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Encyclopedia > Aetius

Flavius Aetius or simply Aetius, (circa 396454), was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. He is often called, sometimes along with Count Boniface, "the last of the Romans". His victory over Attila the Hun, guarantees him, as Edward Gibbon says, immortality for as long as men remember Rome. Events Emperor An succeeds Emperor Xiaowu as ruler of the Chinese Jin Dynasty Augustine appointed bishop of Hippo in North Africa End of the Visigoth invasion in Greece. ... Events September 21 - Roman Emperor Valentinian III assassinates Aetius in his own throne room. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. ... Count Boniface (in Latin, Comes Bonifacius) (d. ... The Last of the Romans is a term that has been applied to various people: Gaius Asinius Pollio, one of the last great orators and writers of the Roman Republic, is sometimes referred to as such. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... Edward Gibbon. ...

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Early years

Aetius was born at Dorostolus in Moesia, late in the 4th century. He was the son of an Italian mother named Auraelia and of Gaudentius, who, many historians point out, was possibly of a Germanic family. He rose in the service of the Western empire to be master of the horse, and later count of Africa. Aetius passed some years as hostage, first with Alaric and the Goths, and later in the camp of Rugila, king of the Huns, acquiring in this way the knowledge which enabled him afterwards to defeat them. There is also a school of thought that Aetius's upbringing among a vigorous and warlike people such as the Huns gave him a martial vigor lacking in Rome itself at that period. Certainly he learned every trick the Huns themselves utilized in battle, and he used that knowledge well in his conflicts with Attila. Silistra (also Silistria) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria. ... In ancient geography, Moesia was a district inhabited by a Thracian people. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... First arcibishop of Gniezno Categories: People stubs ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest continent and second most populous after Asia. ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Rugila or Rugilas was a king of the Huns and a forrunner to Attila during the fifth century A.D. Rugilas is also the name of the villanous king of Mizrath in the short story War of the Sands by Alex DeRoest ... Hun is a term that refers specifically to a group of Central Asian nomads of East Asia, who appear in Europe in the Forth Centry AD. It has become a general term meant to refer to any number of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ...


Aetius, Boniface and Placidia

In 425, Aetius led into Italy an army of 60,000 Huns, which he employed first to support Joannes, who had proclaimed himself emperor. However, he arrived in Ravenna three days after Joannes' defeat and execution. With his large force of Huns, Aetius was able to secure a pardon and obtain the office of Magister militum per Gallias (or Master of Soldiers in Gaul) from Galla Placidia, the empress-mother and regent for Valentinian III. Events October 23 -Valentinian III becomes western Roman emperor. ... Joannes, Roman Emperor (423 - 425) On the death of the Emperor Honorius (August 27, 423), Theodosius II, the remaining ruler of the House of Theodosius hesitated for some time in announcing his uncles death and in the interregum Honorius patrician at the time of his death, Castinus, elevated Joannes... Ravenna is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, population 134,631 (2001). ... Magister militum (Master of the Soldiers) was a rank used in the later Roman Empire dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (from Latin Gallia, c. ... Galla Placidia on a coin struck by her son Valentinian III. On the reverse, a cross (typical of all the coinage referring to Galla Placidia) stands for her Christian faith. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ...


In Gaul, Aetius defeated the Visigoths at Arles, forcing them to return to Aquitaine. He then proceeded to reinforce the Rhine frontier, and also defended Noricum against German attacks. Meanwhile, in Africa, Count Boniface fell into disfavour with Placidia, perhaps partly due to the intrigues of Aetius and other Roman generals. The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... Map of western Mediterranean, showing location of Arles Arles (Arle in Provençal) is a city in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône département, of which it is a sous-préfecture, in the former province of Provence. ... Capital Bordeaux Area 41,309 km² Regional President Alain Rousset ( PS) (since 1998) Population   - 2004 estimate   - 1999 census   - Density (Ranked 6th) 3,049,000 2,908,359 74/km² (2004) Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Départements Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Aquitaine... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1,320 km Elevation of the source Vorderrhein: approx. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Count Boniface (in Latin, Comes Bonifacius) (d. ...


Boniface was eventually returned to favour by Placidia (but not before revolting in Africa and calling in the Vandals), and in 432 was recalled to Italy and given the rank of patrician. Aetius, believing that Placidia had decided to get rid of him, marched against Boniface and fought against him in a battle near Rimini. Boniface won the battle tactically but was mortally wounded and died a few months later. Aetius escaped to Dalmatia, and, with the help of the Huns (for which they were rewarded with territory in Pannonia) was restored to power by Placidia in 433. The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire, and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Events July 31 - Sixtus is elected to succeed Celestine as Pope. ... Patricians were originally the elite caste in ancient Rome. ... Riminis skyline. ... Dalmatia (Croatian Dalmacija, Italian Dalmazia, Serbian Далмација) is a coastal region of former Yugoslavia (now mainly in Croatia, a small part in Montenegro) on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, spreading between the island of Pag in the northwest and the Bay of Kotor in the southeast. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Events Petronius Maximus becomes Roman Consul John of Antioch and Cyril of Alexandria sign the Formula of Reunion, thus ending their conflict over the Nestorian controversy and the Council of Ephesus. ...


The ascendency of Aetius

From 433 to 450, Aetius was the dominating personality in the Western empire. He continued to devote his attention to Gaul after his restoration to power. In 436 the Burgundians tried to take advantage of disturbances caused by Bagaudae, bands of lawless brigands, to seize more territory. Aetius responded by calling in the Huns to intervene, and 20,000 Burgundians were killed. This slaughter is the basis of the Niebelungenlied, a German epic. In 443 Aetius settled the remaining Burgundians in Savoy, south of Lake Geneva. In the 440s Aetius was mainly occupied with problems in Gaul and Spain, mainly with the Bagaudae. He settled Alans around Valence and Orleans to control unrest around Brittany. Events Petronius Maximus becomes Roman Consul John of Antioch and Cyril of Alexandria sign the Formula of Reunion, thus ending their conflict over the Nestorian controversy and the Council of Ephesus. ... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... Events Attila the Hun attacks Britain Births Deaths Categories: 436 ... Burgundian is either of the following; An extinct language of the Germanic language group spoken by the Burgundians. ... Bagaudae (also spelled Bacaudae) was the name for groups of peasant insurgents during the Crisis of the Third Century, particularly in Gaul. ... Butch Cassidy, a famous outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, is most familiar to contemporary readers as a stock character in Western movies. ... The Nibelungenlied is an epic poem in Middle High German that takes Burgundian kings as its subject matter. ... EPIC might be an acronym or abbreviation for: Electronic Privacy Information Center Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing Enhanced Programmable ircII Client El Paso Intelligence Center End Poverty In California European Privatisation and Investment Corporation Sometimes it is also used to refer to Epic Games game development company. ... Events The Burgundians create a kingdom on the banks of the Rhone Attila destroys Naissus. ... This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... Lake Geneva (rarely Leman Lake, French: Lac Léman or Lac de Genève) is the second largest freshwater lake in central Europe (after Lake Balaton), divided between 2/5 France (Haute-Savoie) and 3/5 Switzerland (cantons of Vaud, Geneva, and Valais). ... Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Decades: 390s - 400s - 410s - 420s - 430s - 440s - 450s - 460s - 470s - 480s - 490s Years: 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 Events Armorica rebels against the Roman empire. ... Alan can refer to any of the following: Alan (Sesame Street), the character in the television series Sesame Street Alans, an ancient nomadic people Alan, Haute-Garonne, a commune in the Haute-Garonne département in France where tourists can see medieval monuments: a castel named THE COW OF ALAN... Valence is a scientific term in chemistry to describe electrons in the outermost orbital. ... This article is about Orléans, France; for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation). ... Traditional coat of arms This article is about the historical duchy and French province, as well as the cultural area of Brittany. ...


In 451 a large army of Huns, led by Attila, invaded Gaul and captured several cities, and proceeded towards Orleans. When the Alans living in the region were ready to defect to Attila, Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric moved in to relieve the city. The Huns abandoned the siege and retreated to open country, where, on September 20, 451, they and their allies battled the Romans and Visigoths, along with their Alan, Frank, and Burgundian allies, on the Catalunian Plains near Chalons. Although tactically the outcome of the Battle of Chalons was indecisive, it was a great triumph for Aetius and the Romans. Attila was forced to retreat beyond the Rhine and never threatened Gaul again. Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aetius in the Battle of Chalons. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aetius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Look up frank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Frank may be: Frankish people, a Germanic tribe Franc, units of currency Franking, the right to send mail for free Frankfurter Free, an archaic meaning of the word in Dutch, German, and English Frank is the name of: Andre Gunder Frank, sociologist... A 451 battle in central Gaul, in which Barbarian troops, with a small Roman contingent, defeated the forces of Attila the Hun. ... Chalons or Ch lons is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Ch lons, in the Is re d partement Ch lons-en-Champagne, formerly Ch lons-sur-Marne, in the Marne d partement Chalon-sur-Sa ne, in the Sa ne-et-Loire d... The Battle of Chalons, also called the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields or the Battle of the Catalun, took place in 451 between the allied forces and foederati led by the Roman general Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric on one side, and the Huns led by their king Attila... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1,320 km Elevation of the source Vorderrhein: approx. ...


Assassination

Although in 453 Aetius had been able to betroth his son Gaudentius to Valentinian's daughter Placidia, Valentinian felt intimidated by Aetius, who had once supported Joannes against him and whom Valentinian believed wanted to place his son upon the imperial throne. Roman senator Petronius Maximus and the chamberlain Heraclius were therefore able to enlist Valentinian in a plot to assassinate Aetius. On September 21, 454, when Aetius was at court in Ravenna delivering a financial account, Valentinian slew Aetius with his own hand. A witness supposedly General Florentius writes, "The Emperor has cut off his right hand with his left." Petronius Maximus (c. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... Events September 21 - Roman Emperor Valentinian III assassinates Aetius in his own throne room. ... Ravenna is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, population 134,631 (2001). ... Florentius was a fifth century Roman military leader. ...


Maximus expected to be made patrician in place of Aetius, but was blocked by Heraclius. Seeking revenge, Maximus arranged with two friends of Aetius, Optila and Thraustila, both Huns, to assassinate both Valentinian III and Heraclius. On March 16, 455, Optila stabbed the emperor in the temple as he dismounted in the Campus Martius and prepared for a session of archery practice. As the stunned emperor turned to see who had struck him, Optila finished him off with another thrust of his blade. Meanwhile, Thraustila stepped forward and killed Heraclius. Most of the soldiers standing close by had been faithful followers of Aetius and none lifted a hand to save the emperor. March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in Leap years). ... Events June 2 - Gaiseric leads the Vandals into Rome and plunder the city for two weeks. ...


After death

His final legacy has been similar to that of Stilicho . Both were the best Roman generals of their time, and both were killed by jealous emperors. Aetius was a brilliant general but failed to look at how the map of Rome would stand later on. At the time of his death not one province of Rome in western Europe was without a significant barbarian presence. After his victories he allowed the barbarians to stay inside the Empire's borders in exchange for peace. He also failed to continue to develop Rome's navies, a significant problem for later emperors. While he nominally preserved the peace, his reactionary stances left Rome ripe for its fall. Flavius Stilicho (c. ...


See also

The Groans of the Britons (Latin: gemitus Britannorum) is the name of the final appeal made by the post-Roman population of Britain for assistance against foreign invasion. ...

References

  • Ferrill, Arther, The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation. Thames and Hudson, London, 1986.
  • Jones, A.H.M., The Later Roman Empire 284-602. Oxford Press, Cambridge, 1964.
  • Oost, Stewart I., Galla Placidia Augusta. Chicago, 1968.
  • Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum ii.8, gives a condensed version of Aetius' character and career, using a lost history of Renatus Frigeridus.

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Gregory of Tours (c. ... Renatus Profuturus Frigeridus was a fifth century historian whose work, which exists today only in fragments, once consisted of twelve volumes or more. ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) represents, in many ways, the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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AllRefer.com - Aetius, Syrian theologian (Roman Catholic And Orthodox Churches: General Biography) - Encyclopedia (168 words)
AllRefer.com - Aetius, Syrian theologian (Roman Catholic And Orthodox Churches: General Biography) - Encyclopedia
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Aetius, Syrian theologian, Roman Catholic And Orthodox Churches: General Biographies
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With the reading of the Gospel should also probably be connected the occasional, though rare, appearance of the deacon in the office of preacher.
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