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Encyclopedia > Afrancesado
Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte

Afrancesado (pl. afrancesados; "Francophiles" or "turned-French", "Francisized") was the term used to denote Spanish and Portuguese partisans of Enlightenment ideas, Liberalism, or the French Revolution, who were supporters of the French occupation of Iberia and of the First French Empire. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A Francophile is term given to people with a severe mental illness: its symptoms are a craven attitude towards fighting to preserve what is claimed to be loved, a belief that the French Emprie was and is vastly superior to the British (a falsehood) and an habitual insertion of... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic...

Contents

Spain

Origins

In Spain, the term afrancesado surfaced during the reign of Charles III, and had a neutral meaning, being used to designate those who followed French fashions and customs. Subsequently, it became popular as pejorative reference to those members of the Spanish nobility and bureaucracy who swore allegiance to King Joseph I Bonaparte, and extended to cover a predominantly middle-class intellectual, merchant, and manufacturing environment who saw the French as agents of change in the rigid structure of Spanish society, and who reacted against the perceived corruption and incompetence of Charles IV and the House of Bourbon in general (including Joseph's competitor Ferdinand VII). Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... The Spanish nobility is the system of titles and honours of Spain and of the former kingdoms that constitute it. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... This is a list of Spanish monarchs—that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. ... Joseph Bonaparte Coat of arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain (1808-1813). ... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ... Literati redirects here. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ...


Political program

Appointed King by his brother Napoleon Bonaparte, Joseph found himself at war with the majority of his subjects. He relied on the afrancesados to enforce a project that would gradually replace tradition and absolutism with a system Leandro Fernández de Moratín defined as based on razón, la justicia y el poder ("reason, justice, and power"). Progressive but not entirely liberal, this political creation was soon rejected by both conservatives and liberals (many liberals joined the guerilla against the occupation). The afrancesados were also weary of French designs: more favorable to the Revolution than of the Empire, they aimed to withdraw Spain from the Napoleonic Wars, and tried in vain to prevent Napoleon's separate administration of Spanish provinces (Catalonia, Aragon, Navarre, and Biscay) after 1809. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Biscay (disambiguation). ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Later, they also attempted to negotiate with the anti-French Cortes reunited in Cádiz to maintain as much possible of Joseph's Bayonne laws of 1808 into Ferdinand's 1812 Constitution. Nonetheless, the Cortes voted to confiscate all assets of Joseph's court and of the afrancesados. The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... Confiscation, from the Latin confiscato join to the fiscus, i. ...


Exile

Plaque commemorating Francisco Goya's exile to Bordeaux
Plaque commemorating Francisco Goya's exile to Bordeaux

After Wellington's 1813 campaign and the battle of Vitoria, all of Joseph's court and his collaborators (nobles, soldiers, jurists, writers, journalists, and Roman Catholic clergy alike) took refuge to France with Jean-Baptiste Jourdan's armies. The total estimate of this exile is fluctuating between 4,000 and 12,000 persons at its peak. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 803 KB)Made the picture myself. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 803 KB)Made the picture myself. ... Goya redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... Italic text His Grace Field Marshal the Most Noble Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants French Empire United Kingdom Spain Portugal Commanders Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, Joseph Bonaparte Marquess of Wellington Strength 58,000 80,000 Casualties ~5,000 dead or wounded, 3,000 captured[1] ~5,000 dead or wounded[1] In the Battle of Vitoria (June 21, 1813) Wellington and his Portuguese and... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Jean-Baptiste Jourdan Jean-Baptiste, comte Jourdan (April 29, 1762 – November 23, 1833), was a marshal of France. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ...


Ferdinand broke the terms of his agreement with Napoleon after his return detention at the Château of Valençay (May 4, 1814), and began a campaign of persecution, defining as afrancesados most of those who had not risen in combat against the French: colaboracionistas (servants of French interests), receivers of honors and distinctions handed by king Joseph, co-operating bureaucrats (those who had not resigned their positions during the occupation), or even those who were sought by the French as collaborators but had denied offers. is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The immense number of liberally-minded émigrés alarmed the authorities of the Bourbon Restoration in France, and they began steps to convince the Spanish government to pardon them. This came during the 1820-1823 Spanish Civil War, as an amnesty decreed by liberal Premier Evaristo Pérez de Castro; those that did return had to flee soon after the Quintuple Alliance intervention. On April 21, 1832, France ordered them to solve their highly problematic stateless condition by either settling in the country or leaving its territory. Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of France and Navarre  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X  - 1830 Louis XIX  - 1830 Henri V Legislature Parliament History  - Louis XVIII restored 6 April, 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... Other meaning: Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) The Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823 was fought in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The following is the list of those who have served as President of the Government of Spain. ... The Quintuple Alliance came into being at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818, when France joined the Quadruple Alliance created by Russia, Austria, Prussia and Britain to uphold the European peace settlement concluded at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A stateless person is someone with no citizenship or nationality. ...


Notable Spanish afrancesados

Fernando Sor Fernando Sor (baptized Joseph Fernando Macari Sors or José Fernando Macarurio Sors February 14, 1778 – July 10, 1839) was a Spanish guitarist and composer, born in Barcelona. ... Francisco Javier de Burgos y del Olmo (October 22, 1778, Motril—January 22, 1849, Madrid) was a Spanish jurist, politician, journalist, and translator. ... François Cabarrus (1752-1810) was a French adventurer and Spanish financier. ... José Antonio Conde (1766-1820), Spanish Orientalist, was born at Peraleja (Cuenca) on 28 October 1766, and was educated at the university of Alcalá. His translation of Anacreon (1791) obtained him a post in the royal library in 1795, and in 1796-1797 he published paraphrases from Theocritus, Bion, Moschus... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... Goya redirects here. ... Alberto Lista y Aragón (October 15, 1775 - October 5, 1848), Spanish poet and educationalist, was born at Seville. ... Juan Antonio Llorente (born March 30, 1756 in Rincon de Soto (La Rioja), Spain; died February 5, 1823 in Madrid) was a Spanish historian. ... José Marchena Ruiz de Castro (November 18, 1768–c. ... Francisco Xavier Martinez Marina (1754 - 1833) was a noted Spanish jurist, historian and priest. ... Juan Meléndez Valdés (11 March 1754 - 24 May 1817) was a Spanish poet. ... Manuel José Quintana (April 11, 1772 - March 11, 1857), poet and man of letters, was born at Madrid, Spain. ...

Portugal

Main article: Revolution of Porto

The term afrancesado in Portugal is connected with liberal politicians who organized the Revolution of Porto, begun on August 25, 1820. Demanding the rule of law as opposed to William Carr Beresford's arbitrary regime of British occupation, calling for the return of King John VI - who had preferred to remain in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), where he had fled during the French invasion. is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford (October 2, 1768 – January 8, 1854), British soldier and politician. ... This is a list of Portuguese monarchs dating from the independence of Portugal from the kingdom of León in 1128 under Afonso Henriques, who proclaimed himself King in 1139, to the proclamation of the Portuguese Republic on October 5, 1910, during the reign of Manuel II, the Patriot, or... John VI, King of Portugal (13 May 1767 – 26 March 1826) KG KGF (Portuguese João, pron. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ...


French influence, already present during the War of the Oranges, had familiarized the afrancesado elite with principles such as the separation of powers and parliamentarianism, which they demanded to have enforced in Portugal. The War of the Oranges was a brief conflict in 1801 in which France and Spain fought against Portugal. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ...


References

  • Miguel Artola, Los afrancesados, Madrid, 1989
  • Juan Arzadun, Fernando VII y su tiempo, Madrid, 1942
  • Juan López Tabar, Los Famosos Traidores. Los afrancesados durante la crisis del Antiguo Régimen (1808-1833), Madrid, 2002

  Results from FactBites:
 
Translation and Intercultural Studies (1183 words)
1820 Francisco Javier de Burgos, an afrancesado, publishes his translation of Horace, in which the text is made more noble and acceptable through omissions and substitutions.
During the liberal "trienio" from 1820 to 1823 he is editor of the Madrid periodical El Imparcial, which publishes most of the afrancesados then in Spain.
1826 Juan María Maury, an afrancesado in Paris, publishes Espagne poétique, a bilingual anthology of Castilian poetry from the 16th to the 19th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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