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Encyclopedia > Afghan Northern Alliance

The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. After the overthrow of the Taliban government by the USA, Afghanistan had a UN recognized government led by Burhanuddin Rabbani. When it was dislodged from the capital, Kabul, it continued leading the war against the Taliban from the northern mountains of the country. The then Afghan government adopted a political strategy to unite all warring factions that did not recognize the government under the banner of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan to fight off their common enemy, the Taliban regime that had taken power in Afghanistan. They fought against the Taliban control that had expanded from Kandahar in 1994 to capture most of Afghanistan by September 2001. UIFSA was headquartered in Panjshir. Taliban and the three countries that had recognized their regime, Pakistan, UAE and the Saudi Arabia referred to the UIF as NA Northern Alliance in order to belittle it. The media has preferred to use NA because they did not want their people to know that the US/UK governments were siding with the Former Mujahedin who were also Moslem fundamentalists. To date the US backed government has not been able to get rid of these former Mujahedin from the government. It was the influence of these Fundamentalist Mujahedin that shaped the Afghan constitution into a modern Islamic constitution with Sharia Law as the central pillar of it. Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Burhanuddin Rabbani (برهان الدين رباني) (born 1940), an ethnic Tajik, is a former President of Afghanistan and was political leader of the Northern Alliance of Afghanistan. ... A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (34°32′N 69°10′E, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Afgan Northern Alliance. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... For the 2001 movie by Mohsen Makhmalbaf, see Kandahar (film). ... 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events: September 4 - Google Inc. ... Panjshir province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Northern Alliance may refer to: NATO The Afghan Northern Alliance The white supremacist group of Canada The Northern Alliance Radio Network of conservative bloggers This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Contents


Factions

The UIF was comprised of roughly five of the factions of mujahedin fighters. Iran and Turkey considered there to be seven factions in total. These groups are: Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ...

  • Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan - Hizb-I Wahdat-I Islami-yi Afghanistan - Made up of Shia Hazaras, once led by the martyred Abdul Ali Mazari, supported by Iran

Many members are ethnic Tajiks (which may be a factor in Tajikistan and Iran's willingness to help the United States in the conflict), Uzbeks and Hazaras - ethnic minorities in Afghanistan. The factions in the Front consist of members from the former mujahedin, others from different minority groups and remnants of the former Soviet-backed communist government. The Islamic Party of Afghanistan (Hezb-i-Islami Afghanistan) is a political party in Afghanistan. ... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia... The Tajiks are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Pakistan, and the Xinjiang province of China. ... Burhanuddin Rabbani (برهان الدين رباني) (born 1940), an ethnic Tajik, is a former President of Afghanistan and was political leader of the Northern Alliance of Afghanistan. ... Ahmed Shah Masood (احمد شاه مسعود) (c. ... Hizb-e-Wahdat is a political party in Afghanistan (also referred to as the Wahdat, Unity), informally representing the Hazara people of the region. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Hazara ethnic group resides mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat. They make up anywhere between 9-20% of Afghanistans population, but an accurate census has not been taken in decades so there is little information to verify at present. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for their convictions or religious faith, such as during the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire. ... Abdul Ali Mazari was born 1946 in the village of Charkint, south of the city of Mizar-i-Shrief, in northern Afghanistan, into a Hazara family. ... The National Islamic Movement of Afghanistan (Jumbish-i-Milli Islami Afghanistan ) is a political party in Afghanistan. ... General Abdul Rashid Dostum (also Abdurrashid Dostum, born 1954) is the Deputy Defense Minister of Afghanistan and an ethnic Uzbek warlord. ... Islamic Movement of Afghanistan (Harakat-i-Islami-yi Afghanistan) is a political party and former faction of the Northern Alliance (United Front) in Afghanistan. ... Small Shiah, mostly Hazara group from Hazarajat in Kandahar. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Persian Ayatollah, strictly Ayætollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آيت‌الله) is a high rank given to major Shīˤa clerics. ... Ayatollah Muhammad Asif Muhsini (Sheik Muhsini) is the founder of the Islamic Movement of Afghanistan (Harakat-I Islami-yi Afghanistan). ... Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan (Ittihad-I Islami Bara-yi Azadi) is a political party and a former faction of the Northern Alliance (United Front). ... Abdul Rasul Sayyaf is a political leader in Afghanistan. ... The Tajiks are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Pakistan, and the Xinjiang province of China. ... The Hazara ethnic group resides mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat. They make up anywhere between 9-20% of Afghanistans population, but an accurate census has not been taken in decades so there is little information to verify at present. ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


The UIF enjoyed support from many countries with political and idealogical interests in Afghanistan. The Taliban were close to Pakistan, UAE and Saudi Arabia until the September 11, 2001 attacks. This support waned in the wake of the American threats to impose economic sanctions and carry out military retaliation against sympathizers of Taliban. UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... The huge plume of smoke and fire seen coming from the North Tower. ...


United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan

United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan was supported by Russian, Indian, Iranian, Tajik, Chinese and European governments. Their military leader was Ahmed Shah Massoud, who largely operated from Tajikistan and Panjshir, until his assassination on September 9, 2001. UIF controls provinces like Badakshan, Kapisa, Takhar and parts of Parwan, Kunar, Nuristan, Laghmaan, Samangan, Qunduz, Ghor and Bamian. Almost all of these provinces are non Pushtun. The UIF fought the Taliban for several years before defeating them in November 2001. Their victory was largely a result of a United States led bombing and special forces campaign in support of UIF ground troops. Ahmed Shah Masood (احمد شاه مسعود) (c. ...


The UIF consists of former Mujahideen groups. The most famous commanders in the UIF are Ahmed Shah Massoud, Barhanuddin Rabani, Abdul Rashid Dostum, Karim Khalili, Sayyaf, Ismael Khan, and a little bit by Engineer Gulbudin Hekmatyar.


They currently do not have as much power as in the past because they have been partially disarmed. In May 2005 more than 60% of the militiamen from the UIF were disarmed by United Nations troops and the Afghan National Army. Hamid Kazai said he would disarm all militias and form a 70,000 strong Afghan Army by 2007. Hamid Karzai promised the people of Afghanistan that he would bring criminal commanders into justice.


Hamid Karzai also announced in 2005 that now the Afghan Army is strong enough to defend their homeland from any kind of foreign involvement in Afghanistan's internal affairs.


History

The mujahedin predecessors of the UIF forces previously showed themselves unable to rule effectively, turning on each other after they took control in Kabul in 1992 from the Soviet-backed regime. This bloody feuding between forces loyal to President Burhanuddin Rabbani and rival factions ultimately cleared the way for the Taliban conquest in 1996. Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (34°32′N 69°10′E, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Burhanuddin Rabbani (برهان الدين رباني) (born 1940), an ethnic Tajik, is a former President of Afghanistan and was political leader of the Northern Alliance of Afghanistan. ...


Three ethnic groups dominated the UIF, the Tajiks, who make up 27% of Afghanistan's population and are the second largest ethnic group, and the Hazara and the Uzbeks, who both make up about 9% of the population. From the Taliban conquest 1996 until November 2001 the UIF controlled roughly 30% of Afghanistan's population. The Tajiks are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Pakistan, and the Xinjiang province of China. ... The Hazara ethnic group resides mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat. They make up anywhere between 9-20% of Afghanistans population, but an accurate census has not been taken in decades so there is little information to verify at present. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...


The political leader of the alliance was Burhanuddin Rabbani, however he was little more than a figurehead for the military commmanders. Ahmed Shah Massoud served as the UIF's Minister of Defence and was by far its most visible and powerful figure. He personnally commanded around 10,000 of the UIF's estimated 40,000 troops. Massoud's troops were also the best trained and best equipped that the UIF had. Several other important military leaders controlled different factions within the alliance, including Abdul Rashid Dostum, General Mohammed Fahim, and Ismail Khan. Burhanuddin Rabbani (برهان الدين رباني) (born 1940), an ethnic Tajik, is a former President of Afghanistan and was political leader of the Northern Alliance of Afghanistan. ... Ahmed Shah Masood (احمد شاه مسعود) (c. ... General Abdul Rashid Dostum (also Abdurrashid Dostum, born 1954) is the Deputy Defense Minister of Afghanistan and an ethnic Uzbek warlord. ... Mohammad Qasim Fahim (محمد قسيم فهيم) was the defense minister of the Afghan Transitional Administration, beginning in 2002. ... Ismail Khan (b. ...


On September 13, 2001 it was confirmed that the Ahmed Shah Massoud had died, following an attack by Al-Qaeda assassins posing as journalists four days earlier on September 9. Mohammed Fahim, the second ranking Tajik commander succeeded Massoud a few days later. September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Ahmed Shah Masood (احمد شاه مسعود) (c. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... Mohammad Qasim Fahim (محمد قسيم فهيم) was the defense minister of the Afghan Transitional Administration, beginning in 2002. ...


In November and December of 2001, the UIF was successful in advancing to control much of the country, including the capital Kabul. This was facilitated by extensive bombing of Taliban forces and military infrastructure by the United States during the U.S.-led attack on Afghanistan. Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (34°32′N 69°10′E, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... (Redirected from 2001 U.S. Attack on Afghanistan) The United States, with support from the United Kingdom, Australia and the Northern Alliance, Afghanistan in October 2001 as part of its War on Terrorism campaign. ...


The UIF's predecessors were responsible for brutal excesses during the factional civil strife that raged before the Taliban took over most of the country in 1996. Since coming to power, the Northern Alliance have followed an anti-Pakistan, pro-India foreign policy.


External links

  • Unlikely U.S. allies in Afghanistan Anti-Taliban coalition is motley band with shady past, San Francisco Chronicle, 9/27/2001
  • Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan images of Northern Alliance atrocities
  • Amir Butler: Who are the Northern Alliance?

  Results from FactBites:
 
Afghan Northern Alliance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1120 words)
The Northern Alliance is a term used by Al-Qaeda, Taliban and their allies to identify their enemies in Afghanistan.
When it was dislodged from the capital, Kabul, it continued leading the war against the Taliban from the northern mountains of the country.
The then Afghan government adopted a political strategy to unite all warring factions that did not recognize the government under the banner of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan to fight off their common enemy, the Taliban regime that had taken power in Afghanistan.
Guardian Unlimited | Special reports | Northern Alliance enters Kabul (449 words)
The Northern Alliance said the soldiers were in fact advance units of its police force.
Before the final push Northern Alliance spokesman Bismillah Khan said: "We are at the gate of Kabul." The US had pressed for the alliance to stay out of Kabul to allow time for a coalition government including members of the southern-based Pashtun tribe to be formed.
The country is now effectively partitioned, with the alliance in control of the north and the Taliban dug in in the south.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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