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Encyclopedia > Afgan Northern Alliance

The Northern Alliance (who prefer the title United Front) were a group of factions who had the common goal of toppling the Taliban regime that was formerly in power in Afghanistan. They fought against the Taliban control that had expanded from Kandahar in 1994 to capture most of Afghanistan by September 2001. The Northern Alliance was headquartered in Mazar-i-Sharif. The Taliban (Pashtun and Persian: طالبان; students), also transliterated as Taleban, is an Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement which ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, despite having diplomatic recognition from only three countries: the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia. ... For the hamlet in Saskatchewan, Canada; see Kandahar, Saskatchewan. ... Mazār-e Sharīf, also known as Mazar-e-Sharif, Mazar-i Sharif and Mazar-i-Sharif (in Persian مزار شریف), is a city in northern Afghanistan and the capital of Balkh province. ...


Factions

The Northern Alliance was comprised of roughly five of the factions of mujahedin fighters. Iran and Turkey considered there to be seven factions in total, including the Taliban. These groups are: Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... The Taliban (Pashtun and Persian: طالبان; students), also transliterated as Taleban, is an Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement which ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, despite having diplomatic recognition from only three countries: the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia. ...

  • Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan - Hizb-I Wahdat-I Islami-yi Afghanistan - Made up of Shia Hazaras, led by the martyred Abdul Ali Mazari, supported by Iran

Many members are ethnic Tajiks (which may be a factor in Tajikistan's willingness to help the United States in the conflict), Uzbeks and Hazaras - ethnic minorities in Afghanistan. The factions in the Alliance consist of members from the former mujahedin, others from different minority groups and remnants of the former Soviet-backed communist government. The Islamic Party of Afghanistan (Hezb-i-Islami Afghanistan) is a political party in Afghanistan. ... The Tajiks are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan. ... Farsi can refer to: Persian: Farsi is the native name for the Persian language spoken in Iran (Persia), Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and some other parts of the Caucasus and Central Asia (Ossetians speak Ossetic which is a branch of Persian). ... Burhanuddin Rabbani (born 1940), an ethnic Tajik, is the political leader of the Northern Alliance of Afghanistan. ... Ahmed Shah Massoud Ahmed Shah Massoud (احمد شاه مسعود) (c. ... Hizb-e-Wahdat is a political party in Afghanistan (also referred to as the Wahdat, Unity), informally representing the Hazara people of the region. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Hazara ethnic group resides mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat. They make approximately 20% of Afghanistans population. ... Abdul Ali Mazari was born 1946 in the village of Charkint, south of the city of Mizar-i-Shrief, in northern Afghanistan, into a Hazara family. ... The National Islamic Movement of Afghanistan (Jumbish-i-Milli Islami Afghanistan ) is a political party in Afghanistan. ... General Abdul Rashid Dostum (also Abdurrashid Dostum, born 1954) is the Deputy Defense Minister of Afghanistan and an Uzbek warlord. ... Islamic Movement of Afghanistan (Harakat-i-Islami-yi Afghanistan) is a political party and former faction of the Northern Alliance (United Front) in Afghanistan. ... Small Shiah, mostly Hazara group from Hazarajat in Kandahar. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آیت‌الله) is a high title given to major Shia clergymen. ... Ayatollah Muhammad Asif Muhsini (Sheik Muhsini) is the founder of the Islamic Movement of Afghanistan (Harakat-I Islami-yi Afghanistan). ... Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan (Ittihad-I Islami Bara-yi Azadi) is a political party and a former faction of the Northern Alliance (United Front). ... Abdul Rasul Sayyaf is a political leader in Afghanistan. ... The Tajiks are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan. ... The Hazara ethnic group resides mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat. They make approximately 20% of Afghanistans population. ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: (СССР)   listen?; tr. ... This article is about communism as a form of society built around a gift economy, as an ideology that advocates that form of society, and as a popular movement. ...


The Northern Alliance enjoyed support from India, while the Taliban were close to Pakistan until the September 11, 2001 attacks when Pakistan backed off due to pressure and the hope of debt relief. The September 11, 2001, attacks were a series of coordinated attacks carried out in the United States on Tuesday, September 11, 2001. ...


History

The mujahedin predecessors of the Northern Alliance forces previously showed themselves unable to rule effectively, however, turning on each other after they took control in Kabul in 1992 from the Soviet-backed regime. This bloody feuding between forces loyal to President Burhanuddin Rabbani and rival factions ultimately cleared the way for the Taliban conquest in 1996. Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Kabul (34°32′ N 69°10′ E, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Burhanuddin Rabbani (born 1940), an ethnic Tajik, is the political leader of the Northern Alliance of Afghanistan. ...


The political leader of the alliance is Burhanuddin Rabbani. Several important military leaders controlled different factions within the alliance, including Abdul Rashid Dostum, General Mohammed Fahim, and Ismail Khan. Ahmed Shah Massoud had been the main military leader and an important political figure in the alliance until his death, which was publicly confirmed on September 13, 2001, following an attack by assassins four days earlier on September 9. Burhanuddin Rabbani (born 1940), an ethnic Tajik, is the political leader of the Northern Alliance of Afghanistan. ... General Abdul Rashid Dostum (also Abdurrashid Dostum, born 1954) is the Deputy Defense Minister of Afghanistan and an Uzbek warlord. ... Mohammad Qasim Fahim (محمد قسيم فهيم) was the defense minister of the Afghan Transitional Administration, beginning in 2002. ... Ismail Khan (b. ... Ahmed Shah Massoud Ahmed Shah Massoud (احمد شاه مسعود) (c. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ...


In November and December of 2001, the Northern Alliance was successful in advancing to control much of the country, including the capital Kabul. This was facilitated by extensive bombing of Taliban forces and military infrastructure by the United States during the U.S.-led attack on Afghanistan. November is the eleventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with the length of 30 days. ... December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kabul (34°32′ N 69°10′ E, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... (Redirected from 2001 U.S. Attack on Afghanistan) The United States, with support from the United Kingdom, Australia and the Northern Alliance, Afghanistan in October 2001 as part of its War on Terrorism campaign. ...


Human rights groups say the Northern Alliance's predecessors were responsible for brutal excesses during the factional civil strife that raged before the Taliban took over most of the country in 1996.


External links

  • Unlikely U.S. allies in Afghanistan Anti-Taliban coalition is motley band with shady past, San Francisco Chronicle, 9/27/2001
  • Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan images of Northern Alliance atrocities
  • Amir Butler: Who are the Northern Alliance?

 
 

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