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Encyclopedia > Affricate consonant
Manners of articulation
Obstruent
Click
Plosive
Ejective
Implosive
Affricate
Fricative
Sibilant
Sonorant
Nasal
Flaps/Tap
Trill
Approximant
Liquid
Vowel
Semivowel
Lateral
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Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as [t] or [d]) but release as a fricative (such as [s] or [z] or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... A sibilant is a type of fricative or affricate, made by directing a jet of air through a narrow channel towards the sharp edge of the teeth. ... In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides) are vowels that function phonemically as consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ...

Contents

Samples

The English sounds spelled "ch" and "j" (transcribed [tʃ] and [dʒ] in IPA), German and Italian z [ts] and Italian z [dz] are typical affricates. These sounds are fairly common in the world's languages, as are other affricates with similar sounds, such as those in Polish and Chinese. However, other than [dʒ], voiced affricates are relatively uncommon. For several places of articulation they aren't attested at all. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ...


Much less common are e.g. labiodental affricates, such as [p͡f] in German, or velar affricates, such as [k͡x] in Tswana (written kg) or High Alemannic Swiss German dialects (depending on the dialect also uvular [q͡χ]). Worldwide, only a few languages have affricates in these positions, even though the corresponding stop consonants are virtually universal. Also less common are alveolar affricates where the fricative is lateral, such as the [tɬ] sound found in Nahuatl and Totonac. Many Athabaskan languages (such as Dene Suline and Navajo) have series of coronal affricates which may be unaspirated, aspirated, or ejective in addition to being interdental/dental, alveolar, postalveolar, or lateral, i.e. [t̪͡θ], [t̪͡θʰ], [t̪͡θ’], [ts], [tsʰ], [ts’], [tʃ], [tʃʰ], [tʃ’], [tɬ], [tɬʰ], and [tɬ’]. Affricates may also be contrasted by palatalization, as in the Erzya language, where voiceless alveolar, postalveolar and palatal affricates are contrasted. Affricates may also have phonemic length, that is, affected by a chroneme, as in Karelian. In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Tswana, also known as Setswana, is a Bantu language. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Nahuatl is a native language of central Mexico. ... The Totonacan Languages are a family of closely-related languages spoken by approximately 200,000 speakers in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo in Mexico. ... Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, and of their language family. ... Dene Suline (also Dëne Sųłiné, Dene Sųłiné, Chipewyan, Dene Suliné, Dëne Suliné, Dene Soun’liné) is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of central Canada (parts of Alberta, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan) and is also called Dene. ... Reading Adahooniigii — The Navajo Language Monthly Navajo or Navaho (native name: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken in the southwest United States by the Navajo people (Diné). It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages (the majority of Athabaskan languages are spoken... Erzyan (Эрзянь Кель (Erzjanj Kelj)) is spoken in the northern and eastern parts of the republic of Mordovia and adjacent Nizhniy Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia. ... In spoken language, a chroneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words by duration only of a vowel or consonant. ... The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily mutually intelligible. ...


Notation

Affricates are often represented by the two sounds they consist of (e.g. [pF], [kx]). However, single signs for the affricates may be desirable, in order to stress that they function as unitary speech segments (i.e. as phonemes). In this case, the IPA recommends joining the two elements of the affricate by a tie bar (e.g. [p͡f], [k͡x]). Ligatures are available in Unicode for the six common affricates [ʦ], [ʣ], [ʧ], [ʤ], [ʨ], and [ʥ]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ...


Another method is to indicate the release of the affricate with a superscript: [tˢ], [kˣ]. This is derived from the IPA convention of indicating other releases with a superscript.


In other phonetic transcription systems, such as the Americanist system, the affricates [ts], [dz], [tʃ], [dʒ], [tɬ], and [dɮ] are represented as <c> or <¢>; <j>, <ƶ>, or (older) <ʒ>; <c> or <č>; <ǰ>, <ǧ>, or (older) <ǯ>; <ƛ>; and <λ> or <dl> respectively. Within the IPA, [tʃ] and [dʒ] are sometimes transcribed as palatal stops, <c> and <ɟ>. Americanist phonetic notation (also Americanist Phonetic Alphabet, American Phonetic Alphabet, sometimes abbreviated APA) is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and Euro-American anthropologists and language scientists (former Neo-grammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of Native American and European languages. ...


Affricates vs. stop-fricative sequences

Affricates can contrast with stop-fricative sequences. Examples include:

Polish: [t͡ʃ] in czysta 'clean (f.)'   vs.   [tʃ] in trzysta 'three hundred',

and In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ...

Klallam: [t͡s] in k’ʷə́nc 'look at me'   vs.   [ts] in k’ʷə́nts 'he looks at it'.

The difference is that in the stop-fricative sequence, the stop has a release of its own before the fricative starts, but in the affricate, the fricative element is the release. Stop-fricative sequences may have a syllable boundary between the two segments. Klallam (also Clallam) is a Straits Salishan language natively called , spoken by Klallam peoples. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ...


Affricates and stop-fricative sequences are also distinguished phonemically. In English, [ts] and [dz] (as in nuts and nods) are considered to be sequences of a stop phoneme and a fricative phoneme even though they are phonetically affricates, because they may have a morpheme boundary in them (e.g. nuts is nut + s). The real English affricate phonemes /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ cannot have a morpheme boundary, and in order to show that they are not sequences of phonemes, some notation systems use <č> and <ǰ> to represent these two affricates (though this is not considered standard IPA notation). In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ...


List of affricates

In the case of coronals, the symbols <t, d> are normally used for the stop portion of the affricate regardless of place. For example, [t͡ʂ] is commonly seen for [ʈ͡ʂ]. For legibility, the tie bars have been removed from the table entries.


The exemplar languages are ones that these sounds have been reported from, but in several cases they may need confirmation.


Sibilant affricates

The voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The Lombards or Longobards or Langobards were the Germanic tribe who gave their name to Lombardy, an administrative entity in Northern Italy. ... The Kiche language (Quiché in Spanish) is a part of the Mayan language family. ... The voiced alveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The Lombards or Longobards or Langobards were the Germanic tribe who gave their name to Lombardy, an administrative entity in Northern Italy. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pushtoo, Pathan, or Afghan language) is an Iranian language of the Indo-Iranian language family spoken by Pashtuns living in southeastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The voiced postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... The voiced alveolo-palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs everywhere. ... The voiceless retroflex affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The voiced retroflex affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

Non-sibilant affricates

Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavonic. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area. ... Liverpool skyline. ... A voiceless labiodental affricate ( in IPA) is a rare consonant, which is initially articulated as a plosive, but is released as a voiceless labiodental fricative . ... A voiceless labiodental affricate ( in IPA) is a rare consonant, which is initially articulated as a plosive, but is released as a voiceless labiodental fricative . ... The Tsonga or Xitsonga language is spoken in southern Africa by the Tsonga people, also known as the Shangaan. ... Luo (also known als Dholuo) is a Western Nilotic language spoken by the Luo people, numbering about 3 million. ... Dene Suline (also Dëne Sųłiné, Dene Sųłiné, Chipewyan, Dene Suliné, Dëne Suliné, Dene Soun’liné) is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of central Canada (parts of Alberta, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan) and is also called Dene. ... A business sign in Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over two million people, mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Mapudungun is an Araucanian language spoken in Chile and Argentina by the Mapuche people. ... Skolt Sami (Sää´mǩiõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ... Tswana, also known as Setswana, is a Bantu language. ... High Alemannic is a branch of Alemannic dialects and belongs to the German language, even though they are only partly intelligible to German speakers. ... Nez Percé is a Sahaptian language related to the several dialects of Sahaptin (note the spellings, -ian vs. ... Wolof is a language spoken in Senegal, the Gambia, and Mauritania, and it is the native language of the ethnic group of the Wolof people. ... The Kabardian language is closely related to the Adyghe language (see Adyghe), both members of the Northwest Caucasian language family, mainly spoken in Kabardino-Balkar Republic and Karachay-Cherkess Republic of Russia (the native territories) and in Turkey and the Middle East (the residence of the extensive post-war diaspora). ...

Lateral affricates

  • Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate [tɬ] (in Navaho, etc.)
  • Voiced alveolar lateral affricate [dɮ] (not reported to ever contrast with [ɮ])
  • Voiceless palatal lateral affricate [cʎ̥ʼ] (as ejective [cʎ̥ʼ] in Dahalo; as [tʎ̥] in Hadza)
  • Voiceless velar lateral affricate [kʟ̝̊] (as ejective [kʟ̝̊ʼ] in Zulu)

The voiceless alveolar lateral affricate is a common sound in the languages of western North America. ... Navajo (Diné bizaad) (occasionally spelled Navaho) is a Southern Athabaskan or Apachean language of the Athabaskan language family, belonging to the Na-Dené phylum. ... Dahalo is an endangered South Cushitic language spoken by about 400 people in Kenya. ... Hadza is a language of Tanzania. ... Zulu (isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ...

Trilled affricates

The bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Kele is spoken in the easterly section of inland Manus Island, New Guinea. ... The voiceless alveolar bilabially trilled affricate, (occasionally written tp), is one of the worlds rarest sounds. ... The Wari’ language is the sole remaining vibrant language of the Chapacuran language family of the Brazilian-Bolivian border region of the Amazon. ... Ngkoth is an Australian Aboriginal language of Queensland. ... Mapudungun is an Araucanian language spoken in Chile and Argentina by the Mapuche people. ...

Other Affricates

The more common of the voiceless affricates are all attested as ejectives as well: [tθ’, ts’, tɬ’, tʃ’, tɕ’, tʂ’, cʎ̥ʼ, kx’, kʟ̝̊’]. Mayan K'iche' uses the ejective alveolar ts’. Several Khoisan languages such as !Xóõ are reported to have voiced ejective affricates, but these are actually consonant clusters: [dts’, dtʃ’]. Affricates are also commonly aspirated: [m̪p̪fʰ, tθʰ, tsʰ, tɬʰ, tʃʰ, tɕʰ, tʂʰ], occasionally murmured: [m̪b̪vʱ, d̠ʒʱ], and sometimes prenasalized: [ndz, ndzʰ, ɳɖʐ, ɳɖʐʰ]. Labialized, palatalized, velarized, and pharyngealized affricates also occur. Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... The Kiche language (Quiché in Spanish) is a part of the Mayan language family. ... !Xóõ is a Khoisan language with a very large number of phonemes, the most of any known language. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... Prenasalized stops are phonetic sequences of nasal plus plosive that behave phonologically like single consonant. ... Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of phonemes in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ...


Citations

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See also


 
 

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