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Encyclopedia > Aesthetics

Aesthetics is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste.[cite this quote] More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature."[1][2] Aesthetics is a subdiscipline of axiology, a branch of philosophy, and is closely associated with the philosophy of art.[cite this quote] Aesthetics studies new ways of seeing and of perceiving the world.[3] Senses Senses are a UK based alternative rock band from Coventry. ... A judgment or judgement (see spelling note below), in a legal context, is synonymous with the formal decision made by a court following a lawsuit. ... Sentiment can refer to: feelings and emotions the literary device sentimentality, which is used to induce an emotional response disproportionate to the situation, and thus to substitute heightened and generally unthinking feeling for normal ethical and intellectual judgment an eighteenth century literary genre called the sentimental novel This is a... Taste (sociology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Axiology, from the Greek axia (αξια, value, worth), is the study of value or quality. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...


Aesthetic judgment

Judgments of aesthetic value clearly rely on our ability to discriminate at a sensory level. Aesthetics examines what makes something beautiful, sublime, disgusting, fun, cute, silly, entertaining, pretentious, discordant, harmonious, boring, humorous, or tragic. Many see natural beauty folded within petals of a rose.]] Immanuel Kant, writing in 1790, observes of a man "If he says that canary wine is agreeable he is quite content if someone else corrects his terms and reminds him to say instead: It is agreeable to me," because "Everyone has his own (sense of) taste". The case of "beauty" is different from mere "agreeableness" because, "If he proclaims something to be beautiful, then he requires the same liking from others; he then judges not just for himself but for everyone, and speaks of beauty as if it were a property of things. For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ... In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ... A woman showing disgust. ... Puppies are usually considered very cute. ... Entertainment is an amusement or diversion intended to hold the attention of an audience or its participants. ... In poetry, dissonance is the deliberate avoidance of patterns of repeated vowel sounds (see assonance). ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Boring and Bored redirect here. ... Look up Humour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Kant redirects here. ...

Aesthetic judgments usually go beyond sensory discrimination. For David Hume, delicacy of taste is not merely "the ability to detect all the ingredients in a composition", but also our sensitivity "to pains as well as pleasures, which escape the rest of mankind. In David Hume: Essays Moral Political and Literary. Indianapolis, Literary Classics 5, 1987. Thus, the sensory discrimination is linked to capacity for pleasure. For Kant "enjoyment" is the result when pleasure arises from sensation, but judging something to be "beautiful" has a third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure by engaging our capacities of reflective contemplation.Immanuel Kant, The Critique of Judgment. Judgments of beauty are sensory, emotional, and intellectual all at once. For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... Kant redirects here. ... The Critique of Judgement (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), also known as the third critique, is a philosophical work by Immanuel Kant. ...

Viewer interpretations of beauty possess two concepts of value: aesthetics and taste. Aesthetics is the philosophical notion of beauty. Taste is a result of education and awareness of elite cultural values; therefore taste can be learned. Taste varies according to class, cultural background, and education. Poor taste is usually seen as a product of ignorance. According to Kant beauty is objective and universal; thus certain things are beautiful to everyone. The contemporary view of beauty is not based on innate qualities, but rather on cultural specifics and individual interpretations.

What factors are involved in an aesthetic judgment?

Judgments of aesthetic value seem to often involve many other kinds of issues as well. Responses such as disgust show that sensory detection is linked in instinctual ways to facial expressions, and even behaviors like the gag reflex. Yet disgust can often be a learned or cultural issue too; as Darwin pointed out, seeing a stripe of soup in a man's beard is disgusting even though neither soup nor beards are themselves disgusting. Aesthetic judgments may be linked to emotions or, like emotions, partially embodied in our physical reactions. Seeing a sublime view of a landscape may give us a reaction of awe, which might manifest physically as an increased heart rate or widened eyes. These subconscious reactions may even be partly constitutive of what makes our judgment a judgment that the landscape is sublime. In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ...

Likewise, aesthetic judgments may be culturally conditioned to some extent. Victorians in Britain often saw African sculpture as ugly, but just a few decades later, Edwardian audiences saw the same sculptures as being beautiful. The Abuse of Beauty, Evaluations of beauty may well be linked to desirability, perhaps even to sexual desirability. Thus, judgments of aesthetic value can become linked to judgments of economic, political, or moral value.[4] We might judge a Lamborghini to be beautiful partly because it is desirable as a status symbol, or we might judge it to be repulsive partly because it signifies for us over-consumption and offends our political or moral values.Korsmeyer, Carolyn ed. Aesthetics: The Big Questions 1998 </ref>

"Part and Parcel in Animal and Human Societies". in Studies in animal and human behavior, vol. 2. pp. 115-195. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1971 (originally pub. 1950.) Aesthetic judgments can often be very fine-grained and internally contradictory. Likewise aesthetic judgments seem to often be at least partly intellectual and interpretative. It is what a thing means or symbolizes for us that is often what we are judging. Modern aestheticians have asserted that will and desire were almost dormant in aesthetic experience, yet preference and choice have seemed important aesthetics to some 20th century thinkers.The point is already made by Hume, but see Mary Mothersill, "Beauty and the Critic’s Judgment", in The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics, 2004. Thus aesthetic judgments might be seen to be based on the senses, emotions, intellectual opinions, will, desires, culture, preferences, values, subconscious behavior, conscious decision, training, instinct, sociological institutions, or some complex combination of these, depending on exactly which theory one employs.

Anthropology, especially the savanna hypothesis proposed by Gordon Orians and others, predicts that some of the positive aesthetics that people have are based on innate knowledge of productive human habitats. The Savanna hypothesis is confirmed by evidence. It had been shown that people prefer and feel happier looking at trees with spreading forms much more than looking at trees with other forms, or non-tree objects; also Bright green colors, linked with healthy plants with good nutrient qualities, were more calming than other tree colors, including less bright greens and oranges. This article is about the social science. ... The savanna theory is the term used by those in favour of the aquatic ape hypothesis for an older version of the conventional (non-aquatic) understanding of how humans acquired bipedalism and other uniquely human characteristics. ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ...

Are different art forms beautiful, disgusting, or boring in the same way?

A third major topic in the study of aesthetic judgment is how they are unified across art forms. We can call a person, a house, a symphony, a fragrance, and a mathematical proof beautiful. What characteristics do they share which give them that status? What possible feature could a proof and a fragrance both share in virtue of which they both count as beautiful? What makes a painting beautiful is quite different from what makes music beautiful, which suggests that each art form has its own system for the judgement of aesthetics.[5] In mathematics, a proof is a demonstration that, assuming certain axioms, some statement is necessarily true. ...

At the same time, there is seemingly quite a lack of words to express oneself accurately when making an aesthetic judgement. Therefore, due to impossibility for precision, there is much confusion about what interpretations should be officially accepted. Due to the inaccuracy of the English language, two completely different feelings derived from two extraordinarily different people can be represented by an identical expression.

A collective identification of beauty, in the willing participants found in a given social spectrum, is at times perhaps a socially negotiated phenomena, built into a culture or context. Is there some underlying unity to aesthetic judgment and is there some way to articulate the similarities of a beautiful house, beautiful proof, and beautiful sunset?[6] Defining it requires a description of the entire phenomena, as Wittgenstein argued in his lectures on aesthetics. Likewise there has been long debate on how perception of beauty in the natural world, especially including perception of the human form as beautiful, is supposed to relate to perceiving beauty in art or artifacts. This goes back at least to Kant, with some echoes even in St. Bonaventure.[citation needed] This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... A cultural artifact is a human-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. ...

Aesthetics and the philosophy of art

It is not uncommon to find aesthetics used as a synonym for the philosophy of art, although it is also not uncommon to find thinkers insisting that we distinguish these two closely related fields. In practice we distinguish between aesthetic and artistic judgements, one refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object (not necessarily an art object), whilst the other refers to the appreciation or criticism of an art work. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...

What counts as "art?"

How best to define the term “art” is a subject of much contention; many books and journal articles have been published arguing over even the basics of what we mean by the term “art”.[7] Theodor Adorno claimed in 1969 “It is self-evident that nothing concerning art is self-evident any more.”[8] Artists, philosophers, anthropologists, psychologists and programmers all use the notion of art in their respective fields, and give it operational definitions that are not very similar to each other. Further it is clear that even the basic meaning of the term "art" has changed several times over the centuries, and has changed within the 20th century as well. Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...

The main recent sense of the word “art” is roughly as an abbreviation for creative art or “fine art.” Here we mean that skill is being used to express the artist’s creativity, or to engage the audience’s aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of the “finer” things. Often, if the skill is being used in a lowbrow or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art, a suggestion which is highly disputed by many Contemporary Craft thinkers. Likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way it may be considered design instead of art, or contrariwise these may be defended as art forms, perhaps called applied art. Some thinkers, for instance, have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference.[9] Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ... Dale Chihulys 30-foot blown-glass chandelier in the Victoria and Albert Museum in 2000. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Example of a cup figuring a tortise. ...

Even as late as 1912 it was normal in the West to assume that all art aims at beauty, and thus that anything that wasn't trying to be beautiful couldn't count as art. The cubists, dadaists, Stravinsky, and many later art movements struggled against this conception that beauty was central to the definition of art, with such success that, according to Danto, "Beauty had disappeared not only from the advanced art of the 1960’s but from the advanced philosophy of art of that decade as well."[8] Perhaps some notion like "expression" (in Croce’s theories) or "counter-environment" (in McLuhan’s theory) can replace the previous role of beauty. Brian Massumi brought back "beauty" into consideration together with "expression".[10] Another concept, as important to the philosophy of art as "beauty," is that of the "sublime," elaborated upon in the twentieth century by the postmodern philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard. Georges Braque, Woman with a guitar, 1913 Cubism was a 20th century art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Arthur Coleman Danto (b. ... Benedetto Croce (February 25, 1866 - November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic, idealist philosopher, and politician. ... “McLuhan” redirects here. ... Brian Massumi is an academic, writer and social critic. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998) was a French philosopher and literary theorist. ...

Perhaps (as in Kennick's theory) no definition of art is possible anymore. Perhaps art should be thought of as a cluster of related concepts in a Wittgensteinian fashion (as in Weitz or Beuys). Another approach is to say that “art” is basically a sociological category, that whatever art schools and museums and artists get away with is considered art regardless of formal definitions. This "institutional definition of art" (see also Institutional Critique) has been championed by George Dickie. Most people did not consider the depiction of a Brillo Box or a store-bought urinal to be art until Andy Warhol and Marcel Duchamp (respectively) placed them in the context of art (i.e., the art gallery), which then provided the association of these objects with the values that define art. Wittgenstein redirects here. ... Morris Weitz ([wi:ts]) (July 24, 1916 - 1981) was an American aesthetician. ... Joseph Beuys (IPA: ; May 12, 1921 – January 23, 1986) was an influential German artist who came to prominence in the 1960s. ... Institutional Critique is an artistic term meant as a commentary of the various institutions and assumed normalities of art and/or a radical disarticulation of the the institution of art (radical is linguistically understood in its relation to radix which means to get to the root of something). ... George Dickie (born 1926 in Palmetto, Florida) is a Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at University of Illinois at Chicago and one of the most influential philosophers of art working in the analytical tradition. ... Brillo soap pads Brillo Pad is a trade name for a scouring pad, used for cleaning dishes, and made from steel wool impregnated with soap. ... Urinals redirects here. ... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the... The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. ...

Proceduralists often suggest that it is the process by which a work of art is created or viewed that makes it art, not any inherent feature of an object, or how well received it is by the institutions of the art world after its introduction to society at large. Whereas if exactly the same set of words was written by a journalist, intending them as shorthand notes to help him write a longer article later, these would not be a poem. Leo Tolstoy, on the other hand, claims that what makes something art or not is how it is experienced by its audience, not by the intention of its creator. Functionalists like Monroe Beardsley argue that whether or not a piece counts as art depends on what function it plays in a particular context; the same Greek vase may play a non-artistic function in one context (carrying wine), and an artistic function in another context (helping us to appreciate the beauty of the human figure). ' Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , Russian pronunciation:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo (Lyof, Lyoff) Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Monroe Curtis Beardsley (1915-1985) was an American philosopher of aesthetics. ...

What should we judge when we judge art?

Art can be tricky at the metaphysical and ontological levels as well as at the value theory level. When we see a performance of Hamlet, how many works of art are we experiencing, and which should we judge? Perhaps there is only one relevant work of art, the whole performance, which many different people have contributed to, and which will exist briefly and then disappear. Perhaps the manuscript by Shakespeare is a distinct work of art from the play by the troupe, which is also distinct from the performance of the play by this troupe on this night, and all three can be judged, but are to be judged by different standards. This article is about the philosophical meaning of ontology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ...

Perhaps every person involved should be judged separately on his or her own merits, and each costume or line is its own work of art (with perhaps the director having the job of unifying them all). Similar problems arise for music, film and even painting. Am I to judge the painting itself, the work of the painter, or perhaps the painting in its context of presentation by the museum workers?

These problems have been made even thornier by the rise of conceptual art since the 1960s. Warhol’s famous Brillo Boxes are nearly indistinguishable from actual Brillo boxes at the time. It would be a mistake to praise Warhol for the design of his boxes (which were designed by Steve Harvey), yet the conceptual move of exhibiting these boxes as art in a museum together with other kinds of paintings is Warhol's. Are we judging Warhol’s concept? His execution of the concept in the medium? The curator’s insight in letting Warhol display the boxes? The overall result? Our experience or interpretation of the result? Ontologically, how are we to think of the work of art? Is it a physical object? Several objects? A class of objects? A mental object? A fictional object? An abstract object? An event? Or simply an Act? Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... Brillo soap pads Brillo Pad is a trade name for a scouring pad, used for cleaning dishes, and made from steel wool impregnated with soap. ... Look up curator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Abstract It is a commonplace in philosophy that every thing or object is either abstract or concrete. ...

What should art be like?

Many goals have been argued for art, and aestheticians often argue that some goal or another is superior in some way. Clement Greenberg, for instance, argued in 1960 that each artistic medium should seek that which makes it unique among the possible mediums and then purify itself of anything other than expression of its own uniqueness as a form.[11] The Dadaist Tristan Tzara on the other hand saw the function of art in 1918 as the destruction of a mad social order. “We must sweep and clean. Affirm the cleanliness of the individual after the state of madness, aggressive complete madness of a world abandoned to the hands of bandits.”[12] Formal goals, creative goals, self-expression, political goals, spiritual goals, philosophical goals, and even more perceptual or aesthetic goals have all been popular pictures of what art should be like. Clement Greenberg (January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American art critic closely associated with the abstract art movement in the United States. ... DaDa is a concept album by Alice Cooper, released in 1983. ... Tristan Tzara () (April 16, 1896 – December 25, 1963) was a Romanian poet and essayist. ...

What is the value of art?

Closely related to the question of what art should be like is the question of what its value is. Is art a means of gaining knowledge of some special kind? Does it give insight into the human condition? How does art relate to science or religion? Is art perhaps a tool of education, or indoctrination, or enculturation? Does art make us more moral? Can it uplift us spiritually? Is art perhaps politics by other means? Is there some value to sharing or expressing emotions? Might the value of art for the artist be quite different than it is for the audience? A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...

Might the value of art to society be quite different than its value to individuals? Do the values of arts differ significantly from form to form? Working on the intended value of art tends to help define the relations between art and other endeavors. Art clearly does have spiritual goals in many settings, but then what exactly is the difference between religious art and religion per se? Is every religious ritual a piece of performance art, so that religious ritual is simply a subset of art?

Aesthetic universals

The philosopher Denis Dutton identified seven universal signatures in human aesthetics:[13] Denis Dutton is a professor of philosophy at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. ...

  1. Expertise or virtuosity. Technical artistic skills are cultivated, recognized, and admired.
  2. Nonutilitarian pleasure. People enjoy art for art's sake, and don't demand that it keep them warm or put food on the table.
  3. Style. Artistic objects and performances satisfy rules of composition that place them in a recognizable style.
  4. Criticism. People make a point of judging, appreciating, and interpreting works of art.
  5. Imitation. With a few important exceptions like music and abstract painting, works of art simulate experiences of the world.
  6. Special focus. Art is set aside from ordinary life and made a dramatic focus of experience.
  7. Imagination. Artists and their audiences entertain hypothetical worlds in the theater of the imagination.

It might be objected, however, that there are rather too many exceptions to Dutton's categories. For example, the installations of the contemporary artist Thomas Hirschhorn deliberately eschew technical virtuosity. People can appreciate a Renaissance Madonna for aesthetic reasons, but such objects often had (and sometimes still have) specific devotional functions. 'Rules of composition' that might be read into Duchamp's Fountain or John Cage's 4'33" do not locate the works in a recognizable style (or certainly not a style recognizable at the time of the works' realisation). Moreover, some of Dutton's categories seem too broad: a physicist might entertain hypothetical worlds in his/her imagination in the course of formulating a theory. Thomas Hirschhorn (born in Bern, 1957) is a Swiss instalations artist. ... Marcel Duchamp (July 28, 1887 - October 2, 1968) was a French/American artist. ... Fountain by Marcel Duchamp. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... 433 is a musical work by avant-garde composer John Cage, often described (somewhat erroneously) as four and a half minutes of silence. ...

Increasingly, academics in both the sciences and the humanities are looking to evolutionary psychology and cognitive science in an effort to understand the connection between psychology and aesthetics. Aside from Dutton, others exploring this realm include Brian Boyd, Noel Carroll, Nancy Easterlin, David Evans, Jonathan Gottschall, Paul Hernadi, Bracha Ettinger (artist and psychoanalist), Patrick Hogan, Elaine Scarry, Wendy Steiner, Robert Storey, Frederick Turner, and Mark Turner. Evolutionary psychology (EP) attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Dutton has several meanings: Dutton, Alabama, town in the United States Dutton, Montana, another US town Dutton, Chesire John Dutton Frost, British soldier Dutton Speedwords, an auxiliary language, as well a shorthand writing system Peter Dutton, Australian politician Red Dutton, former NHL President This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... Brian Boyd is a Distinguished Professor in the Department of English at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. ... David Evans may mean: David Evans (composer) (1874-1948) David A. Evans (born 1941), organic chemistry professor at Harvard David Allan Evans (born 1940), American poet David C. Evans (1924–1998), computer graphics pioneer David Howell Evans (born 1961), known as The Edge, guitarist with rock band U2 Dave Evans... Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Bracha Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ... Patrick Thomas Hogan Patrick Thomas Hogan, or skipper as his friends called him, is a footballer for the Mt. ... Elaine Scarry (born 30 June 1946), a professor of English and American Literature and Language, is the Walter M. Cabot Professor of Aesthetics and the General Theory of Value at Harvard University. ... Frederick Jackson Turner Frederick Jackson Turner (November 14, 1861–1932) was an American historian. ... Mark Turner is a cognitive scientist, linguist, and author. ...

Principles of aesthetics

  • No reasoned argument can conclude that objects are aesthetically valuable or valueless. De gustibus non est disputandum
  • Objects are aesthetically valuable if
    • they possess a special aesthetic property or exhibit a special aesthetic form.
    • they have the capacity to convey meaning or to teach general truths.
    • they have the capacity to produce pleasure in those who experience or appreciate them.
    • they have the capacity to convey values or beliefs central to the cultures or traditions in which they originate, or important to the artists who made them.
    • they have the capacity to help bring about social or political change.
    • they have the capacity to produce certain emotions we value, at least when the emotion is brought about by art rather than by life.
    • they have the capacity to produce special non-emotional experiences, such as a feeling of autonomy of the will or suspension of disbelief.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ...


The philosophy of aesthetics has been criticized by some sociologists and writers about art and society. Raymond Williams argues that there is no unique aesthetic object but a continuum of cultural forms from ordinary speech to experiences that are signaled as art by a frame, institution or special event. Pierre Bourdieu also takes issue with Kant's aesthetics and argues that it represents an experience that is the product of an elevated class habitus and scholarly leisure. Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 - 26 January 1988) was a Welsh academic, novelist and critic. ... Pierre Bourdieu (August 1, 1930 â€“ January 23, 2002) was an acclaimed French sociologist whose work employed methods drawn from a wide range of disciplines: from philosophy and literary theory to sociology and anthropology. ...

History of aesthetics

Image File history File links Poseidon. ... Image File history File links Poseidon. ... Rare, water preserved Greek Athlete 310. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Façade of the National Archaeological museum of Athens. ...

Ancient aesthetics

We have examples of pre-historic art, but they are rare, and the context of their production and use is not very clear, so we can little more than guess at the aesthetic doctrines that guided their production and interpretation. In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ...

Ancient art was largely, but not entirely, based on the six great ancient civilizations: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, Persia, and China. Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in its art. Greece had the most influence on the development of aesthetics in the West. This period of Greek art saw a veneration of the human physical form and the development of corresponding skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions. Furthermore, in many Western and Eastern cultures alike, traits such as body hair are rarely depicted in art that addresses physical beauty.[cite this quote] What is more in contrast with this Greek-Western aesthetic taste, is the genre of grotesque.[14] Arts of the ancient world refers to the many types of art that were in the cultures of ancient societies, such as those of ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome // The earliest figurine the Venus of Tan-Tan discovered to date originated somewhere between 500,000 and 300... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Persia is the historical and alternative name for the state of Iran in the European languages. ... This article is about the word itself. ...

Greek philosophers initially felt that aesthetically appealing objects were beautiful in and of themselves. Plato felt that beautiful objects incorporated proportion, harmony, and unity among their parts. Similarly, in the Metaphysics, Aristotle found that the universal elements of beauty were order, symmetry, and definiteness. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Metaphysics is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Sphere symmetry group o. ...

Islamic aesthetics

Islamic art is not, properly speaking, an art pertaining to religion only. The term "Islamic" refers not only to the religion, but to any form of art create in an Islamic culture or in an Islamic context. It would also be a mistake to assume that all Muslims are in agreement on the use of art in religious observance, the proper place of art in society, or the relation between secular art and the demands placed on the secular world to conform to religious precepts. Islamic art frequently adopts secular elements and elements that are frowned upon, if not forbidden, by some Islamic theologians.[15] The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ...

According to Islam, human works of art are inherently flawed compared to the work of Allah; thus, it is believed by many that to attempt to depict in a realistic form any animal or person is insolence to Allah. This tendency, enforced by often strict religious authority, has had the effect of narrowing the field of artistic possibility to such forms of art as Arabesque, mosaic, Islamic calligraphy, and Islamic architecture, as well as more generally any form of abstraction that can claim the status of non-representational art. Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ...

This negative restriction of possibilities has been explored by artists as an outlet to artistic expression, and has been cultivated to become a positive style and tradition, emphasizing the decorative function of art, or its religious functions via non-representational forms such as Geometric patterns, floral patterns, arabesques. Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ...

It is a common myth that human or animal depiction is forbidden altogether in Islamic cultures. In fact, human portrayals can be found in all Islamic cultures with varying degrees of acceptance by religious authorities. It is only human representation for the purpose of worship that is uniformly considered idolatry as forbidden in Sharia law. There are also many depictions of Muhammad, Islam's chief prophet, in historical Islamic art.[16][17] The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Depictions of Muhammad, founder of the Islamic faith, are often contentious. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...

The calligraphic arts grew out an effort to devote oneself to the study of the Koran. By patiently transcribing each word of the text, the writer was made to contemplate the meaning of it. As time passed, these calligraphic works began to be prized as works of art, growing increasingly elaborate in the illumination and stylizing of the text. These illuminations were applied to other works besides the Koran, and it became a respected art form in and of itself.

Indian aesthetics

Indian art evolved with an emphasis on inducing special spiritual or philosophical states in the audience, or with representing them symbolically. According to Kapila Vatsyayan, "Classical Indian architecture, sculpture, painting, literature (kaavya), music, and dancing evolved their own rules conditioned by their respective media, but they shared with one another not only the underlying spiritual beliefs of the Indian religio-philosophic mind, but also the procedures by which the relationships of the symbol and the spiritual states were worked out in detail." A miniature, Kishengarh, Jaipur, Rajasthan Indian cave art at Bhimbetka The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts. ... Kapila Vatsyayan is one of the foremost modern scholars of Indian dance and the performing arts. ... Indian architecture encompasses a wide variety of geographically and historically spread structures, and was transformed by the long history of the entire South Asian subcontinent. ... A sculpture of Siddhārtha Gautama the founder of Buddhism The first sculptures in India date back to the Indus Valley civilization, where stone and bronze carvings have been discovered. ... Radha. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... Timeline and Samples Genres Classical (Carnatic and Hindustani) - Folk - Rock - Pop - Hip hop Awards Bollywood Music Awards - Punjabi Music Awards Charts Festivals Sangeet Natak Akademi – Thyagaraja Aradhana – Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Media Sruti, The Music Magazine National anthem Jana Gana Mana, also national song Vande Mataram Music of the states Andaman... Classical Indian dance India offers a number of Classical Indian dance forms, each of which can be traced to different parts of the country. ...

Of particular concern to Indian drama and literature is the term 'rasa' referring generally to the emotional flavors crafted into the work by the writer and relished by a 'sensitive spectator' or 'sahRdaya.' Very early poets like Kālidāsa were attentive to rasa, which blossomed into a fully developed aesthetic system. Even in contemporary India the term rasa denoting "flavor" is used colloquially to describe the aesthetic experiences in films; "māsala mix" describes popular Hindi cinema films which serve a balanced emotional meal, savored as rasa by the spectator.

Rasa theory blossoms beginning with the SaMskrit text Nātyashāstra ('nātya' meaning drama and 'shāstra' meaning science of), a work attributed to Bharata Muni where the Gods declare that drama is the 'Fifth Veda' because it is suitable for the degenerate age as the best form of religious instruction. While the date of composition varies wildly among scholars, ranging from the era of Plato and Aristotle to the seventh century CE The Nātyashāstra presents the aesthetic concepts of rasa-s and their associated bhāva-s in Chapters Six and Seven respectively, which appear to be independent of the work as a whole. Eight rasa-s and associated bhāva-s are named and their enjoyment is likened to savoring a meal: rasa is the enjoyment of flavors that arise from the proper preparation of ingredients and the quality of ingredients. What rasa actually is, in a theoretical sense, is not discussed and given the Nātyashāstra's pithy wording it is unlikely the exact understanding of the original author(s) will be known. Bharata Muni was an ancient Indian writer whose life has been dated differently from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century Ad. ...

The theory of the rasa-s develops significantly with the Kashmiri aesthetician Ãndandavardhana's classic on poetics, the Dhvanyāloka which introduces the ninth rasa, shānta-rasa as a specifically religious feeling of peace (shānta) which arises from its bhāva, weariness of the pleasures of the world. The primary purpose of this text is to refine the literary concept 'dhvani' or poetic suggestion, by arguing for the existence of 'rasa-dhvani,' primarily in forms of SaMskrit including a word, sentence or whole work "suggests" a real-world emotional state or bhāva, but thanks to aesthetic distance, the sensitive spectator relishes the rasa, the aesthetic flavor of tragedy, heroism or romance.

The 9th - 10th century master of the religious system known as "the nondual Shaivism of Kashmir" (or "Kashmir Shaivism")and aesthetician, Abhinavagupta brought rasa theory to its pinnacle in his separate commentaries on the Dhvanyāloka, the Dhvanyāloka-locana (translated by Ingalls, Masson and Patwardhan, 1992) and the Abhinavabharati, his commentary on the Nātyashāstra, portions of which are translated by Gnoli and Masson and Patwardhan. Abhinavagupta offers for the first time a technical definition of rasa which is the universal bliss of the Self or Atman colored by the emotional tone of a drama. Shānta-rasa functions as an equal member of the set of rasa-s but is simultaneously distinct being the most clear form of aesthetic bliss. Abhinavagupta likens it to the string of a jeweled necklace; while it may not be the most appealing for most people, it is the string that gives form to the necklace, allowing the jewels of the other eight rasa-s to be relished. Relishing the rasa-s and particularly shānta-rasa is hinted as being as-good-as but never-equal-to the bliss of Self-realization experienced by yogis.

Chinese aesthetics

Chinese art has a long history of varied styles and emphases. In ancient times philosophers were already arguing about aesthetics. Confucius emphasized the role of the arts and humanities (especially music and poetry) in broadening human nature and aiding “li” (etiquette, the rites) in bringing us back to what is essential about humanity. His opponent Mozi, however, argued that music and fine arts were classist and wasteful, benefiting the rich but not the common people. Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Mozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Mo Tzu, Lat. ...

By the 4th century A.D., artists were debating in writing over the proper goals of art as well. Gu Kaizhi has 3 surviving books on this theory of painting, for example, and it's not uncommon to find later artist/scholars who both create art and write about the creating of art. Religious and philosophical influence on art was common (and diverse) but never universal; it is easy to find art that largely ignores philosophy and religion in almost every Chinese time period. Gu Kaizhi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ku Kai-chih) (c. ...

African aesthetics

The Great Mosque's signature trio of minarets overlooks the central market of Djenné. Unique Malian aesthetic
The Great Mosque's signature trio of minarets overlooks the central market of Djenné. Unique Malian aesthetic

African art existed in many forms and styles, and with fairly little influence from outside Africa. Most of it followed traditional forms and the aesthetic norms were handed down orally as well as written. Sculpture and performance art are prominent, and abstract and partially abstracted forms are valued, and were valued long before influence from the Western tradition began in earnest. The Nok culture is testimony to this. The mosque of Timbuktu shows that specific areas of Africa developed unique aesthetics. ImageMetadata File history File links Great_Mosque_of_Djenné_3. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Great_Mosque_of_Djenné_3. ... The Great Mosques signature trio of minarets overlooks the central market of Djenné. The Great Mosque of Djenné is the largest mud brick building in the world and is considered by many architects to be the greatest achievement of the Sudano-Sahelian architectural style, albeit with definite Islamic influences. ... Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... This article is about Performance art. ... NOK redirects here. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... This article is about the Malian city. ...

Western medieval aesthetics

Surviving medieval art is highly religious in focus, and typically was funded by the Church, powerful ecclesiastical individuals, or wealthy secular patrons. Often the pieces have an intended liturgical function, such as altar pieces or statuary. Figurative examination was typically not an important goal, but being religiously uplifting was. Byzantine monumental Church mosaics are a crowning glory of Medieval Art. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...

Reflection on the nature and function of art and aesthetic experiences follows similar lines. St. Bonaventure’s “Retracing the Arts to Theology” is typical and discusses the skills of the artisan as gifts given by God for the purpose of disclosing God to mankind via four “lights”: the light of skill in mechanical arts which discloses the world of artifacts, as guided by the light of sense perception which discloses the world of natural forms, as guided by the light of philosophy which discloses the world of intellectual truth, as guided by the light of divine wisdom which discloses the world of saving truth. Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ...

Lorsch Gospels 778–820. Charlemagne's Court School.
Lorsch Gospels 778–820. Charlemagne's Court School.

As the medieval world shifts into the Renaissance, art again returns to focus on this world and on secular issues of human life. The philosophy of art of the ancient Greeks and Romans is re-appropriated. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (728x1024, 127 KB) Codex Aureus of Lorsch File links The following pages link to this file: Codex Aureus of Lorsch Carolingian art Categories: Public domain art | Illuminated manuscript images ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (728x1024, 127 KB) Codex Aureus of Lorsch File links The following pages link to this file: Codex Aureus of Lorsch Carolingian art Categories: Public domain art | Illuminated manuscript images ... Folio 72 verso of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch contain an illumination of Christ in Majesty. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...

Modern aesthetics

From the late 17th to the early 20th century Western aesthetics underwent a slow revolution into what is often called modernism. German and British thinkers emphasised beauty as the key component of art and of the aesthetic experience, and saw art as necessarily aiming at beauty. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ...

For Baumgarten aesthetics is the science of the sense experiences, a younger sister of logic, and beauty is thus the most perfect kind of knowledge that sense experience can have. For Kant the aesthetic experience of beauty is a judgment of a subjective but universal truth, since all people should agree that “this rose is beautiful” if it in fact is. However, beauty cannot be reduced to any more basic set of features. For Schiller aesthetic appreciation of beauty is the most perfect reconciliation of the sensual and rational parts of human nature. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (June 17, 1714 _ May 26, 1762) was a German philosopher. ... Kant redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ...

For Hegel all culture is a matter of "absolute spirit" coming to be manifest to itself, stage by stage. Art is the first stage in which the absolute spirit is manifest immediately to sense-perception, and is thus an objective rather than subjective revelation of beauty. For Schopenhauer aesthetic contemplation of beauty is the most free that the pure intellect can be from the dictates of will; here we contemplate perfection of form without any kind of worldly agenda, and thus any intrusion of utility or politics would ruin the point of the beauty. Hegel redirects here. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ...

The British were largely divided into intuitionist and analytic camps. The intuitionists believed that aesthetic experience was disclosed by a single mental faculty of some kind. For the Earl of Shaftesbury this was identical to the moral sense, beauty just is the sensory version of moral goodness. For Wittgenstein aesthetics consisted in the description of a whole culture which is a linguistic impossibility. That which constitutes aesthetics lies out side the realm of the language game. The title of Earl of Shaftesbury was created in 1672 for Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Baron Ashley, a prominent politician in the Cabal then dominating the policies of King Charles II. Lord Shaftesbury holds the subsidiary titles of Baron Ashley, of Wimborne St Giles in the County of Dorset (1661...

William Hogarth, self-portrait, 1745
William Hogarth, self-portrait, 1745

For Hutcheson beauty is disclosed by an inner mental sense, but is a subjective fact rather than an objective one. Analytic theorists like Lord Kames, William Hogarth, and Edmund Burke hoped to reduce beauty to some list of attributes. Hogarth, for example, thinks that beauty consists of (1) fitness of the parts to some design; (2) variety in as many ways as possible; (3) uniformity, regularity or symmetry, which is only beautiful when it helps to preserve the character of fitness; (4) simplicity or distinctness, which gives pleasure not in itself, but through its enabling the eye to enjoy variety with ease; (5) intricacy, which provides employment for our active energies, leading the eye "a wanton kind of chase"; and (6) quantity or magnitude, which draws our attention and produces admiration and awe. Later analytic aestheticians strove to link beauty to some scientific theory of psychology (such as James Mill) or biology (such as Herbert Spencer). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2627, 361 KB) Description: Title: de: Der Maler und sein Mops, Selbstporträt Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 90 × 70 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Tate Gallery Other... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2627, 361 KB) Description: Title: de: Der Maler und sein Mops, Selbstporträt Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 90 × 70 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Tate Gallery Other... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Francis Hutcheson (August 8, 1694–August 8, 1746) was an Irish philosopher and one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696 - December 27, 1782) was a Scottish philosopher of the 18th century. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... James Mill James Mill (April 6, 1773 - June 23, 1836), Scottish historian, economist and philosopher, was born at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie-Pert, Angus, Scotland, the son of James Mill, a shoemaker. ... For other persons named Herbert Spencer, see Herbert Spencer (disambiguation). ...

Post-modern aesthetics and Psychoanalysis

Early twentieth century artists, poets and composers challenged the assumption that beauty was central to art and aesthetics. Various attempts have been made since then to define Post-modern aesthetics.

This challenge, thought to be original, is actually continuous with older aesthetic theory; Aristotle was the first in the Western tradition to classify "beauty" into types as in his theory of drama, and Kant made a distinction between beauty and the sublime. What was new was a refusal to credit the higher status of certain types, where the taxonomy implied a preference for tragedy and the sublime to comedy and the Rococo.

Croce suggested that “expression” is central in the way that beauty was once thought to be central. George Dickie suggested that the sociological institutions of the art world were the glue binding art and sensibility into unities. Marshall McLuhan suggested that art always functions as a "counter-environment" designed to make visible what is usually invisible about a society. Theodor Adorno felt that aesthetics could not proceed without confronting the role of the culture industry in the commodification of art and aesthetic experience. Hal Foster (art critic) attempted to portray the reaction against beauty and Modernist art in The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture. Arthur Danto has described this reaction as "kalliphobia" (after the Greek word for beauty - 'kalos').[18] Brian Massumi suggests to reconsider beauty following the aesthetical thought in the philosophy of Deleuze and Guattari.[19] Benedetto Croce (February 25, 1866 - November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic, idealist philosopher, and politician. ... George Dickie (born 1926 in Palmetto, Florida) is a Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at University of Illinois at Chicago and one of the most influential philosophers of art working in the analytical tradition. ... “McLuhan” redirects here. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Hal Foster Hal Foster, who is the Townsend Martin, Class of 1917, Professor of Art and Archaeology at Princeton University, is an internationally renowned author of books on post-modernism in art. ... Arthur Coleman Danto (b. ... Brian Massumi is an academic, writer and social critic. ... For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ... Gilles Deleuze (January 18, 1925 - November 4, 1995) was a major French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ...

Jean-François Lyotard re-invokes the Kantian distinction between taste and the sublime. Sublime painting, unlike kitsch realism, "...will enable us to see only by making it impossible to see; it will please only by causing pain."[20][21] Jean-François Lyotard (pronounced ; August 10, 1924 â€“ April 21, 1998) was a French philosopher and literary theorist. ... Taste (sociology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ... Kitsch is a term of German origin that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior copy of an existing style. ... Realism is a style of painting that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. ...

Sigmund Freud inaugurated aesthetical thinking in Psychoanalysis mainly via the "Uncanny" as aesthetical affect.[22] Following Freud and Merleau-Ponty,[23] Jacques Lacan approached the aesthetical object in the visual field by the notion of the gaze as lacking and as phallic "objet a" that follows the psychic "masculine" principle of separation and castration.[24] Bracha Ettinger articulates the idea of the unconscious gaze informed by aesthetic affects by a notion of "matrixial gaze" that arises from a psychic "feminine" principle of coemergence in jointness during a "shareable encounter-event" that allows transformative differentiation of the subject.[25][26] Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 - May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl, and often somewhat mistakenly classified as an existentialist thinker because of his close association with Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir, and his distinctly Heideggerian conception of Being. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... Look up Gaze in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Bracha Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ...

Aesthetics in particular fields and art forms

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Film, Television, and Video

Film combines many diverse disciplines, each of which may have their own rules of aesthetics. The aesthetics of cinematography are closely related to still photography, but the movement of the subject(s), or the camera and the intensities, colors, and placement of the lighting are highly important. Sound recording, editing, and mixing are other, highly important areas of film, often closely related with the musical score. As in Theatre, art direction, in the design of the sets and shooting locations also applies, as well as costume design and makeup. All of these disciplines are closely inter-twined and must be brought together by the aesthetic sensibilities of the director. This article is about motion pictures. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Not to be confused with lightning. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... Sheet music is written represenation of music. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... The Academy Awards are the oldest awards ceremony for achievements in motion pictures. ... Costume design is the design of the appearance of the characters in a theater or cinema performance. ... Cosmetics or makeup are substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning. ... Director Herbert Brenon with actress Alla Nazimova on the set of War Brides, 1916 A director is a person who directs the making of a film. ...

Montage, or editing is probably the one discipline unique to film, video, and television. The timing, rhythm and progression of shots form the ultimate composition of the film. This procedure is one of the most critical element of post production, and incorporates sound editing and mixing, as well as the design and execution of digital special effects. For other uses of the word montage, see Montage. ... Post-production occurs in the making of audio recordings, films/movies, photography and digital art, videos and television programs. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ...

In the case of a video installation, the method of presentation becomes critical. The work may be screened on a simple monitor, projected on a wall or other surface, or incorporated into a larger sculptural installation. A video installation may also involve sound, with similar considerations to be made based on speaker design and placement, volume, and tone. Video installation is a contemporary art method that combines video technology with installation art. ... Look up monitor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Two-Dimensional and Plastic Arts

Aesthetic considerations within the visual arts are usually associated with the sense of vision. A painting or sculpture, however, is also perceived spatially by recognized associations and context, and even to some extent by the senses of smell, hearing, and touch. The form of the work can be subject to an aesthetic as much as the content. The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret information from visible light reaching the eyes. ...

In painting, the aesthetic convention that we see a three-dimensional representation rather than a two-dimensional canvas is so well understood that most people do not realize that they are making an aesthetic interpretation. This notion is the basis of abstract impressionism. Abstract Impressionism is a type of abstract painting (not to be confused with Abstract Expressionism, a similar but different movement) where small brushstrokes build and structure large paintings. ...

In the United States during the postwar period, the "push-pull" theories of Hans Hofmann, positing a relation between color and perceived depth, strongly influenced a generation of prominent abstract painters, many of whom studied under Hofmann and were generally associated with abstract expressionism. Hofmann's general attitude toward abstraction as virtually a moral imperative for the serious painter was also extremely influential. Hans Hofmann (1880 - 1966) was an abstract expressionist painter. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ...

Some aesthetic effects available in visual arts include variation, juxtaposition, repetition, field effects, symmetry/asymmetry, perceived mass, subliminal structure, linear dynamics, tension and repose, pattern, contrast, perspective, 3 dimensionality, movement, rhythm, unity/Gestalt, matrixiality and proportion.

Digital Art

A new art form struggling for acceptance is digital art, a by-product of computer programming that raises new questions about what truly constitutes art. Although paralleling many of the aesthetics in traditional media, digital art can additionally draw upon the aesthetic qualities of cross-media tactile relationships; interactivity; autonomous generativity; complexity and interdependence of relationships; suspense; and playfulness. Computer-generated image created by Gilles Tran using POV-Ray 3. ...

Artists working in this type of art are often forced to justify their use of a computer rather than a traditional medium, leading to, like the debate over Warhol's "Brillo Pad Boxes", a question of what constitutes art.

The criticisms of digital art are many. For example, graphics programs allow perfect shading to be achieved with little to no effort. In other types of programs, there is a sense that because of the variety of tools, filters, distortions, etc, that an artist has a veritable image factory at their disposal. The various criticisms ultimately come down to the issue of "what effort is the artist putting into their work?"

The 3d art community frequently references that while the programs they utilize render and shade the objects, their efforts are more akin to the sculptor or architect, presenting an aesthetically arranged, lighted, and textured scene. The users of the other programs such as Photoshop or Gimp point out that while they may have many tools at their disposal, the art itself must be that much more detailed and imaginative to stand out. In both cases there is the challenge of overcoming the barriers of limited technology and the lack of direct contact with one's medium.


Aesthetics in cartography relates to the visual experience of map reading and can take two forms: responses to the map itself as an aesthetic object (e.g., through detail, colour, and form) and also the subject of the map symbolised, often the landscape (e.g., a particular expression of terrain which forms an imagined visual experience of the aesthetic).

Cartographers make aesthetic judgments when designing maps to ensure that the content forms a clear expression of the theme(s). Antique maps are perhaps especially revered due to their aesthetic value, which may seem to be derived from their styles of ornamentation. As such, aesthetics are often wrongly considered to be a by-product of design. If it is taken that aesthetic judgments are produced within a certain social context, they are fundamental to the cartographer's symbolisation and as such are integral to the function of maps.


As opposed to Industrial Design which focuses on the aesthetic qualities of consumer products (see below), the use of aesthetics in marketing concerns itself with the "trade dress" of a product, such as its branding, its commercial representation, or the reputation of its producer. Marketing professionals may tickle the consumer's aesthetic appreciation of sassyness, sophistication, color harmony, stylishness, catchy jingles, slogans, craftsmanship, soothingness, attentiveness, authenticity, or the related perceived experiences associated with product consumption.

Marketing compiles of intriguing the human mind to think in a direction where they would have not previously, or without outside input. Human curiosity, self gain or mental adjustment is what drives Marketing development itself.


Main article: Aesthetics of music

Some of the aesthetic elements expressed in music include lyricism, harmony, hypnotism, emotiveness, temporal dynamics, volume dynamics, resonance, playfulness, color, subtlety, elatedness, depth, and mood (see musical development). Aesthetics in music are often believed to be highly sensitive to their context: what sounds good in modern rock music might sound terrible in the context of the early baroque age. The aesthetics of music or musical aesthetics is the quality and study of the beauty and enjoyment (plaisir and jouissance), the aesthetics, of music. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Musical development is the transformation and restatement of initial material, often contrasted with musical variation, with which it may be difficult to distinguish as a general process. ... This article is about the genre. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ...

Performing arts

Performing arts appeal to our aesthetics of storytelling, grace, balance, class, timing, strength, shock, humor, costume, irony, beauty, drama, suspense, and sensuality. Whereas live stage performance is usually constrained by the physical reality at hand, film performance can further add the aesthetic elements of large-scale action, fantasy, and a complex interwoven musical score. Performance art often consciously mixes the aesthetics of several forms. Role-playing games are sometimes seen as a performing art with an aesthetic structure of their own, called RPG theory. For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed... A film score is a set of musical compositions written to accompany a film. ... This article is about Performance art. ... This article is about traditional role-playing games. ... A role-playing game theory is an academic or critical study of role-playing games (RPGs) as a social or artistic phenomenon. ...


Main article: Literary merit

In poetry, short stories, novels and non-fiction, authors use a variety of techniques to appeal to our aesthetic values. Depending on the type of writing an author may employ rhythm, illustrations, structure, time shifting, juxtaposition, dualism, imagery, fantasy, suspense, analysis, humor/cynicism, and thinking aloud. Literary Merit a written text has Liteary Merit if it is a work of quality, that is if it has some aesthetic value. ... This article is about the art form. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... For the book by Chuck Palahniuk titled Non-fiction, see Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories. ...

In literary aesthetics, the study of "effect" illuminates the deep structures of reading and receiving literary works. These effects may be broadly grouped by their modes of writing and the relationship that the reader assumes with time. Catharsis is the effect of dramatic completion of action in time. Kairosis is the effect of novels whose characters become integrated in time. Kenosis is the effect of lyric poetry which creates a sense of emptiness and timelessness. Catharsis is the Greek Katharsis word meaning purification or cleansing derived from the ancient Greek gerund καθαίρειν transliterated as kathairein to purify, purge, and adjective katharos pure or clean (ancient and modern Greek: καθαρός). // The term in drama refers to a sudden emotional breakdown or climax that constitutes overwhelming feelings of great... Kairosis is the literary effect of fulfillment in time. ... Kenosis is a Greek word for emptiness, which is used as a theological term. ...


A selection of desserts
A selection of desserts

Although food is a basic and frequently experienced commodity, careful attention to the aesthetic possibilities of foodstuffs can turn eating into gastronomy. Chefs inspire our aesthetic enjoyment through the visual sense using colour and arrangement; they inspire our senses of taste and smell using spices, diversity/contrast, anticipation, seduction, and decoration/garnishes. In regard to drinking water, there are formal criteria for aesthetic value including odour, colour, total dissolved solids and clarity. There are numerical standards in the U.S. for aesthetic acceptability of these parameters. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A selection of desserts http://www. ... Food from plant sources Food is any substance normally eaten or drunk by living organisms. ... Gastronomy is the study of relationship between culture and food. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Tap water Mineral Water Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used as such or not. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Bottled mineral water usually contains higher TDS levels than tap water Total dissolved solids (often abbreviated TDS) is an expression for the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid which are present in a molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Note, however, a use of a word translated to "culinary" in Adorno's aesthetics. Adorno distinguishes between technically accurate and "beautiful" musical interpretation, and an interpretation higher which brings out the "truth" in the musical text: interpretations more rehearsed, with more time for rehearsal, but which might sound strange to audiences pandered-to by popular conductors (perhaps in the way Glenn Gould enstranges the music of Beethoven).

Unfortunately for the ordinary reader of Adorno, this isn't something technical such as "original instruments". It is instead the work of art that doesn't pander to what the audience "wants"...its whims.

This is linked to a Marxist interpretation which instead of treating the audience as an all-powerful "customer" adopts a teacherly or even priestly stance "above" the mere audience, something only the most "snobbish" of French chefs would dare, proposing to teach it to like Higher Things.

There are rarefied forms of *haute* cuisine; but note that common sense usually has a horselaugh about precious Yuppies eating designer food which it withholds about concert-goers listening to Berg; your man in the street merely thinks the latter crowd to be odd jobs, and doesn't resent them, meaning that ethical judgements play a role in aesthetic judgements that specialists in ethics, and specialists in aesthetics, systematically disregard...but which artists such as Tolstoy regarded as central.

Based on Adorno's theory of the (merely) culinary as not being "art", this would seem to mean that it is a joke, for an Adornoite (if such a person exists meaningfully), to treat cooking as an art form or eating as art appreciation.

Monty Python would often reverberate with this sort of arcana in a strange way: in the Mr. Creosote passage of The Meaning of Life, an enormously fat man is persuaded by the fawning waiter to have one more sweet whereupon Mr. Creosote throws up all over the dining room. Note that the scene has more claims to be art, despite being nauseating, than designer food.

This MAY be an unconscious comment on any theory of art that blindly equates "fine dining" and a visit to the picture galleries, a sort of tourist equation in which picture galleries are overrun in fact by post-prandial Mr. Creosotes. Even the ordinary man in the street would say that the starving artist visiting the gallery has a "better" apprehension of the higher, more inner, more elusive aura of the art work than Mr. Creosote, which means that for some authors, including Adorno, there is a nexus between ethics (which nearly tracks aesthetics polyphonically, where we use "good" and "bad" in ethics to characterise people and their deeds, and in aesthetics to judge what to buy).

The possibility of a rejection of the culinary in art starts with Kant's theory of the sublime but does not end there; post Holocaust (with its Nazis playing Bach: with Adorno's questions about poetry after Auschwitz) the culinary, and whether the German officer enjoying a "fine" meal has much of anything to do with art, become important aesthetic questions.

A Marxist theory of art would probably conclude that the chef cannot be an artist, lacking autonomy and beholden to the customer, Mr. Creosote, in all regards.

Information technology

Aesthetics in information technology has focused upon the study of human-computer interaction and creating user-friendly devices and software applications. Software itself has aesthetic dimensions ("software aesthetics"), as do information-technology-mediated processes and experiences such as computer video games and virtual reality simulations. Digital culture is a distinct aesthetic to judge the appeal of digital environments such as Web browsers, websites, and icons, as well as visual and aural art produced exclusively with digital technologies. The notion of cyberspace has sometimes been linked to the concept of the sublime. Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... // Human–computer interaction (HCI), alternatively man–machine interaction (MMI) or computer–human interaction (CHI) is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... This article is about the simulation technology. ... Patterns and expressions of human behaviour made possible by computer technology and the information it enables. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... It has been suggested that Virtual world be merged into this article or section. ... In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ...

Aesthetics in information technology do also apply to the act of designing software itself. Numerous programmers profess to experiencing a dimension of elegance in the functionality and structuring of software at the source code level.[27] For example, a short, powerful expression that clearly expresses the intent of the code can be considered "beautiful" to the poor programmer charged with maintaining said code. This contrasts with code that is (as code all too often is) short, cryptic, unclear, and unnecessarily "clever". In-line documentation, while not strictly code, can be considered something a programmer would need to be good at in order to write beautiful code. Correctly done, documentation can accentuate the affect of beautiful code, when it is clear, concise, explains the intent of the programmer, and expands the understanding that one can gain by simply looking at the code. Comments that are redundant (only explain what the code already explains), cryptic, and overly long or short can detract from beautiful code. Aesthetics in programming can also have a practical level: Under the right conditions, elegant code can run faster and more efficiently, and (most importantly) be less prone to errors. [28] Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... In computing, a programmer is someone who does computer programming and develops computer software. ... Elegance is the attribute of being unusually effective and simple. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...

Critics of this would say that the need to justify "good design" by reference to "cost savings" mean that "good design" isn't "art" insofar as art is autonomous, and many aestheticians would have to say that art emerges in applications only in excess of cost savings. In information technology, theorists of "user friendliness" have to justify their "user friendly" applications and often disregard basic statistics when most users like a system, but a significant minority hate it.

That is, they may discard the standard deviation of their data in order to sell a good design for the best price, and this has nothing to do with art insofar as art is a useful signifier (if you cost-justify everything you are a businessman and not an artist).

A folk phenomenon among real programmers is in fact their frequent hatred of practice described in books as best practice and good design. A Marxist theory of industrial "art" would ascribe this to alienation, in which subaltern programmers never produce code they own in any meaningful sense, with the problem that the same sort of alienation, soldiering, and bloody-mindedness appeared, it seems, in Soviet computing shops.

The most sophisticated writings on the topic of aesthetics are to be found in the late Edsger Wybe Dijkstra's corpus of papers and notes on computing: in Dijsktra, the art is real, but Ying with respect to the Yang of applications; Dijkstra seemed to have refused any analysis of programming as other than applied mathematics and, strange to say, never pursued what Adorno (the midcentury theoretician of whom Dijkstra was apparently unaware) called a purely culinary elegance...despite the protests of others that his work was "hard to digest", in Adorno's words not very culinary.

Dijkstra's beauty refused the notion of accessibility as do many "artistic" works ancient and modern: it was hard as is the Grosse Fuge, Beethoven's syncopated and neo-primitive late movement. In fact, no aesthetician makes "user friendliness" canonical and necessary in a work of art, strange to say in an era when supposedly the masses rule through the market; for most art theorists, it is nice if the canaille can enjoy some pretty rondo of Mozart and whistle it on the street, but would deny that this property must be shared by the Masonic prelude and fugue or the Requiem mass.

This makes strange any claim that a programmer making his work "user friendly" to all comers is some sort of artist by virtue of that. For Dijsktra, truth was primary, and beauty the automatic result.


Main article: Mathematical beauty

The aesthetics of mathematics are often compared with music and poetry. Hungarian mathematician Paul Erdős expressed his views on the indescribable beauty of mathematics when he said "Why are numbers beautiful? It's like asking why is Beethoven's Ninth Symphony beautiful." Math appeals to the "senses" of logic, order, novelty, elegance, and discovery. Some concepts in math with specific aesthetic application include sacred ratios in geometry, the intuitiveness of axioms, the complexity and intrigue of fractals, the solidness and regularity of polyhedra, and the serendipity of relating theorems across disciplines. An example of beauty in method - a simple and elegant proof of the Pythagorean theorem. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Paul ErdÅ‘s (Hungarian: ErdÅ‘s Pál, in English occasionally Paul Erdos or Paul Erdös, March 26, 1913 – September 20, 1996), was an immensely prolific (and famously eccentric) Hungarian-born mathematician. ... This article is about the composition. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, there are three related meanings of the term polyhedron: in the traditional meaning it is a 3-dimensional polytope, and in a newer meaning that exists alongside the older one it is a bounded or unbounded generalization of a polytope of any dimension. ... Look up Serendipity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Cognitive science has also considered aesthetics, with the advent of neuroesthetics, pioneered by Semir Zeki, which seeks to explain the prominence of great art as an embodiment of biological principles of the brain, namely that great works of art capture the essence of things just as vision and the brain capture the essentials of the world from the ever-changing stream of sensory input. See also Vogelkop Bowerbird. Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Neuroesthetics is a relatively recent subdiscipline of empirical aesthetics. ... Semir Zeki is Professor of Neurobiology at University College London. ... Binomial name Amblyornis inornata (Schlegel, 1871) The Vogelkop Bowerbird, Amblyornis inornata, is a medium-sized, up to 25cm long bowerbird of the mountains of the Vogelkop Peninsula at Western New Guinea, Indonesia. ...

Industrial design

Industrial Design: Designers heed many aesthetic qualities to improve the marketability of manufactured products: smoothness, shininess/reflectivity, texture, pattern, curviness, color, simplicity, usability, velocity, symmetry, naturalness, and modernism. The staff of the Design Aesthetics section focuses on design, appearance and the way people perceive products. Design aesthetics is interested in the appearance of products; the explanation and meaning of this appearance is studied mainly in terms of social and cultural factors. The distinctive focus of the section is research and education in the field of sensory modalities in relation to product design. These fields of attention generate design baggage that enables engineers to design products, systems, and services, and match them to the correct field of use. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... The Barcelona Chair is so named because it was exclusively designed for the Barcelona World Fair of 1929 as part of the German Pavilion. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ...

Architecture and interior design

Although structural integrity, cost, the nature of building materials, and the functional utility of the building contribute heavily to the design process, architects can still apply aesthetic considerations to buildings and related architectural structures. Common aesthetic design principles include ornamentation, edge delineation, texture, flow, solemnity, symmetry, color, granularity, the interaction of sunlight and shadows, transcendence, and harmony. This article is about building architecture. ...

Interior designers, being less constrained by structural concerns, have a wider variety of applications to appeal to aesthetics. They may employ color, color harmony, wallpaper, ornamentation, furnishings, fabrics, textures, lighting, various floor treatments, as well as adhere to aesthetic concepts such as feng shui. It has been suggested that Interior decoration be merged into this article or section. ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ...

Urban life

Towns and cities have been planned with aesthetics in mind; here in Bristol (England), 19th century private sector development was designed to appear attractive.
Towns and cities have been planned with aesthetics in mind; here in Bristol (England), 19th century private sector development was designed to appear attractive.

Nearly half of mankind lives in cities; although it represents a lofty goal, planning and achieving urban aesthetics (beautification) involves a good deal of historical luck, happenstance, and indirect gestalt. Nevertheless, aesthetically pleasing cities share certain traits: ethnic and cultural variety, numerous microclimates that promote a diversity of vegetation, sufficient public transportation, Public art and freedom of expression in the community in the forms of sculpture, graffiti and street art, a range of build-out (or zoning) that creates both densely and sparsely populated areas, scenic neighboring geography (oceans or mountains), public spaces and events such as parks and parades, musical variety through local radio or street musicians, and enforcement of laws that abate noise, crime, and pollution. Clifton Suspension Bridge, seen from a sliproad off Brunel Way near Hotwells (larger version). ... Clifton Suspension Bridge, seen from a sliproad off Brunel Way near Hotwells (larger version). ... This article is about the English city. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... Note: Not to be confused with beatification Beautification is the process of making visual improvements in a town or city, typically to an urban area. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ... Street art is any art developed in public spaces — that is, in the streets — though the term usually refers to art of an illicit nature, as opposed to government sponsored initiatives. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... United States Marines on parade. ...

Landscape design

Landscape designers draw upon design elements such as axis, line, landform, horizontal and vertical planes, texture, and scale to create aesthetic variation within the landscape. They may additionally make use of aesthetic elements such as pools or fountains of water, plants, seasonal variance, stonework, fragrance, exterior lighting, statues, and lawns. Central Park, like most city parks, is an example of landscape architecture. ...

Fashion Design

Fashion designers use a variety of techniques to allow people to express the truth about their unconscious minds by way of their clothing. To create wearable personality designers use fabric, cut, colour, scale, references to the past, texture, color harmony, distressing, transparency, insignia, accessories, beading and embroidery. It is also used to find the average size of things, to make a product suitable for a high number of customers. Fashion design is the applied art dedicated to clothing and lifestyle accessories created within the cultural and social influences of a specific time. ...


  1. ^ Kelly (1998) p. ix
  2. ^ Review by Tom Riedel (Regis University)
  3. ^ Freeman, Lindsey (Phd) Remembering Debord cannon-beach.net
  4. ^ Holm, Ivar (2006). Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial design: How attitudes, orientations, and underlying assumptions shape the built environment. Oslo School of Architecture and Design. ISBN 8254701741.
  5. ^ Consider Clement Greenberg’s arguments in "On Modernist Painting" (1961), reprinted in Aesthetics: A Reader in Philosophy of Arts.
  6. ^ Immanuel Kant, The Critique of Judgment.
  7. ^ Davies, 1991, Carroll, 2000, et al.
  8. ^ a b Danto, 2003
  9. ^ Novitz, 1992
  10. ^ Brian Massumi, Deleuze, Guattari and the Philosophy of Expression, CRCL, 24:3, 1997.
  11. ^ Clement Greenberg, “On Modernist Painting”.
  12. ^ Tristan Tzara, Sept Manifestes Dada.
  13. ^ Denis Dutton's Aesthetic Universals summarized by Steven Pinker in The Blank Slate
  14. ^ Grotesque entry in Kelly 1998, pp.338-341
  15. ^ Davies, Penelope J.E. Denny, Walter B. Hofrichter, Frima Fox. Jacobs, Joseph. Roberts, Ann M. Simon, David L. Janson's History of Art, Prentice Hall; 2007, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Seventh Edition, ISBN 0131934554 pg. 277
  16. ^ The Arab Contribution to Islamic Art: From the Seventh to the Fifteenth Centuries, Wijdan Ali, American Univ in Cairo Press, December 10 1999, ISBN 9774244761
  17. ^ From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of the Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th Century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art, Wijdan Ali, EJOS (Electronic Journal of Oriental Studies), volume IV, issue 7, p. 1-24, 2001
  18. ^ 'Kalliphobia in Contemporary Art' in Art Journal v. 63 no. 2 (Summer 2004) p. 24-35
  19. ^ Massumi, Brian, (ed.), A Shock to Thought. Expression after Deleuze and Guattari. London & NY: Routeledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-23804-8
  20. ^ Lyotard, Jean-Françoise, What is Postmodernism?, in The Postmodern Condition, Minnesota and Manchester, 1984.
  21. ^ Lyotard, Jean-Françoise, Scriptures: Diffracted Traces, in Theory, Culture and Society, Volume 21, Number 1, 2004.
  22. ^ Freud, Sigmund, "The Uncanny" (1919). Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Work of Sigmund Freud, 17:234-36. London: The Hogarth Press
  23. ^ Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1964), "The Visible and the Invisible". Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0-810-10457-1
  24. ^ Lacan, Jacques, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis (The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book XI), NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 1998. ISBN 0-393-31775-7.
  25. ^ Ettinger, Bracha 1995
  26. ^ Doyle, Laura (Ed.), Bodies of Resistance. Evaston: Northwestern University Press. 2001. ISBN 0-8101-1847-5
  27. ^ Preface to the First Edition
  28. ^ Donald Knuth, "Literate Programming", http://www.literateprogramming.com/knuthweb.pdf

Regis University is a private, co-educational Roman Catholic university in the United States. ... Kant redirects here. ... The Critique of Judgement (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), also known as the third critique, is a philosophical work by Immanuel Kant. ... Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ... Denis Dutton is a professor of philosophy at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature is a 2002 book (published by Penguin Putnam, ISBN 0670031518) by Steven Pinker arguing against tabula rasa models of psychology, claiming that the human mind is shaped by evolutionary psychological adaptations. ... Ali was born in Amman, Jordan where she currently resides. ... Ali was born in Amman, Jordan where she currently resides. ...


  • Danto, Arthur (2003), The Abuse of Beauty: Aesthetics and the Concept of Art.
  • Davies, Stephen (1991), Definitions of Art.
  • Ettinger, Bracha L. (1994), The Matrixial Gaze. Reprinted by Feminist Arts & Histories Network - Dept. of Fine Art, Leeds University, 1995, ISBN 0-9524-899. Reprinted in: The Eurydice Series. Drawing Papers n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001.
  • Ettinger, Bracha L. (2006), The Matrixial Borderspace. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN ISBN 0-8166-3587-0
  • Kelly, Michael (Editor in Chief) (1998) Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press. 4 voll., pp. XVII-521, pp. 555, pp. 536, pp. 572; 2224 total pages; 100 b/w photos; ISBN13: 978-0-19-511307-5. Covers philosophical, historical, sociological, and biographical aspects of Art and Aesthetics worldwide. reviews: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]
  • Novitz, David (1992), The Boundaries of Art.

Arthur Coleman Danto (b. ... Stephen John Davies (born January 2, 1969 in Parkes, NSW) is a former field hockey striker from Australia, who participated in three Summer Olympics for his native country, starting in 1992. ... Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Ettinger, Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ... Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Ettinger, Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

Further reading

The London Philosophy Study Guide offers many suggestions on what to read, depending on the student's familiarity with the subject: Aesthetics

  • Augros, Robert M., Stanciu, George N., The New Story of Science: mind and the universe, Lake Bluff, Ill.: Regnery Gateway, c1984. ISBN 0895268337 (has significant material on Art, Science and their philosophies)
  • Feagin and Maynard, Aesthetics; Oxford readers1997.
  • Thomas Wartenberg, The Nature of Art. 2006.
  • John Bender and Gene Blocker Contemporary Philosophy of Art: Readings in Analytic Aesthetics 1993.
  • Noel Carroll, Theories of Art Today. 2000.
  • Benedetto Croce, Aesthetic as Science of Expression and General Linguistic, 1902
  • E. S. Dallas, The Gay Science - in 2 volumes, on the aesthetics of poetry, published in 1866.
  • Alain de Botton, The Architecture of Happiness. Pantheon, 2006.
  • Terry Eagleton, The Ideology of the Aesthetic. Blackwell, 1990. ISBN 0-631-16302-6
  • Penny Florence and Nicola Foster (eds.), Differential Aesthetics. London: Ashgate, 2000. ISBN 0-7546-1493-X
  • Hans Hofmann and Sara T Weeks; Bartlett H Hayes; Addison Gallery of American Art; Search for the real, and other essays (Cambridge, Mass., M.I.T. Press, 1967) OCLC 1125858
  • Michael Ann Holly and Keith Moxey (eds.), Art History and Visual Studies. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-300-09789-1
  • David Goldblatt and Lee Brown, ed. Aesthetics: A Reader in the Philosophy of the Arts. 1997.
  • Evelyn Hatcher (ed.), Art as Culture: An Introduction to the Anthropology of Art. 1999
  • Alexander J. Kent, "Aesthetics: A Lost Cause in Cartographic Theory?" The Cartographic Journal, 42(2) 182-8, 2005.
  • Peter Kivy (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics. 2004
  • Carolyn Korsmeyer (ed.), Aesthetics: The Big Questions. 1998
  • Martinus Nijhoff, A History of Six Ideas: an Essay in Aesthetics, The Hague, 1980.
  • Griselda Pollock, "Does Art Think?" In: Dana Arnold and Margaret Iverson (eds.) Art and Thought. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2003. 129-174. ISBN 0-631-22715-6.
  • Griselda Pollock, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive. Routledge, 2007. ISBN 0415413745.
  • George Santayana, The Sense of Beauty. Being the Outlines of Aesthetic Theory. (1896) New York, Modern Library, 1955.
  • Elaine Scarry, On Beauty and Being Just. Princeton, 2001. ISBN 9780691089591
  • Friedrich Schiller, (1795), On the Aesthetic Education of Man. Dover Publications, 2004.
  • Alan Singer & Allen Dunn (eds.), Literary Aesthetics: A Reader. Blackwell Publishing Limited, 2000. ISBN 978-0631208693
  • Władysław Tatarkiewicz, History of Aesthetics, 3 vols. (1–2, 1970; 3, 1974), The Hague, Mouton.
  • Leo Tolstoy, What Is Art?
  • John M. Valentine, Beginning Aesthetics: An Introduction To The Philosophy of Art. McGraw-Hill, 2006. ISBN 978-0073537542
  • John Whitehead, Grasping for the Wind. 2001.
  • Richard Wollheim, Art and its objects, 2nd edn, 1980, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521 29706 0

John Bender is a character from John Hughes 1985 film The Breakfast Club. ... Benedetto Croce (February 25, 1866 - November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic, idealist philosopher, and politician. ... Eneas Sweetland Dallas (1828-1879) was a Victorian-era writer and journalist for The Times. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Alain de Botton, (born 20 December 1969 in Zurich, Switzerland) is a writer. ... Terry Eagleton (born in Salford, Lancashire (now Greater Manchester), England, on February 22, 1943) is a British literary critic and philosopher. ... Hans Hofmann (1880 - 1966) was an abstract expressionist painter. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... David Goldblatt (born November 29, 1930) is a South African photographer who was born in Randfontein, Gauteng Province. ... Dr. Lee P. Brown had a successful career in law enforcement for almost four decades before being elected the mayor of Houston, Texas on December 6, 1997. ... Martinus Nijhoff (b. ... George Santayana George Santayana (December 16, 1863, Madrid – September 26, 1952, Rome), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. ... Elaine Scarry (born 30 June 1946), a professor of English and American Literature and Language, is the Walter M. Cabot Professor of Aesthetics and the General Theory of Value at Harvard University. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Tatarkiewicz WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Tatarkiewicz (April 3, 1886, Warsaw – April 4, 1980, Warsaw) was a Polish philosopher, historian of philosophy, historian of art, esthetician, and author of works in ethics. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , Russian pronunciation:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo (Lyof, Lyoff) Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... What Is Art? (1897) is a nonfictional essay by Leo Tolstoy in which he argues against numerous aesthetic theories which define art in terms of the good, truth, and especially beauty. ... Another John Whitehead is a former British ambassador to Japan. ... Richard Wollheim (5 May 1923 – 4 November 2003) was a British philosopher. ...

See also

In England in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, an aesthete was a person who was usually well educated, had exaggerated tastes and cultivated a style of dress and manner calculated to annoy the mainstream of intellectual society. ... The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth-century Britain. ... Aesthetic relativism is the philosophical view that the judgement of beauty is relative to individuals, cultures, time periods and contexts, and that there are no universal criteria of beauty. ... The Al-Huda Islamic Charitable Trust - (HICT) of Canterbury was established in Christchurch in July 1998. ... For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ... í Cool is considered by several notable professors to be a complex, black African philosophical construct that encompasses certain fundamental elements which permeate indigenous, or traditional, African cultures. ... Look up Gaze in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with Golden mean (philosophy), the felicitous middle between two extremes, Golden numbers, an indicator of years in astronomy and calendar studies, or the Golden Rule. ... This description of the history of aesthetics before the twentieth century is based on an article from the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... This article is proposed to be deleted, because of the following concern: nn self promotion If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... Iki (「いき」, often 粋) is one of traditional aesthetic ideals in Japan. ... List of aestheticians, aesthetes, or aestheticists, alphabetically: Abhinavagupta Joseph Addison Theodor Adorno Virgil Aldrich Anandavardhana John Anderson Aristotle (see Poetics and Rhetoric) Rudolf Arnheim Mazen Asfour Georg Anton Friedrich Ast Jody Azzouni Mikhail Bakhtin Yusuf Balasagun Béla Balázs Roland Barthes Georges Bataille Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten Monroe Beardsley Vissarion... List of topics in philosophical aesthetics. ... Lookism is discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance. ... Marxist aesthetics refers to a theory of aesthetics based on, or derived from, the theories of Karl Marx. ... Michel Tapié (Michel Tapié de Céleyran, 1909-1987) an internationally active French critic, curator, and collector of art, as well as an important artist in his own right, was an early and influential theorist and practitioner of tachisme, which is generally regarded as the European equivalent of abstract expressionism. ... Neuroesthetics is a relatively recent subdiscipline of empirical aesthetics. ... Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen) is a 1764 book by Immanuel Kant. ... Paul Hartal (1936 –) is a Canadian painter and poet, born in Szeged, Hungary. ... For other uses, see Perfection (disambiguation). ... Physical attractiveness refers to the perception of an individual as physically beautiful by other people. ... Postmodern art is a term used to describe art which is thought to be in contradiction to some aspect of modernism, or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Arthur Schopenhauers aesthetics flow from his doctrine of the primacy of the Will as the thing in itself, the ground of life and all being; and from his judgment that the Will is evil. ... The Semiotics of Ideal Beauty examines whether there can ever be an objective measurement of beauty or whether the concept and appreciation of beauty will always remain in flux as cultures evolve and establish new standards of physical attractiveness. ... In a species that reproduces sexually, sexual attraction is an attraction to other members of the same species for sexual or erotic activity. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... For the band, see Sublime (band), or their third album Sublime (album). ... Taste can refer to ones appreciation for aesthetic quality. ... Georges Rouaults Head of Christ Theology and the Arts (or, Theological Aesthetics) is an academic subdiscipline of theological studies which examines the relationship between: theology (i. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Japanese tea house which reflects the Wabi-Sabi aesthetic Wabi-sabi (in Kanji: 侘寂) represents a comprehensive Japanese world view or aesthetic centred on the acceptance of transience. ...

External links

Aesthetics and culture

Art education

Aesthetics in specific arts

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Performing arts

Culinary aesthetics

Information technology

Digital aesthetics

  • DigitalThinkTank.Org

History of aesthetics

For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ... This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with Neo-Platonism. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Filled with OR and completely unsourced. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... Philosophy is a broad field of knowledge in which the definition of knowledge itself is one of the subjects investigated. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to philosophy, beginning with the letters A through C. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. ... The alphabetical list of p is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. ... Philosophies: particular schools of thought, styles of philosophy, or descriptions of philosophical ideas attributed to a particular group or culture - listed in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of topics relating to philosophy that end in -ism. ... A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. ... This is a list of philosophical lists. ... Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Philosophy of action is chiefly concerned with human action, intending to distinguish between activity and passivity, voluntary, intentional, culpable and involuntary actions, and related question. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research, which studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Philosophical anthropology is the philosophical discipline that seeks to unify the several empirical investigations and phenomenological explorations of human nature in an effort to understand human beings as both creatures of their environment and creators of their own values. ... Philosophy of Humor is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the philosophical study of humor. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Philosophy and literature is the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Some of the questions relating to the philosophy of music are: What, exactly is music (what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for it)? What is the relationship between music and emotion? Peter Kivy, Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University, in particular, sets out to argue how music, which is... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... Metaphilosophy (from Greek meta + philosophy) is the study of the subject and matter, methods and aims of philosophy. ... Philosophy of physics is the study of the fundamental, philosophical questions underlying modern physics, the study of matter and energy and how they interact. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Philosophy of psychology typically refers to a set of issues at the theoretical foundations of modern psychology. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... Philosophy of social science is the scholarly elucidation and debate of accounts of the nature of the social sciences, their relations to each other, and their relations to the natural sciences (see natural science). ... The Philosophy of technology is a philosophical field dedicated to studying the nature of technology and its social effects. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim... Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society or critical social theory, a label used by the Frankfurt School, i. ... This page is about the school of philosophy. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Deontological ethics or deontology (Greek: δέον (deon) meaning obligation or duty) is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions. ... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Epiphenomenalism is a view in philosophy of mind according to which some or all mental states are mere epiphenomena (side-effects or by-products) of physical states of the world. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Functionalism is a theory of the mind in contemporary philosophy, developed largely as an alternative to both the identity theory of mind and behaviorism. ... This article does not cite any sources. ... Hegelianism is a philosophy developed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which can be summed up by a favorite motto by Hegel, the rational alone is real, which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Kant redirects here. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... The New Philosophers (French nouveaux philosophes) were a group of French philosophers (for example, André Glucksmann and Bernard Henri-Lévy) who appeared in the early 1970s, as critics of the previously-fashionable philosophers (roughly speaking, the post-structuralists). ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Moral particularism is the view that there are no moral principles and moral judgement can be found only as one decides particular cases, either real or imagined. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Philosophical scepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures. ... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Aesthetics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] (7342 words)
Aesthetics may be defined narrowly as the theory of beauty, or more broadly as that together with the philosophy of art.
In fact, he thought the term “aesthetic” could be used in all cases, rejecting the idea that there was some authorized way of using the word just to apply to surface or formal features— the artwork as a thing in itself.
A study of Aesthetics from the eighteenth century onwards, from the point of view of a Marxist, with particular attention to German thinkers.
ArtLex on Aesthetics (423 words)
There are many aesthetic theories, including imitationalism, emotionalism and formalism.
The American Society for Aesthetics is the main professional organization for aesthetics in the United States, promoting study, research, discussion and publication in aesthetics.
The International Institute of Applied Aesthetics is an independent academic institute established in Lahti, Finland, in 1993 by the University of Helsinki, the Finnish Society for Aesthetics, the city of Lahti, and the Päijät-Häme Association for Higher Education.
  More results at FactBites »



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