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Encyclopedia > Affix
Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a base morpheme such as a root or to a stem, to form a word. Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a Wikimedia Foundation project intended to be a free wiki dictionary (hence: Wiktionary) (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... This article is in need of attention. ... In linguistics, derivation is the process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. ... Inflection or inflexion refers to a modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) so that it reflects grammatical (i. ...

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Types of affixes

Affixes are divided into several types, depending on their position with reference to the root:

  • Prefixes (attached before another morpheme)
  • Suffixes (attached after another morpheme)
  • Infixes (inserted within another morpheme)
  • Circumfixes (attached before and after another morpheme or set of morphemes)
  • Interfixes (semantically empty linking elements in compounds)
  • Suprafixes (also superfix, attached suprasegmentally to another morpheme)
  • Simulfixes (also transfix or root-and-pattern morphology, discontinuous affix interweaved throughout a discontinuous base)
  • Duplifix (little used term referring to affix composed of both a reduplicated and non-reduplicated element, see Reduplication and other processes)

Affixes are bound morphemes by definition. Prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes. In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... Suffix has meanings in linguistics, nomenclature and computer science. ... Infix has similar meanings in linguistics and mathematics. ... A circumfix or circumflection is an affix, a morpheme which is placed around another morpheme. ... In linguistics, a suprafix is a type of affix where a suprasegmental change (such as tone or stress) modifies an existing morphemes meaning. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation and vocal stress in speech. ... In linguistics, a simulfix is a type of affix that changes one or more existing phonemes in order to modify the meaning of a morpheme. ... Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ... Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ... Bound morphemes can only occur when attached to root morphemes. ... A separable affix is an affix that can be detached from the word it attaches to and located elsewhere in the sentence in a certain situation. ...


There also has been a proposal of a somewhat different type of affix, a disfix or subtractive morpheme, which subtracts phonological segments from bases.


Affixes are central to the process of concatenation. In formal language theory (and therefore in programming languages), concatenation is the operation of joining two character strings end to end. ...

affix example
prefix undo
prefix + root
suffix looking
root + suffix
infix 1 fanfreakingtastic
ro- + infix + -ot
circumfix Kabyle: θissliθ "bride"
(compare to issli "groom")
circumfix + root + circumfix
suprafix produce (noun)
produce (verb)
(changing stress)

1 English tmeses, as in this example, are by some considered infixes.
Kabyle is a Berber language (Kabyle: ثاقبايليث , taqbaylit, pronounced ) spoken by the Kabyle people. ... In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up tmesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Lexical affixes

Lexical affixes (or semantic affixes) are bound elements that appear as affixes, but function as incorporated nouns within verbs and as elements of compound nouns. In other words, they are similar to word roots/stems in function but similar to affixes in form. Although similar to incorporated nouns, lexical affixes differ in that they never occur as freestanding nouns, i.e. they always appear as affixes. Incorporation is a phenomenon by which a word, usually a verb, forms a kind of compound with, for instance, its direct object or adverbial modifier, while retaining its original syntactic function. ... A compound is a word composed of more than one free morphemes. ...


Lexical affixes are relatively rare. The Wakashan, Salishan, and Chimakuan languages all have lexical suffixes — the presence of these is an areal feature of the Pacific Northwest of the North America. Wakashan is a family of languages spoken around Vancouver Island. ... The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... The Chimakuan language family consists of two languages that are spoken in northwestern Washington, USA on the Olympic Peninsula. ... An areal feature, in linguistics, is the appearance of a given feature of typology in several unrelated languages due to the influence of geographical closeness. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


The lexical suffixes of these languages often show little to no resemblance to free nouns with similar meanings. Compare the lexical suffixes and free nouns of Northern Straits Saanich written in the Saanich orthography and in Americanist notation: Saanich (also , written as SENĆOŦEN in Saanich orthography) is the language of the Saanich peoples. ... Americanist phonetic notation (also Americanist Phonetic Alphabet, American Phonetic Alphabet, sometimes abbreviated APA) is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and Euro-American anthropologists and language scientists (former Neo-grammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of Native American and European languages. ...

Lexical Suffix Noun
-O, -aʔ "person" ,EL̶TÁLṈEW̱ ʔəɬtelŋəxʷ "person"
-NÁT -net "day" SC̸IĆEL skʷičəl "day"
-SEN -sən "foot, lower leg" SXENE, sx̣ənəʔ "foot, lower leg"
-ÁWTW̱ -ew̕txʷ "building, house, campsite" ,Á,LEṈ ʔeʔləŋ "house"

Lexical suffixes when compared with free nouns often have a more generic or general meaning. For instance, one of these languages may have a lexical suffix that means water in a general sense, but it may not have any noun equivalent referring to water in general and instead have several nouns with a more specific meaning (such "saltwater", "whitewater", etc.). In other cases, the lexical suffixes have become grammaticalized to various degrees. Grammaticalisation, also referred to as Grammaticalization, Grammatisation or Grammatization is a theory describing the change of a content word (lexical morpheme) into a function word or grammatical affix. ...


Some linguists have claimed that these lexical suffixes provide only adverbial or adjectival notions to verbs. Other linguists disagree arguing that they may additionally be syntactic arguments just as free nouns are and thus equating lexical suffixes with incorporated nouns. Gerdts (2003) gives examples of lexical suffixes in the Halkomelem language (the word order here is Verb Subject Object): A syntactic verb argument, in linguistics, is a phrase that appears in a relationship with the verb in a proposition. ... Halkomelem (also Halqeméylem, Hulquminum, and ) is a Salishan language of the First Nations around the Fraser River and the southern end of Vancouver Island in British Columbia. ... Word order, in linguistic typology, refers to the order in which words appear in sentences across different languages. ... Verb Subject Object—commonly used in its abbreviated form VSO—is a term in linguistic typology. ...

VERB SUBJ OBJ
(1) niʔ šak’ʷ-ət-əs łə słeniʔ łə qeq
"the woman bathed the baby"
 
VERB+LEX.SUFF SUBJ
(2) niʔ šk’ʷ-əyəł łə słeniʔ
"the woman bathed the/a baby"

In sentence (1), the verb "bathe" is šak’ʷətəs where šak’ʷ- is the root and -ət and -əs are inflectional suffixes. The subject "the woman" is łə słeniʔ and the object "the baby" is łə qeq. In this sentence, "the baby" is a free noun. (The niʔ here is an auxiliary, which can be ignored for explanatory purposes.) In linguistics, an auxiliary or helping verb is a verb whose function it is to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb which follows it. ...


In sentence (2), "the/a baby" does not appear as a free noun. Instead it appears as the lexical suffix -əyəł which is affixed to the verb root šk’ʷ- (which has changed slightly in pronunciation, but this can also be ignored here). Note how the lexical suffix may be translated as either "the baby" (definite) or "a baby" (indefinite): this change in definiteness is a common change in meaning that happens with incorporated nouns. In grammatical theory, Definiteness is a feature of noun phrases, distinguishing between entities which are specific and identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases). ...


See also

In linguistics, derivation is the process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. ... The following prefixes may appear as parts of words in the English language. ... This is an incomplete list of suffixes in English. ... Family name affixes are a clue for family name etymology and determining ethnic origin of a person. ...

Bibliography

  • Gerdts, Donna B. (2003). The morphosyntax of Halkomelem lexical suffixes. International Journal of American Linguistics, 69 (4), 345-356.
  • Montler, Timothy. (1986). An outline of the morphology and phonology of Saanich, North Straits Salish. Occasional Papers in Linguistics (No. 4). Missoula, MT: University of Montana Linguistics Laboratory.
  • Montler, Timothy. (1991). Saanich, North Straits Salish classified word list. Canadian Ethnology service paper (No. 119); Mercury series. Hull, Quebec: Canadian Museum of Civilization.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Affix - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (615 words)
An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a base morpheme such as a root or to a stem, to form a word.
Affixes are central to the process of concatenation.
Lexical affixes (or semantic affixes) are bound elements that appear as affixes, but function as incorporated nouns within verbs and as elements of compound nouns.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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