zimbabwe Ruins, of an ancient Southern African city, located at in present-day Zimbabwe which was once the centre of a vast empire known as the Munhumutapa Empire (also called Monomotapa or Mwene... The Kingdom of Congo (now usually rendered as Kingdom of Kongo to maintain distinction from the present-day Congo nations) The Kingdom of Kongo (1400-1888) (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what are now northern Angola, Cabinda...


After the Sahara had become a desert it did not present an impenetrable barrier for travellers between north and south. Even prior to the introduction of the camel[22] the use of oxen for desert crossing was common, and trade routes followed oases that were strung across the desert. The camel was first brought to Egypt by the Persians after 525 BC, although large herds did not become common enough in North Africa to establish the trans-Saharan trade until the eighth century AD.[23] The Sanhaja Berbers were the first to exploit this. For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Oasis in the Libyan part of the Sahara For other uses, see Oasis (disambiguation). ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Great Mosque of Djenné, founded in 800, an important trading base, now a World Heritage Site Trans-Saharan trade, refers to trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. ... The Sanhaja were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda History The tribes of the Sanhaja settled at first in the northern Sahara. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ...


Pre-colonial Africa possessed perhaps as many as 10,000 different states and polities [4] characterised by different sorts of political organisation and rule. These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people of southern Africa; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking people of central and southern Africa and heavily-structured clan groups in the Horn of Africa, the Sahelian Kingdoms, and autonomous city-states such as the Swahili coastal trading towns of the East African coast, whose trade network extended as far as China. The Bushmen (also known as Basarwa in Tswana, or San in Nama) are an indigenous population of the Kalahari Desert, which spans South Africa and neighboring Botswana and Namibia as well southern Angola. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (dull yellow) vs. ... The Horn of Africa. ... The Swahili are a people and culture found on the coast of East Africa, mainly the coastal regions and the islands of Kenya and Tanzania. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


In 1418, the fifth expedition by Chinese admiral Zheng He reached Africa's east coast. The two later Zheng He voyages, the last in 1432, also sailed to East Africa. The Chinese travelled at least as far as Malindi in Kenya. In 1482, the Portuguese established the first of many trading stations along the coast of Ghana at Elmina. The chief commodities dealt in were slaves, gold, ivory and spices. The European discovery of the Americas in 1492 was followed by a great development of the slave trade, which, before the Portuguese era, had been an overland trade almost exclusively, and never confined to any one continent.[24] Zheng He[1] (1371–1433), was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels of Eunuch Sanbao to the Western Ocean (Chinese: 三保太監下西洋) or Zheng He to the Western Ocean, from 1405 to 1433. ... Elmina is a town on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana, lying west of Cape Coast. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In West Africa, the decline of the Atlantic slave trade in the 1820s caused dramatic economic shifts in local polities. The gradual decline of slave-trading, prompted by a lack of demand for slaves in the New World, increasing anti-slavery legislation in Europe and America, and the British navy's increasing presence off the West African coast, obliged African states to adopt new economies. The largest powers of West Africa: the Asante Confederacy, the Kingdom of Dahomey, and the Oyo Empire, adopted different ways of adapting to the shift. Asante and Dahomey concentrated on the development of "legitimate commerce" in the form of palm oil, cocoa, timber and gold, forming the bedrock of West Africa's modern export trade. The Oyo Empire, unable to adapt, collapsed into civil wars.[25]  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The Atlantic slave trade, started by the Portuguese[1], but soon dominated by the English, was the sale and exploitation of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean from the 15th century to the 19th century. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... A shrunken Ashanti Confederacy near the end of its existence in 1896 The Ashanti Confederacy was a powerful state in West Africa in the years prior to European colonization. ... Dahomey was a kingdom in Africa, situated in what is now the nation of Benin. ... Oyo (OÌ£yoÌ£ in Yoruba orthography, pronounced ) is the name of a Yoruba city in modern-day Nigeria and also of the loose empire which that city controlled in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block Palm oil is a form of edible vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


Pre-colonial exploration

In the mid-nineteenth century, European explorers became interested in exploring the heart of the continent and opening the area for trade, mining and other commercial exploitation. In addition, there was a desire to convert the inhabitants to Christianity. The central area of Africa was still largely unknown to Europeans at this time. David Livingstone explored the continent between 1852 and his death in 1873; amongst other claims to fame, he was the first European to see the Victoria Falls. A prime goal for explorers was to locate the source of the River Nile. Expeditions by Burton and Speke (1857-1858) and Speke and Grant (1863) located Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria. The latter was eventually proven as the main source of the Nile. With subsequent expeditions by Baker and Stanley, Africa was well explored by the end of the century and this was to lead the way for the colonization which followed. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 4 May 1873) was a Scottish Presbyterian pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ... Victoria Falls with relatively low water in the dry season Africas Victoria Falls or Mosi-oa-Tunya are, by some measures, the largest waterfall on the planet, as well as being among the most unusual in form, and having arguably the most diverse and easily-seen wildlife of any... For alternative meanings of Nile, see Nile (disambiguation) The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The Nile (Arabic: ا&#1604... Richard Burton, portrait by Frederic Leighton, National Portrait Gallery, London. ... John Hanning Speke (May 4, 1827 – September 15, 1864) was an officer in the British Indian army, who made three voyages of exploration to Africa. ... James Augustus Grant (April 11, 1827 — February 11, 1892) was a Scottish explorer of eastern equatorial Africa. ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... Lake Victoria and the Great Rift Valley Lake Victoria height variation The lake as seen from space, looking west, with other members of the African Great Lakes forming an arc in the middle distance. ... Sir Samuel White Baker (8 June 1821-30 December 1893) was an English explorer. ... Sir Henry Morton Stanley, also known in the Congo as Bula Matari (Breaker of Rocks or, alternatively, Sledge Hammer) , born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 – May 10, 1904), was a journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ...


Colonialism and the "scramble for Africa"

Map showing European territorial claims on the African continent in 1914

In the late nineteenth century, the European imperial powers engaged in a major territorial scramble and occupied most of the continent, creating many colonial nation states, and leaving only two independent nations: Liberia, an independent state partly settled by African Americans; and Orthodox Christian Ethiopia (known to Europeans as "Abyssinia"). Colonial rule by Europeans would continue until after the conclusion of World War II, when all colonial states gradually obtained formal independence. Map of West Africa, ca. ... Map showing European claimants to the African continent in 1913 Turned Image:Colafrica. ... Map showing European claimants to the African continent in 1913 Turned Image:Colafrica. ... // Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተክርስትያን Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Colonialism had a destabilising effect on a number of ethnic groups that is still being felt in African politics. Before European influence, national borders were not much of a concern, with Africans generally following the practice of other areas of the world, such as the Arabian Peninsula, where a group's territory was congruent with its military or trade influence. The European insistence of drawing borders around territories to isolate them from those of other colonial powers often had the effect of separating otherwise contiguous political groups, or forcing traditional enemies to live side by side with no buffer between them. For example, although the Congo River appears to be a natural geographic boundary, there were groups that otherwise shared a language, culture or other similarity living on both sides. The division of the land between Belgium and France along the river isolated these groups from each other. Those who lived in Saharan or Sub-Saharan Africa and traded across the continent for centuries often found themselves crossing borders that existed only on European maps. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe those countries of the African continent that are not...


In nations that had substantial European populations, for example Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and South Africa, systems of second-class citizenship were often set up in order to give Europeans political power far in excess of their numbers. In the Congo Free State, personal property of King Leopold II of Belgium, the native population was submitted to inhumane treatments, and a near slavery status assorted with forced labor. However, the lines were not always drawn strictly across racial lines. In Liberia, citizens who were descendants of American slaves had a political system for over 100 years that gave ex-slaves and natives to the area roughly equal legislative power despite the fact the ex-slaves were outnumbered ten to one in the general population. The inspiration for this system was the United States Senate, which had balanced the power of free and slave states despite the much-larger population of the former. Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ... Flag Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately owned by King Leopold II of Belgium (not in his role as monarch) that included the entire... Leopold II, King of the Belgians (Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor (French) or Leopold Lodewijk Filips Marie Victor (Dutch)) (April 9, 1835 – December 17, 1909) succeeded his father, Leopold I of Belgium, to the Belgian throne in 1865 and remained king until his death. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is...


Europeans often altered the local balance of power, created ethnic divides where they did not previously exist, and introduced a cultural dichotomy detrimental to the native inhabitants in the areas they controlled. For example, in what are now Rwanda and Burundi, two ethnic groups Hutus and Tutsis had merged into one culture by the time German colonists had taken control of the region in the nineteenth century. No longer divided by ethnicity as intermingling, intermarriage, and merging of cultural practices over the centuries had long since erased visible signs of a culture divide, Belgium instituted a policy of racial categorisation upon taking control of the region, as racial based categorisation and philosophies was a fixture of the European culture of that time. The term Hutu originally referred to the agricultural-based Bantu-speaking peoples that moved into present day Rwanda and Burundi from the West, and the term Tutsi referred to Northeastern cattle-based peoples that migrated into the region later. The terms described a person's economic class; individuals who owned roughly 10 or more cattle were considered Tutsi, and those with fewer were considered Hutu, regardless of ancestral history. This was not a strict line but a general rule of thumb, and one could move from Hutu to Tutsi and vice versa. Hutu is the name given to one of the three ethnic groups occupying Burundi and Rwanda. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (dull yellow) vs. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ...


The Belgians introduced a racialized system; European-like features such as fairer skin, ample height, narrow noses were seen as more ideally Hamitic, and belonged to those people closest to Tutsi in ancestry, who were thus given power amongst the colonised peoples. Identity cards were issued based on this philosophy. Hamitic is an obsolete ethno-linguistic classification of some ethnic groups within the Afroasiatic (previously termed Semito-Hamitic) language family. ...


Tunisia was the first country in Africa to gain Independence, doing so in 1956. The decades-long struggle for independence from France was led by Habib Bourguiba, founder of the Republic of Tunisia. Habib Bourguiba - 1980 Habib Ben Ali Bourguiba (Arabic: حبيب بورقيبة) (born August 3, 1903 in Monastir, Tunisia – died April 6, 2000) was a Tunisian statesman and the first President of the Republic of Tunisia from July 25, 1957 to November 7, 1987. ...


Post-colonial Africa

Today, Africa contains 53 independent and sovereign countries, which mostly still have the borders drawn during the era of European colonialism.


Since colonialism, African states have frequently been hampered by instability, corruption, violence, and authoritarianism. The vast majority of African nations are republics that operate under some form of the presidential system of rule. However, few of them have been able to sustain democratic governments, and many have instead cycled through a series of coups, producing military dictatorships. A number of Africa's post-colonial political leaders were military generals who were poorly educated and ignorant on matters of governance. Great instability, however, was mainly the result of marginalization of other ethnic groups and graft under these leaders. For political gain, many leaders fanned ethnic conflicts that had been exacerbated, or even created, by colonial rule. In many countries, the military was perceived as being the only group that could effectively maintain order, and it ruled many nations in Africa during the 1970s and early 1980s. During the period from the early 1960s to the late 1980s, Africa had more than 70 coups and 13 presidential assassinations. Border and territorial disputes were also common, with the European-imposed borders of many nations being widely contested through armed conflicts. Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where the executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separate from the legislature, to which it is not accountable, and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and krateo, rule[1]) is a form of government. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... General Augusto Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta in Chile, September 1973. ... In politics and sociology, divide and rule (also known as divide and conquer) is a strategy of gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into chunks that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy. ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ...


Cold War conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as the policies of the International Monetary Fund, also played a role in instability. When a country became independent for the first time, it was often expected to align with one of the two superpowers. Many countries in Northern Africa received Soviet military aid, while many in Central and Southern Africa were supported by the United States, France or both. The 1970s saw an escalation, as newly independent Angola and Mozambique aligned themselves with the Soviet Union and the West and South Africa sought to contain Soviet influence by funding insurgency movements. Some countries were ruled by communist parties that sought to impose Soviet policies resulting in atrocities such as the Ethiopian famine of 1985-89. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... “IMF” redirects here. ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ...


AIDS has also been a prevalent issue in post-colonial Africa. See article AIDS in Africa. AIDS education at a school in Uganda. ...


Politics

The African Union (AU) is a federation consisting of all of Africa's states except Morocco. The union was formed, with Addis Ababa as its headquarters, on June 26, 2001. In July 2004, the African Union's Pan-African Parliament (PAP) was relocated to Midrand, in South Africa, but the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights remained in Addis Ababa. There is a policy in effect to decentralise the African Federation's institutions so that they are shared by all the states For the surface feature on Mars, see Cape Verde (Mars). ... Motto: Unity, Discipline and Labour(translation) Anthem: LAbidjanaise Capital Yamoussoukro (official)  Abidjan (de facto) Largest city  Abidjan Official languages French Government Republic  -  President Laurent Gbagbo  -  Prime Minister Guillaume Soro Independence from France   -  Date August 7, 1960  Area  -  Total 322,460 km² (68th) 124,502 sq mi   -  Water (%) 1. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto: n/a Anthem: Independência total Capital (and largest city) São Tomé Portuguese Government Republic  - President Fradique de Menezes  - Prime Minister Tomé Vera Cruz Independence from Portugal   - Date 12 July 1975  Area  - Total 964 km² (183rd) 372 sq mi   - Water (%) 0 Population  - 2005 estimate 157,000 (188th)  - Density... Western Sahara (Arabic: الصحراء الغربية; transliterated: al-á¹¢aḥrā al-GharbÄ«yah; Spanish: Sahara Occidental) is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, mainly consisting of desert flatlands. ... Motto: (Portuguese for Unity, Struggle, Progress) Anthem: Capital Bissau 1 Largest city Official language(s) Portuguese Government President Prime Minister Republic João Bernardo Vieira Aristides Gomes Independence from Portugal  - Declared September 24, 1973  - Recognised September 10, 1974 Area  - Total    - Water (%)   36,120 km² (133rd) 13,946 sq mi  22. ... Motto Unité, Dignité, Travail(French) Unity, Dignity, Work Anthem La RenaissanceFrench) E Zingo(Sango) Capital (and largest city) Bangui Official languages Sango, French Government Republic  -  President François Bozizé  -  Prime Minister Élie Doté Independence from France   -  Date August 13, 1960  Area  -  Total 622,984 km² (43rd) 240,534 sq mi... Motto: Loyal and Unshakeable Anthem: God Save the Queen My Saint Helena Island (unofficial) Capital Jamestown Status British Overseas Territory Official language(s) English Governor Michael Clancy Area 410 km² Population  â€¢2003 estimate  â€¢Density 7,367 18/km² Currency Saint Helenian pound (SHP) at parity with the UK Pound Sterling... Motto Unity - Freedom - Justice Anthem High We Exalt Thee, Realm of the Free Capital (and largest city) Freetown Official languages English Government Republic  -  President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah Republic  -  from the United Kingdom April 27, 1961  Area  -  Total 71,740 km² (119th) 27,699 sq mi   -  Water (%) 1. ... Motto Justice – Paix – Travail(French) Justice – Peace – Work Anthem Debout Congolais Capital (and largest city) Kinshasaa Official languages French Government Semi-Presidential Republic  -  President Joseph Kabila  -  Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga Independence  -  from Belgium June 30, 1960  Area  -  Total 2,344,858 km² (12th) 905,351 sq mi   -  Water (%) 3. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... This article is about the water body. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together Administrative center Largest city Cairo, Egypt Leaders  -  Chairperson John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Membership 53 African states Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st2)  sq mi  Population  -  2005... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pan-African Parliament is the legislative body of the African Union; at present it exercises oversight, and has advisory and consultative powers. ... Midrand is a town located in the Johannesburg conurbation in Gauteng Province, South Africa. ... The African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights (ACHPR) is an supranational body tasked with promoting and protecting human rights throughout the African continent. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ...


The African Union, not to be confused with the AU Commission, is formed by an Act of Union which aims to transform the African Economic Community, a federated commonwealth, into a state, under established international conventions. The African Union has a parliamentary government, known as the African Union Government, consisting of legislative, judicial and executive organs, and led by the African Union President and Head of State, who is also the President of the Pan African Parliament. A person becomes AU President by being elected to the PAP, and subsequently gaining majority support in the PAP. Act of Union can mean: United Kingdom The Act of Union is a name given to several acts passed by the English, Scottish and British Parliaments from 1536 onwards. ...  members of AEC pillar blocs  states signatories to the AEC Treaty, but not participating in any of the pillars The member states of the African Union are mounting efforts to collaborate economically, but they are impeded by the civil wars raging in several parts of Africa. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Pan-African Parliament is the governing body of the African Union, however at present it can only exercise advisory and consultative powers. ...


President Gertrude Ibengwe Mongella is the Head of State and Chief of Government of the African Union, by virtue of the fact that she is the President of the Pan African Parliament. She was elected by Parliament in its inaugural session in March 2004, for a term of five years. The PAP consists of 265 legislators, five from each constituent state of the African Union. Over 21% of the members are female.[citation needed] Gertrude Ibengwe Mongella is the president of the African Union parliament, and Head of State of the African Union. ...


The powers and authority of the President of the African Parliament derive from the Union Act, and the Protocol of the Pan African Parliament, as well as the inheritance of presidential authority stipulated by African treaties and by international treaties, including those subordinating the Secretary General of the OAU Secretariat (AU Commission) to the PAP. The government of the AU consists of all-union (federal), regional, state, and municipal authorities, as well as hundreds of institutions, that together manage the day-to-day affairs of the institution. The 1800 Act of Union merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... The Pan-African Parliament is the governing body of the African Union, however at present it can only exercise advisory and consultative powers. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ...


Failed state policies, inequitable global trade practices, and the effects of global climate change have resulted in many widespread famines, and significant portions of Africa remain with distribution systems unable to disseminate enough food or water for the population to survive. What had before colonialism been the source for 90% of the world's gold has become the poorest continent on earth, its former riches enjoyed by those on other continents. The spread of disease is also rampant, especially the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the associated acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has become a deadly pandemic on the continent. A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. ... A pandemic (from Greek παν pan all + δήμος demos people) is an epidemic (an outbreak of an infectious disease) that spreads across a large region (example a continent), or even worldwide. ...


There are clear signs of increased networking among African organisations and states. In the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (former Zaire), rather than rich, non-African countries intervening, neighbouring African countries became involved (see also Second Congo War). Since the conflict began in 1998, the estimated death toll has reached 4 million.[26] Many observers[attribution needed] suggest that the conflict played a role similar to that of World War II, after which European countries integrated their societies in such a way that war between them becomes unthinkable. Political associations such as the African Union offer hope for greater co-operation and peace between the continent's many countries. Extensive human rights abuses still occur in several parts of Africa, often under the oversight of the state. Most of such violations occur for political reasons, often as a side effect of civil war. Countries where major human rights violations have been reported in recent times include the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Sudan, Zimbabwe, and Côte d'Ivoire. Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together Administrative center Largest city Cairo, Egypt Leaders  -  Chairperson John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Membership 53 African states Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st2)  sq mi  Population  -  2005...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Africa

Due largely to the effects of the slave trade, colonialism, the international trade regime, geopolitics, corrupt governments, despotism, and constant conflict[citation needed], Africa is the world's poorest inhabited continent. According to the United Nations' Human Development Report in 2003, the bottom 25 ranked nations (151st to 175th) were all African nations.[27] The economy of Africa consists of the trade, industry, and resources of the peoples of Africa. ... Image File history File links RECs_of_the_AEC.png‎ Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): African Economic Community Africa Maps of Africa ... Image File history File links RECs_of_the_AEC.png‎ Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): African Economic Community Africa Maps of Africa ...  members of AEC pillar blocs  states signatories to the AEC Treaty, but not participating in any of the pillars The member states of the African Union are mounting efforts to collaborate economically, but they are impeded by the civil wars raging in several parts of Africa. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Some areas, notably Botswana and South Africa, have experienced economic success. The latter has a wealth of natural resources, being the world's leading producers of both gold and diamonds, and a well-established legal system. South Africa also has access to financial capital, numerous markets, skilled labor, and first world infrastructure in much of the country and the opening of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the gemstone. ... The JSE Securities Exchange, previously known as the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, is South Africas only stock exchange. ...


Over a quarter of Botswana's budget (also a major diamond producer) goes toward improving the infrastructure of Gaborone, the nation's capital, largest city, and one of the world's fastest growing cities. Other African countries are making comparable progress, such as Ghana, Kenya, Cameroon and Egypt. Satellite image of Gaborone Location of Gaborone in Botswana Gaborone (pron. ...


Nigeria sits on one of the largest proven oil reserves in the world and has the highest population among nations in Africa, with one of the fastest-growing economies in the world.


From 1995 to 2005, economic growth picked up, averaging 5% in 2005. However, some countries experienced much higher growth (10+%) in particular, Angola, Sudan and Equatorial Guinea, all three of which have recently begun extracting their petroleum reserves.


Zimbabwe is the only country in Africa experiencing negative economic growth.


Demographics

The last 40 years have seen a rapid increase in population; hence, this population is relatively young. In some African states half or more of the population is under 25 years old.[citation needed] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ...


Speakers of Bantu languages (part of the Niger-Congo family) are the majority in southern, central and east Africa proper. But there are also several Nilotic groups in East Africa, and a few remaining indigenous Khoisan ('San' or 'Bushmen') and Pygmy peoples in southern and central Africa, respectively. Bantu-speaking Africans also predominate in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, and are found in parts of southern Cameroon and southern Somalia. In the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as the Bushmen (also "San", closely related to, but distinct from "Hottentots") have long been present. The San are physically distinct from other Africans and are the indigenous people of southern Africa. Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of central Africa. Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ... Nilotic refers to a number of indigenous East African peoples originating in northeast Africa in the region of the Nile River. ... The indigenous peoples of Africa are those peoples from the African region whose way of life, attachment or claims to particular lands, and social and political standing in relation to other more dominant groups have resulted in their substantial marginalisation within modern African states. ... The Bushmen (also known as Basarwa in Tswana, or San in Nama) are an indigenous population of the Kalahari Desert, which spans South Africa and neighboring Botswana and Namibia as well southern Angola. ... The Bushmen (also known as Basarwa in Tswana, or San in Nama) are an indigenous population of the Kalahari Desert, which spans South Africa and neighboring Botswana and Namibia as well southern Angola. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Kalahari Desert is a large arid to semi-arid sandy area in southern Kgalagadi Africa extending 900,000 km² (562,500 sq. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ...


The peoples of North Africa comprise two main groups; Berber and Arabic-speaking peoples in the west, and Egyptians in the east. The Arabs who arrived in the seventh century introduced the Arabic language and Islam to North Africa. The Semitic Phoenicians, the European Greeks, Romans and Vandals settled in North Africa as well. Berbers still make up the majority in Morocco, while they are a significant minority within Algeria. They are also present in Tunisia and Libya. The Tuareg and other often-nomadic peoples are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa. Nubians are a Nilo-Saharan-speaking group (though many also speak Arabic), who developed an ancient civilisation in northeast Africa.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Amazighs (also called Berber people or Imazighen (ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⴻⵏ), free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group autochthonous to Northwest Africa and speak various Berber languages. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam as well as Shia Islam, Coptic Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze and Ibadi Islam An entry was temporarily removed here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ... The Nubians are an ethnic group in Egypt and Sudan. ... Map showing the distribution of the Nilo-Saharan languages. ...


During the past century or so, small but economically important colonies of Lebanese and Chinese have also developed in the larger coastal cities of West and East Africa, respectively.  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


Some Ethiopian and Eritrean groups (like the Amhara and Tigrayans, collectively known as "Habesha") speak Semitic languages. The Oromo and Somali peoples speak Cushitic languages, but some Somali clans trace their founding to legendary Arab founders. Sudan and Mauritania are divided between a mostly Arabized north and a native African south (although the "Arabs" of Sudan clearly have a predominantly native African ancestry themselves). Some areas of East Africa, particularly the island of Zanzibar and the Kenyan island of Lamu, received Arab Muslim and Southwest Asian settlers and merchants throughout the Middle Ages and in antiquity. Amhara (አማራ) is an ethnic group in the central highlands of Ethiopia, numbering about 21 million, making up around 30% of the countrys population (estimates differ). ... The Tigray-Tigrinya are an ethnic group who live in Eritrea and the northern highlands of Ethiopias Tigray province. ... The term Habesha (Geez ሐበሻ ḥabaśā, Amh. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... For the language, see Oromo language. ... The Cushitic languages are a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic languages phylum, named after the Biblical figure Cush by analogy with Semitic. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is situated off mainland Tanzania Coordinates: Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1... Lamu is an island of the Lamu Archipelago of Kenya. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Beginning in the sixteenth century, Europeans such as the Portuguese and Dutch began to establish trading posts and forts along the coasts of western and southern Africa. Eventually, a large number of Dutch augmented by French Huguenots and Germans settled in what is today South Africa. Their descendants, the Afrikaners and the Coloureds, are the largest European-descended groups in Africa today. In the nineteenth century, a second phase of colonisation brought a large number of French and British settlers to Africa. The Portuguese settled mainly in Angola, but also in Mozambique. The French settled in large numbers in Algeria where they became known collectively as pieds-noirs, and on a smaller scale in other areas of North and West Africa as well as in Madagascar. The British settled chiefly in South Africa as well as the colony of Rhodesia, and in the highlands of what is now Kenya. Germans settled in what is now Tanzania and Namibia, and there is still a population of German-speaking white Namibians. Smaller numbers of European soldiers, businessmen, and officials also established themselves in administrative centers such as Nairobi and Dakar. Decolonisation during the 1960s often resulted in the mass emigration of European-descended settlers out of Africa — especially from Algeria, Angola, Kenya and Rhodesia. However, in South Africa and Namibia, the white minority remained politically dominant after independence from Europe, and a significant population of Europeans remained in these two countries even after democracy was finally instituted at the end of the Cold War. South Africa has also become the preferred destination of white Anglo-Zimbabweans, and of migrants from all over southern Africa. A trading post is a place where trading of goods takes place. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Afrikaners are a European ethnic group primarily associated with Southern Africa and the Afrikaans language. ... In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Nairobi (pronounced ) is the capital and largest city of Kenya. ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


European colonisation also brought sizeable groups of Asians, particularly people from the Indian subcontinent, to British colonies. Large Indian communities are found in South Africa, and smaller ones are present in Kenya, Tanzania, and some other southern and east African countries. The large Indian community in Uganda was expelled by the dictator Idi Amin in 1972, though many have since returned. The islands in the Indian Ocean are also populated primarily by people of Asian origin, often mixed with Africans and Europeans. The Malagasy people of Madagascar are a Austronesian people, but those along the coast are generally mixed with Bantu, Arab, Indian and European origins. Malay and Indian ancestries are also important components in the group of people known in South Africa as Cape Coloureds (people with origins in two or more races and continents). This article deals primarily or exclusively with the definition of Asian in English-speaking countries, mainly referring to immigrants or descendants of immigrants living therein. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Idi Amin Dada (c. ... The Malagasy (in French also les Malgaches) ethnic group forms the vast majority of the population of Madagascar. ... The Austronesian people are a population group in Oceania and Southeast Asia who speak or had ancestors who spoke one of the Austronesian languages. ... The Cape Coloureds are modern-day descendants of slaves imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers. ...


Languages

Main article: African languages
Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. Afro-Asiatic extends from the Sahel to Southwest Asia. Niger-Congo is divided to show the size of the Bantu sub-family.
Many African countries today have more than one official language.

By most estimates, Africa contains well over a thousand languages, some have estimated it to be over two thousand languages (most of African rather than European origin). Africa is the most polyglot continent in the world; it is not rare to find individuals there who fluently speak not only several African languages, but one or two European ones as well. There are four major language families native to Africa. Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... Download high resolution version (600x657, 48 KB)Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... Download high resolution version (600x657, 48 KB)Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map showing the distribution of Niger-Congo languages The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the worlds major language families, and Africas largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ... Image File history File links Official_LanguagesMap-Africa. ... Image File history File links Official_LanguagesMap-Africa. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Polyglot has several meanings: Look up Polyglot on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The property of speaking multiple languages A polyglot is a person that can speak many languages A polyglot is a book that contains the same text in more than one language, usually a bible such as the first... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ...

  • The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout East Africa, North Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia.
  • The Nilo-Saharan language family consists of more than a hundred languages spoken by 30 million people. Nilo-Saharan languages are mainly spoken in Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, and northern Tanzania.
  • The Niger-Congo language family covers much of Sub-Saharan Africa and is probably the largest language family in the world in terms of different languages. A substantial number of them are the Bantu languages spoken in much of sub-Saharan Africa.
  • The Khoisan languages number about 50 and are spoken in Southern Africa by approximately 120 000 people. Many of the Khoisan languages are endangered. The Khoi and San peoples are considered the original inhabitants of this part of Africa.

Following colonialism, nearly all African countries adopted official languages that originated outside the continent, although several countries nowadays also use various languages of native origin (such as Swahili) as their official language. In numerous countries, English and French are used for communication in the public sphere such as government, commerce, education and the media. Arabic, Portuguese, Afrikaans and Malagasy are other examples of originally non-African languages that are used by millions of Africans today, both in the public and private spheres. The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map showing the distribution of the Nilo-Saharan languages. ... Map showing the distribution of Niger-Congo languages The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the worlds major language families, and Africas largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ... Map showing the distribution of the Khoi-San languages. ... An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... An 18th century drawing of Khoikhoi worshipping the moon The Khoikhoi (men of men) or Khoi are a historical division of the Khoisan ethnic group of south-western Africa, closely related to the Bushmen (or San, as the Khoikhoi called them). ... The Bushmen (also known as Basarwa in Tswana, or San in Nama) are an indigenous population of the Kalahari Desert, which spans South Africa and neighboring Botswana and Namibia as well southern Angola. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Africa

African culture is characterised by a vastly diverse patchwork of social values, ranging from extreme patriarchy to extreme matriarchy, sometimes in tribes existing side by side. The Culture of Africa encompasses and includes all cultures which were ever in the continent of Africa. ... Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... Matriarchy is a form of society in which power is with the women and especially with the mothers of a community. ...


Modern African culture is characterised by conflicted responses to Arab nationalism and European imperialism. Increasingly, beginning in the late 1990s, Africans are reasserting their identity. In North Africa especially the rejection of the label Arab or European has resulted in an upsurge of demands for special protection of indigenous Amazigh languages and culture in Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia. The emergence of Pan-Africanism since the fall of apartheid has heightened calls for a renewed sense of African identity. In South Africa, intellectuals from settler communities of European descent increasingly identify as African for cultural rather than geographical or racial reasons. Famously, some have undergone ritual ceremonies to become members of the Zulu or other community. Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... This is a list of former European colonies. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam as well as Shia Islam, Coptic Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze and Ibadi Islam An entry was temporarily removed here. ... This article is about the continent. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, Animist Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of about 10 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ...


Much of the traditional African cultures have become impoverished as a result of years of neglect and suppression by colonial and neo-colonial regimes. There is now a resurgence in the attempts to rediscover and revalourise African traditional cultures, under such movements as the African Renaissance led by Thabo Mbeki, Afrocentrism led by an influential group of scholars including Molefi Asante, as well as the increasing recognition of traditional spiritualism through decriminalization of Voudoo and other forms of spirituality. In recent years African traditional culture has become synonymous with rural poverty and subsistence farming. The African Renaissance is a concept popularized by South African President Thabo Mbeki in which the African people and nations are called upon to solve the many problems troubling the African continent. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the President of the Republic of South Africa. ... An 1812 map of Africa Afrocentrism is an academic, philosophical, and historical approach to the study of world history. ... Molefi Kete Asante (born 1942) is a controversial African-American scholar whose book Afrocentricity gave rise to the term Afrocentrism. ... A large sequined Voodoo drapo or flag by the artist George Valris Voodoo doll redirects here. ...


Urban culture in Africa, now associated with Western values, is a great contrast from traditional African urban culture which was once rich and enviable even by modern Western standards. African cities such as Loango, M'banza Congo, Timbuktu, Thebes, Meroe and others had served as the world's most affluent urban and industrial centers, clean, well-laid out, and full of universities, libraries, and temples. Loango was an African city from approximately 15th Century - 19th Century in what is now the Republic of Congo. ... Location of Mbanza Kongo in Angola Mbanza-Kongo, formerly known as São Salvador, is the capital of Angolas northwestern Zaire Province. ... Timbuktu (Archaic English: Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, Mali. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroe. ...


The main and most enduring cultural fault-line in Africa is the divide between traditional pastoralists and agriculturalists. The divide is not, and never was based on economic competition, but rather on the colonial racial policy that identified pastoralists as constituting a different race from agriculturalists, and enforcing a form of apartheid between the two cultures beginning in the 1880s and lasting until the 1960s. Although European colonial powers were largely industrial, many of the administrators and philosophers, whose writings provided rationale for colonialism, applied quasi-scientific eugenics policies and racist politics on Africans in experiments of misguided social engineering. Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... Farmlands in Hebei province, China. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


Most of the racial recategorisation of Africans to fit European stereotypes was contradictory and incoherent. However, because their legalism and laws that emanated from these policies were backed by police force, the scientific establishment and economic power, Africans reacted by either conforming to the new rules, or rejecting them in favour of Pan-Africanism. All across Africa communities and individuals were measured by colonial eugenics boards and reassigned identities and ethnicities based on pseudoscience. The schools taught that in general Africans who resembled Europeans in some physical or cultural aspect were superior to other Africans and deserved more privileges. This caused animosity, incited by other Europeans - socialists and communists - who identified Africans according to dubious classes also modeled on European concerns. Phrenology is regarded today as a classic example of pseudoscience. ...


The easiest way to divide Africans was along economic lines. Pastoralists, agriculturalists, hunter-gatherers and Westernised Africans, all formed distinctly identifiable cultures each of which came to play a different and disfiguring role in Africa's modern politics. The Westernised Africans, specifically Senegalese and Sudanese Nubians from urban centers such as Dakar and Khartoum, were used to serve as the bulk of colonial troops against the rural Africans. Pastoralists were radicalised by the wholesale confiscation of grazing lands in favour of plantations. Agriculturalists came into conflict for land and water with pastoralists after the traditional sharing arrangements had been destroyed by colonial policies.

75,000 year old Nassarius shell beads found in Blombos Cave, South Africa

In addition, a growing body of speculative anthropology and race science made false claims about the superiority and inferiority of Africans with different cultural and economic backgrounds. The vast majority of the scholarship on Africa was extraneous and catered to the demand for exotic and outlandish representations of Africa. The enforcement of the government decrees and policies tended to produce effects that confirmed the prejudices of the European colonialists. Image File history File links Nassarius_shellbeads_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Nassarius_shellbeads_South_Africa. ... Nassarius is a genus of marine molluscs. ... Blombos cave is a cave in a limestone cliff on the Southern Cape coast in South Africa. ... Race science and racial science are phrases that refer to the scientific study of race from a biological, sociobiological, or evolutionary perspective. ...


African art and architecture reflect the diversity of African cultures. The oldest existing examples of art from Africa are 75,000 year old beads made from Nassarius shells that were found in Blombos Cave. The Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt was the world's tallest structure for 4,000 years until the completion of Lincoln Cathedral around 1300. The Ethiopian complex of monolithic churches at Lalibela, of which the Church of St. George is representative, is regarded as another marvel of engineering. Makonde carving c. ... The architecture of Africa, like other aspects of the culture of Africa, is hugely diverse. ... Look up bead in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nassarius is a genus of marine molluscs. ... Blombos cave is a cave in a limestone cliff on the Southern Cape coast in South Africa. ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and the largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa ( ). The oldest and only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World, it is believed to have been constructed over a 20... Norman West front Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... Church of St. ... The Bete Giyorgis, one of the many rock-hewn churches at the holy site of Lalibela, Ethiopia Lalibela is a town in northern Ethiopia. ... St. ...


Music and dance

Main article: Music of Africa

The music of Africa is one of its most dynamic art forms. Egypt has long been a cultural focus of the Arab world, while remembrance of the rhythms of sub-Saharan Africa, in particular west Africa, was transmitted through the Atlantic slave trade to modern samba, blues, jazz, reggae, rap, and rock and roll. Modern music of the continent includes the highly complex choral singing of southern Africa and the dance rhythms of soukous, dominated by the music of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Recent developments include the emergence of African hip hop, in particular a form from Senegal blended with traditional mbalax, and Kwaito, a South African variant of house music. Afrikaans music, also found in South Africa, is idiosyncratic being composed mostly of traditional Boer music, while more recent immigrant communities have introduced the music of their homes to the continent. Hand drumming has a significant role in African music African music is as vast and varied as the continents many nations and ethnic groups, so a general description of African music is not possible. ... Hand drumming has a significant role in African music African music is as vast and varied as the continents many nations and ethnic groups, so a general description of African music is not possible. ... The Atlantic slave trade, started by the Portuguese[1], but soon dominated by the English, was the sale and exploitation of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean from the 15th century to the 19th century. ... Samba is one of the most popular forms of music in Brazil. ... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that typically follows a twelve-bar structure. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... This article needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Hip hop music is a style of popular music. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... // Soukous is a musical genre that originated in the Congos during the 1930s and early 1940s, and which has gained popularity throughout Africa. ... Describing the music of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is difficult, due to vagaries surrounding the meanings of various terms. ... Hip hop music has been popular in Africa since the early 1980s due to widespread American influence. ... Mbalax is a genre of popular music developed in Senegal and Gambia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Boer music is a type of South African instrumental folk music. ...


Indigenous musical and dance traditions of Africa are maintained by oral traditions and they are distinct from the music and dance styles of North Africa and Southern Africa. Arab influences are visible in North African music and dance and in Southern Africa western influences are apparent due to colonisation.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam as well as Shia Islam, Coptic Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze and Ibadi Islam An entry was temporarily removed here. ... For the historic phenomenon of colonization and imperialism, see main article colonialism (and also decolonisation). ...


Many African languages are tone languages, in which pitch level determines the meaning. This also finds expression in African musical melodies and rhythms. A variety of musical instruments are used, including drums (most widely used), bells, musical bow, lute, flute, and trumpet. Tone refers to the use of pitch in language to distinguish words. ... Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin A drum is common considered to be the oldest musical instrument known to man. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... For the device drawn across the strings of string instruments such as the violin to make them sound, see bow (music). ... A medieval era lute. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... For Trumpet Winsock, see Winsock. ...


African dances are important mode of communication and dancers use gestures, masks, costumes, body painting and a number of visual devices. With urbanisation and modernisation, modern African dance and music exhibit influences assimilated from several other cultures. Fang mask used for the ngil ceremony, an inquisitorial search for sorcerers. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Body art by Youri Messen-Jaschin Body painting is a form of body art, considered by some as the most ancient form of art. ... Urbanization is the degree of or increase in urban character or nature. ... Modernization is the process of changing the conditions of a society, an organisation or another group of people in ways that change the privileges of that group according to modern technology or modern knowledge. ...


Legends of Africa

Main article: Legends of Africa

Africa has a wealth of history which is largely unrecorded. A lot of myths, fables and legends abound. // Africa has a wealth of history which is largely unrecorded. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... For a comparison of fable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... Look up Legend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Sports

53 African countries have football teams in the Confederation of African Football, while Cameroon, Senegal, and Ghana have moved beyond the knockout stage of recent FIFA World Cups. South Africa will host the 2010 World Cup tournament, and will be the first African country to do so. The South African rugby team hosted and won the 1995 Rugby World Cup. A number of African nations, especially Ethiopia, Kenya, and Morocco, have fielded numerous world-class long-distance runners such as Abebe Bikila and Cosmas Ndeti. Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The 53 member CAF (Confederation of African Football) , (French : Confédération Africaine de Football) , (Arabic : الإتحاد الأفريقى لكرة القدم) represents international football in Africa, and organises the African Cup of Nations, CAF Confederation Cup and the African Champions League. ... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... The 2010 FIFA World Cup will be the 19th installment of the FIFA World Cup, an international tournament for football, that is scheduled to take place between 11 June and 11 July 2010 in South Africa. ... First international British Isles 4 - 0 South Africa (30 July 1891) Largest win Uruguay 5 - 134 South Africa (11 June 2005) Worst defeat England 53 - 3 South Africa (23 November 2002) World Cup Appearances 3 (First in 1995) Best result Champions, 1995 Springboks redirects here. ... The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup. ... Abebe Bikila (August 7, 1932 - October 25, 1973) was an Ethiopian runner and two time Olympic marathon champion from Ethiopia. ... Cosmas Ndeti (born November 24, 1971) is a three time winner of the Boston Marathon. ...


Religion

See also: African Traditional Religion, Christianity in Africa, Islam in Africa, and Jews and Judaism in Africa

Different Africans profess a wide variety of religious beliefs[28] and it is difficult to conclude accurate statistics about religious demography in Africa as a whole. Estimations from World Book Encyclopedia claim that there are 150 million African Muslims and 130 million African Christians, while Encyclopedia Britannica estimates that approximately 46.5% of all Africans are Christians and another 40.5% are Muslims with roughly 11.8% of Africans following indigenous African religions. A small number of Africans are Hindu or Baha'i, or have beliefs from the Judaic tradition. Examples of African Jews are the Beta Israel, Lemba peoples and the Abayudaya of Eastern Uganda. African traditional women and male priests, Togo, West Africa, 2006. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Approximately 40% of all Africans are Muslims, in contrast to another 40% being Christians and 20% being non-religious or adherents to African religions. ... Since Biblical times, the Jewish people have had close ties with Africa, going back to Abrahams sojourns in Egypt, and later the Israelite captivity under the Pharaohs. ... African traditional women and male priests, Togo, West Africa, 2006. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Since Biblical times, the Jewish people have had close ties with Africa, going back to Abrahams sojourns in Egypt, and later the Israelite captivity under the Pharaohs. ... The Beta Israel (Hebrew: , Geez ቤተ፡ እስራኤል Bēta Isrāēl, Amharic Bēte Isrāēl, from Aramaic for House of Israel), also known by the term Falasha (Amharic for Exiles or Strangers, as they were called by non-Jewish Ethiopians), a term that may be considered pejorative, are Jews of... The Lemba or Lembaa are a group of people numbering 70,000 in southern Africa. ... The Abayudaya (Abayudaya is Luganda for People of Judah[2][3], analogous to Children of Israel) are a Baganda community in eastern Uganda near the town of Mbale, who practice Judaism. ...


The indigenous Sub-Saharan African religions tend to revolve around animism and ancestor worship. A common thread in traditional belief systems was the division of the spiritual world into "helpful" and "harmful". Helpful spirits are usually deemed to include ancestor spirits that help their descendants, and powerful spirits that protect entire communities from natural disaster or attacks from enemies; whereas harmful spirits include the souls of murdered victims who were buried without the proper funeral rites, and spirits used by hostile spirit mediums to cause illness among their enemies. While the effect of these early forms of worship continues to have a profound influence, belief systems have evolved as they interact with other religions. In its most general sense, the term Animism refers to belief in souls (anima is Latin for soul): in this sense, animism is present in many religions, including religions that see souls as completely distinct from their bodies and as limited to humans. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In spirituality, a medium or spirit medium (plural mediums) is an individual who possesses the ability to receive messages from spirits (discorporate entities), or claims that he or she can channel such entities — that is, write or speak in the voice of these entities rather than in the mediums...


The formation of the Old Kingdom of Egypt in the third millennium BCE marked the first known complex religious system on the continent. Around the ninth century BCE, Carthage (in present-day Tunisia) was founded by the Phoenicians, and went on to become a major cosmopolitan center where deities from neighboring Egypt, Rome and the Etruscan city-states were worshipped. Today, many Jewish peoples also live in North Africa, particularly in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – other millennia) Events Foundation of the city of Mari (Syria) (29th century BC ) Creation of the Kingdom of Elam (Iraq) Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the oldest tree still living now Dynasty of... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map showing the extent of the Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ...


The founding of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is traditionally dated to the mid-first century, while the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and the Eritrean Orthodox Church officially date from the fourth century. These are thus some of the first established Christian churches in the world. At first, Christian Orthodoxy made gains in modern-day Sudan and other neighbouring regions. However, after the spread of Islam, growth was slow and restricted to the highlands. Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is one of the Oriental Orthodox churches. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Many Sub-Saharan Africans were converted to Western Christianity during the colonial period. In the last decades of the twentieth century, various sects of Charismatic Christianity rapidly grew. A number of Roman Catholic African bishops were mentioned as possible papal candidates in 2005. African Christians appear to be more socially conservative than their co-religionists in much of the industrialized world, which has quite recently led to tension within denominations such as the Anglican and Methodist Churches. Western Christianity is a form of Christianity that consists of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and Protestantism. ... The charismatic movement began with the adoption of certain beliefs typical of those held by Pentecostal Christians —specifically what are known as the biblical charisms of Christianity: speaking in tongues, prophesying, etc. ... The Pope, (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1], is the Bishop of Rome, the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church and the absolute monarch of Vatican City. ... A religious denomination (also simply denomination) is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... For school of ancient Greek medicine, see Methodism (history of medicine). ...


The African Initiated Churches have experienced significant growth in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. An African Initiated Church is an independent church or religious movement which demonstrates syncretism or partial integration between aspects of Christian belief and African culture. ...


Islam entered Africa as Arab Muslims conquered North Africa between 640 and 710, beginning with Egypt. They settled in Mogadishu, Melinde, Mombasa, Kilwa, and Sofala, following the sea trade down the coast of East Africa, and diffusing through the Sahara desert into the interior of Africa -- following in particular the paths of Muslim traders. Muslims were also among the Asian peoples who later settled in British-ruled Africa. During colonial times, Christianity had success in converting those who followed traditional religions but had very little success in converting Muslims, who took advantage of the urbanization and increase in trade to settle in new areas and spread their faith. As a result, Islam in sub-Saharan Africa probably doubled between 1869 and 1914.[29]  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Islam continued this tremendous growth into the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Today, backed by gulf oil cash, Muslims have increased success in proselytizing, with a growth rate, by some estimates, that is twice as fast as Christianity in Africa.[30]


Territories and regions

The countries in this table are categorised according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations, and data included are per sources in cross-referenced articles. Where they differ, provisos are clearly indicated. The UN geoscheme divides the world into macro regions[1] and subregions, all in alphabetical order. ...

Regions of Africa:      Northern Africa      Western Africa      Middle Africa      Eastern Africa      Southern Africa
Physical map of Africa.
Satellite photo of Africa.
Name of region[31] and
territory, with flag
Area
(km²)
Population
(1 July 2002 est.)
Population density
(per km²)
Capital
Eastern Africa:
Burundi 27,830 6,373,002 229.0 Bujumbura
Comoros 2,170 614,382 283.1 Moroni
Djibouti 23,000 472,810 20.6 Djibouti
Eritrea 121,320 4,465,651 36.8 Asmara
Ethiopia 1,127,127 67,673,031 60.0 Addis Ababa
Kenya 582,650 31,138,735 53.4 Nairobi
Madagascar 587,040 16,473,477 28.1 Antananarivo
Malawi 118,480 10,701,824 90.3 Lilongwe
Mauritius 2,040 1,200,206 588.3 Port Louis
Mayotte (France) 374 170,879 456.9 Mamoudzou
Mozambique 801,590 19,607,519 24.5 Maputo
Réunion (France) 2,512 743,981 296.2 Saint-Denis
Rwanda 26,338 7,398,074 280.9 Kigali
Seychelles 455 80,098 176.0 Victoria
Somalia 637,657 7,753,310 12.2 Mogadishu
Tanzania 945,087 37,187,939 39.3 Dodoma
Uganda 236,040 24,699,073 104.6 Kampala
Zambia 752,614 9,959,037 13.2 Lusaka
Zimbabwe 390,580 11,376,676 29.1 Harare
Middle Africa:
Angola 1,246,700 10,593,171 8.5 Luanda
Cameroon 475,440 16,184,748 34.0 Yaoundé
Central African Republic 622,984 3,642,739 5.8 Bangui
Chad 1,284,000 8,997,237 7.0 N'Djamena
Congo 342,000 2,958,448 8.7 Brazzaville
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,345,410 55,225,478 23.5 Kinshasa
Equatorial Guinea 28,051 498,144 17.8 Malabo
Gabon 267,667 1,233,353 4.6 Libreville
São Tomé and Príncipe 1,001 170,372 170.2 São Tomé
Northern Africa:
Algeria 2,381,740 32,277,942 13.6 Algiers
Egypt[32] 1,001,450 70,712,345 70.6 Cairo
Libya 1,759,540 5,368,585 3.1 Tripoli
Morocco 446,550 31,167,783 69.8 Rabat
Sudan 2,505,810 37,090,298 14.8 Khartoum
Tunisia 163,610 9,815,644 60.0 Tunis
Western Sahara[33] 266,000 256,177 1.0 El Aaiún
European dependencies in Northern Africa:
Canary Islands (Spain)[34] 7,492 1,694,477 226.2 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Ceuta (Spain)[35] 20 71,505 3,575.2
Madeira Islands (Portugal)[36] 797 245,000 307.4 Funchal
Melilla (Spain)[37] 12 66,411 5,534.2
Southern Africa:
Botswana 600,370 1,591,232 2.7 Gaborone
Lesotho 30,355 2,207,954 72.7 Maseru
Namibia 825,418 1,820,916 2.2 Windhoek
South Africa, Suid Afrika, Zuid Africa 1,219,912 43,647,658 35.8 Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Pretoria[38]
Swaziland 17,363 1,123,605 64.7 Mbabane
Western Africa:
Benin 112,620 6,787,625 60.3 Porto-Novo
Burkina Faso 274,200 12,603,185 46.0 Ouagadougou
Cape Verde 4,033 408,760 101.4 Praia
Côte d'Ivoire 322,460 16,804,784 52.1 Abidjan, Yamoussoukro[39]
Gambia 11,300 1,455,842 128.8 Banjul
Ghana 239,460 20,244,154 84.5 Accra
Guinea 245,857 7,775,065 31.6 Conakry
Guinea-Bissau 36,120 1,345,479 37.3 Bissau
Liberia 111,370 3,288,198 29.5 Monrovia
Mali 1,240,000 11,340,480 9.1 Bamako
Mauritania 1,030,700 2,828,858 2.7 Nouakchott
Niger 1,267,000 10,639,744 8.4 Niamey
Nigeria 923,768 129,934,911 140.7 Abuja
Saint Helena (UK) 410 7,317 17.8 Jamestown
Senegal 196,190 10,589,571 54.0 Dakar
Sierra Leone 71,740 5,614,743 78.3 Freetown
Togo 56,785 5,285,501 93.1 Lomé
Total 30,368,609 843,705,143 27.8

Image File history File links Africa-regions. ... Image File history File links Africa-regions. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...  Central Africa  Middle Africa (UN subregion)  Central African Federation (defunct) Central Africa is a core region of the African continent often considered to include: Burundi Central African Republic Chad Democratic Republic of the Congo Rwanda Middle Africa (as used by the United Nations when categorising geographic subregions) is an analogous...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Download high resolution version (552x604, 47 KB)Topography of Africa image description here larger version here Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech File links The following pages link to this file: Africa Geography of Africa Categories: NASA images ... Download high resolution version (552x604, 47 KB)Topography of Africa image description here larger version here Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech File links The following pages link to this file: Africa Geography of Africa Categories: NASA images ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2088x2400, 1467 KB) Summary Satellite Photography of Afirca Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2088x2400, 1467 KB) Summary Satellite Photography of Afirca Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Eastern Africa ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Bujumbura, estimated population 300,000 (1994), is the capital of Burundi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Comoros. ... Moroni is the largest city of the Comores and since 1962 has also been its capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Djibouti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Eritrea. ... Asmara Asmara (formerly Asmera) is the capital city and largest settlement in Eritrea, home to a population of around 579,000 people. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kenya. ... Nairobi (pronounced ) is the capital and largest city of Kenya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Madagascar_(bordered). ... Antananarivo, Madagascar Antananarivo, Madagascar Antanànarìvo (pronounced IPA [æntəˌnænəˈɹiːvoÊŠ] or [ɑːntəˌnɑːnəˈɹiːvoÊŠ]), population 1,403,449 (2001 census), is the capital of Madagascar, in Antananarivo province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malawi. ... Lilongwe, estimated population 597,619 (2003 census), is the capital of Malawi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritius. ... The arms of Port Louis Port Louis banking district, and the main avenue leading to the Government House (seen in the background) Port Louis (pronounced locally as paw-louee) is the capital of Mauritius. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Mamoudzou is the capital of the Mayotte. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mozambique. ... Map of Mozambique with Maputo highlighted Maputo is the capital of Mozambique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Saint-Denis de la Réunion, (or just Saint-Denis or St-Denis for short) is the préfecture (administrative capital) of the French overseas département Réunion. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rwanda. ... Kigali, population 851,024 (2005), is the capital and largest city of Rwanda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Seychelles. ... Victoria Victoria (sometimes called Port Victoria or Mahé) is the capital city of the Seychelles and is situated on the north-eastern side of Mahé island. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ), is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tanzania. ... Dodoma, population 324,347 (2002 census), is the national capital of Tanzania and also the capital of that countrys Dodoma Region. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Kampala is the capital city of Uganda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zambia. ... Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ... Harare (pronounced , formerly Salisbury) is the capital city of Zimbabwe. ...  Central Africa  Middle Africa (UN subregion)  Central African Federation (defunct) Central Africa is a core region of the African continent often considered to include: Burundi Central African Republic Chad Democratic Republic of the Congo Rwanda Middle Africa (as used by the United Nations when categorising geographic subregions) is an analogous... Image File history File links Flag_of_Angola. ... Luanda (formerly called Loanda) is the largest city and capital of Angola. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cameroon. ... View of Yaoundé Yaoundé, «yah oon DAY», estimated population 1,430,000 (2004), is the capital city of Cameroon and second largest city in the country after Douala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ... Bangui is the capital of and the largest city in the Central African Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chad. ... NDjamena, «ehn JAHM uh nuh», population 721,000 (2005), is the capital of Chad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville or, before 1960, also Leopoldstad) is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Equatorial_Guinea. ... Location of Malabo in Equatorial Guinea Malabo is the capital city of Equatorial Guinea, located on the northern coast of Bioko Island (formerly Fernando Póo). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gabon. ... Libreville (population 578,156 January 1, 2005) is the capital and largest city of Gabon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sao_Tome_and_Principe. ... São Tomé (population 53,300 in 2003) is the capital city of São Tomé and Príncipe and is by far the nations largest town. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria_(bordered). ... “Alger” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Libya. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Mausoleum of Mohammed V through mosque ruins NASA image of Rabat Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ), population 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Nickname: The Triangular City Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban Over 1 Million For other uses, see Khartoum (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Western_Sahara. ... El-Aaiún or Laâyoune (Arabic: العيون, transliterated al-`ayÅ«n), is the unofficial capital of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony now mostly controlled and occupied by Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Canary_Islands. ... Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is a Spanish city, the capital city of Gran Canaria which is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean, 210 kilometers located off the northwestern coast of Africa. ... Santa Cruz de Tenerife (2005 population 221,627) is a Spanish city on the island of Tenerife, the largest and most populated of the Canary Islands as stated in the 2005 census. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ceuta. ... Area  â€“ Total   28 km² Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ Density  75,276  2688. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Madeira. ... Location Motto of the autonomous region: Das ilhas, as mais belas e livres (Portuguese: Of the islands, the most beautiful and free) Official language Portuguese Capital Funchal Other towns Porto Santo, Machico, Santa Cruz, Câmara de Lobos, Santana, Ribeira Brava, Caniço Area 797 km² Population  - Total (1991)  - Density... Funchal at night Funchal (pron. ... Image File history File links Melilla. ...  Spain Area  â€“ Total    20 km² (8 mi²) Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ Density  66,871  3,343. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Botswana. ... Satellite image of Gaborone Location of Gaborone in Botswana Gaborone (pron. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lesotho. ... Maseru (also Masero) is the capital of Lesotho. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Namibia. ... Windhoek, Namibia Windhoek (pronounced Vind hook or German «Windhuk») is the capital of Namibia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Bloemfontein at night Bloemfontein (IPA: , Afrikaans and Dutch for fountain of Bloem (bloom) or flower fountain is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Not ranked 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Swaziland. ... Location of Mbabane in Swaziland Mbabane, with an estimated population of 70,000 (2003), is the capital of Swaziland. ... West Africa is the region of western Africa generally considered to include these countries: Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Côte dIvoire (Ivory Coast) Equatorial Guinea Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Chad, Mauritania, and... Image File history File links Flag_of_Benin. ... Porto-Novo, population 179,138 (1992), is the official capital of Benin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burkina_Faso. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cape_Verde. ... Miradouro Diogo Gomes. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cote_d'Ivoire. ... Freeway along the Ébrié Lagoon near the Plateau, Abidjans business district and centre of the city. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_The_Gambia. ... Location of Banjul in The Gambia Street in Banjul city Banjul (formerly Bathurst) is the capital of The Gambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Conakry or Konakry (Malinké: KÉ”nakiri), population 2,000,000 (2002), is the capital of Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea-Bissau. ... Bissau, estimated population 355,000 (2004), is the capital of Guinea-Bissau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liberia. ... For alternate meanings, see Monrovia (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mali. ... View of Bamako Bamako district Bamako, population 1,690,471 (2006), is the capital of Mali, and is the biggest city in the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritania. ... Nouakchott (Arabic: نواكشوط or انواكشوط; population estimate 1999: 881,000) is the capital and by far the largest city of Mauritania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Niger. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria, with an estimated population of 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Helena. ... Jamestown (population c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Senegal. ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sierra_Leone. ... Freetown, population 1,070,200 (2004), is the largest city and capital of Sierra Leone, lying on the Freetown Peninsula on the Atlantic coast. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Togo. ... Lomé, estimated population 700,000 (1998), is the capital of Togo. ...

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Image File history File links Portal. ... The following is an outline of the history of Africa, followed by a list of articles about the history of particular places in Africa. ... It has been suggested that Impact of Slave Trade on Africa be merged into this article or section. ... The African Century is a term that has a variety of meanings. ... The continent of Africa can be conceptually subdivided into a number of regions. ... The Congo craton, covered by the Palaeozoic-to-recent Congo basin, is an ancient Precambrian craton that with four others (the Kaapvaal, Zimbabwe, Tazania, and West African cratons) makes up the modern continent of Africa. ... Flora The vegetation of Africa follows very closely the distribution of heat and moisture. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together Administrative center Largest city Cairo, Egypt Leaders  -  Chairperson John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Membership 53 African states Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st2)  sq mi  Population  -  2005... This is a gallery of national flags of North America. ... This is a list of the countries in Africa in order of Gross domestic product (GDP), Values are given in Billion USDs. ... The Culture of Africa encompasses and includes all cultures which were ever in the continent of Africa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cuisine of Africa reflects indigenous traditions, as well as influences from Arabs, Europeans, and Asians. ... The 53 member CAF (Confederation of African Football) , (French : Confédération Africaine de Football) , (Arabic : الإتحاد الأفريقى لكرة القدم) represents international football in Africa, and organises the African Cup of Nations, CAF Confederation Cup and the African Champions League. ... This is a list of African musicians and musical groups. ... African Writers: This is a list of literary figures from Africa, including poets, novelists, childrens writers, essayists, and scholars. ... // International organisations African Union See also : African Union The first summit of chiefs of state of the African Unions Peace and Security Council was held in Libreville (Gabon) on January 10 and January 11, 2005. ... ... AIDS education at a school in Uganda. ... The situation of human rights in Africa is generally reported to be highly mixed at best, and typically seen as an area of grave concern according to the UN, governmental, and non-governmental observers. ... Afrology wants to be overall a scientific study of the organization of the contemporary social structures of Africa. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Sayre, April Pulley. (1999) Africa, Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-7613-1367-2.
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision" United Nations (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, population division)
  3. ^ Consultos.com etymology
  4. ^ Drysdale, Alasdair & Gerald H. Blake. (1985) The Middle East and North Africa, Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-503538-0.
  5. ^ Lewin, Evans. (1924) Africa, Clarendon press.
  6. ^ a b (1998) Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (Index), Merriam-Webster. pp. 10-11. ISBN 0-87779-546-0.
  7. ^ Hoare, Ben. (2002) The Kingfisher A-Z Encyclopedia, Kingfisher Publications. p. 11. ISBN 0-7534-5569-2.
  8. ^ Kimbel, William H. & Yoel Rak & Donald C. Johanson. (2004) The Skull of Australopithecus Afarensis, Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-515706-0.
  9. ^ Tudge, Colin. (2002) The Variety of Life., Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860426-2.
  10. ^ Sertima, Ivan Van. (1995) Egypt: Child of Africa/S V12 (Ppr), Transaction Publishers. pp. 324-325. ISBN 1-56000-792-3.
  11. ^ Mokhtar, G. (1990) UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. II, Abridged Edition: Ancient Africa, University of California Press. ISBN 0-85255-092-8.
  12. ^ Eyma, A. K. & C. J. Bennett. (2003) Delts-Man in Yebu: Occasional Volume of the Egyptologists' Electronic Forum No. 1, Universal Publishers. p. 210. SBN 1-58112-564-X.
  13. ^ Diamond, Jared. (1999) "Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York:Norton, pp.167.
  14. ^ a b c O'Brien, Patrick K. (General Editor). Oxford Atlas of World History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. pp.22-23
  15. ^ Diamond, Jared. (1999) "Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York:Norton, pp.100.
  16. ^ Diamond, Jared. (1999) "Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York:Norton, pp.126-127.
  17. ^ Martin and O'Meara. "Africa, 3rd Ed." Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1995. http://princetonol.com/groups/iad/lessons/middle/history1.htm#Irontechnology
  18. ^ Hassan, Fekri A. (2002) Droughts, Food and Culture, Springer. p. 17. ISBN 0-306-46755-0.
  19. ^ McGrail, Sean. (2004) Boats of the World, Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-19-927186-0.
  20. ^ Fage, J. D. (1979) The Cambridge History of Africa, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21592-7.
  21. ^ Oliver, Roland & Anthony Atmore. (1994) Africa Since 1800, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42970-6.
  22. ^ Stearns, Peter N. (2001) The Encyclopedia of World History, Houghton Mifflin Books. p. 16. ISBN 0-395-65237-5.
  23. ^ McEvedy, Colin (1980) Atlas of African History, p. 44. ISBN 0-87196-480-5.
  24. ^ Oliver, Roland. (1977) The Cambridge History of Africa, Cambridge University Press. p. 453. ISBN 0-521-20981-1.
  25. ^ Simon, Julian L. (1995) State of Humanity, Blackwell Publishing. p. 175. ISBN 1-55786-585-X.
  26. ^ The Deadliest War In The World
  27. ^ http://hdr.undp.org/
  28. ^ "African Religion on the Internet", Stanford University
  29. ^ Bulliet, Richard, Pamela Crossley, Daniel Headrick, Steven Hirsch, Lyman Johnson, and David Northrup. The Earth and Its Peoples. 3. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. ISBN 0-618-42770-8
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ Continental regions as per UN categorisations/map.
  32. ^ Egypt is generally considered a transcontinental country in Northern Africa (UN region) and Western Asia; population and area figures are for African portion only, west of the Suez Canal.
  33. ^ Western Sahara is disputed between the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, who administer a minority of the territory, and Morocco, who occupy the remainder.
  34. ^ The Spanish Canary Islands, of which Las Palmas de Gran Canaria are Santa Cruz de Tenerife are co-capitals, are often considered part of Northern Africa due to their relative proximity to Morocco and Western Sahara; population and area figures are for 2001.
  35. ^ The Spanish exclave of Ceuta is surrounded on land by Morocco in Northern Africa; population and area figures are for 2001.
  36. ^ The Portuguese Madeira Islands are often considered part of Northern Africa due to their relative proximity to Morocco; population and area figures are for 2001.
  37. ^ The Spanish exclave of Melilla is surrounded on land by Morocco in Northern Africa; population and area figures are for 2001.
  38. ^ Bloemfontein is the judicial capital of South Africa, while Cape Town is its legislative seat, and Pretoria is the country's administrative seat.
  39. ^ Yamoussoukro is the official capital of Côte d'Ivoire, while Abidjan is the de facto seat.

The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University (or simply Stanford), is a private university located approximately 37 miles (60 kilometers) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles northwest of San José in Stanford, California. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 62 KB) Summary Created by User:Ben Arnold from Image:BlankMap-World. ... A transcontinental nation is a country belonging to more than one continent. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Motto: حرية ديمقراطية وحدة (Arabic) Liberty, Democracy, Unity Anthem: Yābaniy Es-Saharā  listen This map indicates the territory claimed by the SADR, viz. ... The Free Zone is in yellow on the map. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... The Moroccan name for Western Sahara. ... Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is a Spanish city, the capital city of Gran Canaria which is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean, 210 kilometers located off the northwestern coast of Africa. ... Santa Cruz de Tenerife (2005 population 221,627) is a Spanish city on the island of Tenerife, the largest and most populated of the Canary Islands as stated in the 2005 census. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Area  â€“ Total   28 km² Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ Density  75,276  2688. ... Location Motto of the autonomous region: Das ilhas, as mais belas e livres (Portuguese: Of the islands, the most beautiful and free) Official language Portuguese Capital Funchal Other towns Porto Santo, Machico, Santa Cruz, Câmara de Lobos, Santana, Ribeira Brava, Caniço Area 797 km² Population  - Total (1991)  - Density... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ...  Spain Area  â€“ Total    20 km² (8 mi²) Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ Density  66,871  3,343. ... Bloemfontein at night Bloemfontein (IPA: , Afrikaans and Dutch for fountain of Bloem (bloom) or flower fountain is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Not ranked 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Freeway along the Ébrié Lagoon near the Plateau, Abidjans business district and centre of the city. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

References

  • "Africa". The Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online. 2005. New York: Columbia University Press.

Bibliography

  • J. Desmond Clark, The Prehistory of Africa, Thames and Hudson, 1970
  • Michael Crowder, The Story of Nigeria, Faber and Faber, London, 1978 (1962)
  • Basil Davidson, The African Past, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1966 (1964)
  • April A. Gordon and Donald L. Gordon ed., Understanding Contemporary Africa, Lynne Riener, London, 1996
  • Vincent B. Khapoya, the African Experience, Pretice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998 (1994)

External links

Find more information on Africa by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
News
  • allAfrica.com current news, events and statistics
  • AfricaFront.com African news articles, African journalists
  • BBC News In Depth - Africa 2005: Time for Change?
  • Yale Economic Review Africa:Failed Economic History
Directories
  • Library of Congress - African & Middle Eastern Reading Room
  • Open Directory Project - Africa directory category
  • Stanford University - Africa South of the Sahara
  • The Index on Africa directory from The Norwegian Council for Africa
Politics
  • Africa Action Africa Action is the oldest organization in the United States working on African affairs. It is a national organization that works for political, economic and social justice in Africa.
  • Commission for Africa
  • African Unification Front
  • Working class history in Africa -- people's and grassroots histories
Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:
Africa
Sports
  • Confederation of African Football; in English and French
Tourism

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