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Encyclopedia > Aesop's Fables
Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel. Here he is shown wearing 15th century German clothing
Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel. Here he is shown wearing 15th century German clothing

The Aesop's Fables refers to a collection of fables credited to Aesop (620560 BC), a slave and story-teller that lived in Ancient Greece. Aesop's Fables have become a blanket term for collections of brief fables, usually involving personified animals. The fables remain a popular choice for moral education of children today. Many stories included in Aesop's Fables, such as The Fox and the Grapes (from which the idiom "sour grapes" was derived), The Tortoise and the Hare, The North Wind and the Sun and The Boy Who Cried Wolf, are well-known throughout the world. Download high resolution version (1628x1604, 1004 KB)Depiction of Aesop from the Nuremberg Chronicle. ... Download high resolution version (1628x1604, 1004 KB)Depiction of Aesop from the Nuremberg Chronicle. ... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel. ... Depiction of God creating the world Juvenal The Nuremberg Chronicle is one of the best documented early printed books. ... Hartmann Schedel, a german humanist and historian (* February 13, 1440 in Nuremberg, † November 28, 1514 in Nuremberg), was one of the first cartographers to make use of the printing press. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... It has been suggested that folding clothes be merged into this article or section. ... In its strict sense a fable is a short story or folk tale embodying a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim. ... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC Events and Trends 627 BC - Death of Assurbanipal, king of Assyria; he is succeeded by Assur_etel_ilani (approximate... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC Events and Trends 562 BC - Amel-Marduk succeeds Nebuchadnezzar as king of Babylon 560 BC - Neriglissar succeeds... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Ancient Greek world, circa 550 BC Ancient Greece is the period in Greek history which lasted for around one thousand years and ended with the rise of Christianity. ... A blanket term is a word or phrase that is used to describe multiple groups of related things. ... Phillipp Veitts Germania (1877) a personification of Germany. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... The Fox and the Grapes is a fable attributed to Aesop. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... The Tortoise and the Hare or The Hare and the Tortoise is a fable attributed to Aesop. ... The North Wind and the Sun is a fable attributed to Aesop. ... The Boy Who Cried Wolf, also known as The Shepherd Boy and the Wolf, is a fable by Aesop. ...


In his Vita by Philostratus, Apollonius of Tyana, the 1st century AD philosopher, is recorded as having said about Aesop: Philostratus, was the name of several, three (or four), Greek sophists of the Roman imperial period: Philostratus the Athenian (c. ... Apollonius of Tyana (13 March 2 – 98?) was a Neo-Pythagorean philosopher and teacher of Greek origin. ... Tyana was an ancient city of Anatolia, in modern south-eastern Turkey. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

...like those who dine well off the plainest dishes, he made use of humble incidents to teach great truths, and after serving up a story he adds to it the advice to do a thing or not to do it. Then, too, he was really more attached to truth than the poets are; for the latter do violence to their own stories in order to make them probable; but he by announcing a story which everyone knows not to be true, told the truth by the very fact that he did not claim to be relating real events.
And there is another charm about him, namely, that he puts animals in a pleasing light and makes them interesting to mankind. For after being brought up from childhood with these stories, and after being as it were nursed by them from babyhood, we acquire certain opinions of the several animals and think of some of them as royal animals, of others as silly, of others as witty, and others as innocent. —Life of Apollonius of Tyana, book v.14.

Contents

Aesop

Main article: Aesop

Aesop (from the Greek ΑἴσωποςAisopos), famous for his fables, was a slave who lived between 620 and 560 BC in Ancient Greece. The place of Aesop's birth is uncertain. All — Thrace, Phrygia, Ethiopia, Samos, Athens and Sardis — claim the honour. Little was known about him from credible records, except that he was at one point freed from slavery and that he eventually died in Delphi. In fact, the obscurity shrouding his life has led some scholars to deny his existence altogether. Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel. ... In its strict sense a fable is a short story or folk tale embodying a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim. ... Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... Samos (Greek Σάμος) is a Greek island in the Eastern Aegean Sea, located between the island of Chios to the North and the archipelagic complex of the Dodecanese islands to the South and in particular the island of Patmos and off the coast of Turkey, on what was formely known as... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece and the birthplace of democracy. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, (also Sardes, Greek: Σάρδεις), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, and... The amphitheatre, seen from above. ...


Origins

According to the Greek historian Herodotus, the fables were invented by a slave named Aesop, who lived in Ancient Greece during the 6th century BC. While some suggested that Aesop did not actually exist, and that the fables attributed to him are folktales of unknown origins, Aesop was indeed mentioned in several other Ancient Greek works – Aristophanes, in his comedy The Wasps, represented the protagonist Philocleon as having learnt the "absurdities" of Aesop from conversation at banquets; Plato wrote in Phaedo that Socrates whiled away his jail time turning some of Aesop's fables "which he knew" into verses; and Demetrius of Phalerum compiled the fables into a set of ten books (Lopson Aisopeion sunagogai) for the use of orators, which had been lost. There was also an edition in elegiac verse by an anonymous author, which was often cited in the Suda. A historian is someone who writes history, and history is a written accounting of the past. ... Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: , Herodotos Halikarnasseus) was a Dorian Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC - ca. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , c. ... The Wasps is a comedy by Aristophanes. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Phaidon be merged into this article or section. ... Socrates (Greek: Σωκράτης, invariably anglicized as , SÇ’cratÄ“s; 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... Demetrius Phalereus ( - died approximately 280 BC) was an Athenian orator and one of the first Peripatetics. ... Elegiac refers either to those compositions that are like elegies or to a specific poetic meter used in Classical elegies. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ...


The first extensive translation of Aesop into Latin was done by Phaedrus, a freedman of Augustus in this 1st century AD, although at least one fable had already been translated by the poet Ennius. Avianus also translated forty two of the fables into Latin elegiacs, probably in the 4th century AD. Phaedrus, ¹ (15 B.C. – AD 50), Roman fabulist, was by birth a Macedonian and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. ... A Freedman or freedwoman (gender-neutral: freedperson) is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Quintus Ennius (239 - 169 BC) was a writer during the period of the Roman Republic, and is often considered the father of Roman poetry. ... Avianus, a Latin writer of fables, placed by some critics in the age of the Antonines, by others as late as the 6th century AD. The 42 fables which bear his name are dedicated to a certain Theodosius, whose learning is spoken of in most flattering terms. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ...


The collection under the name of Aesop's Fables evolved from the late Greek version of Babrius, who turned them into choliambic verses, at an uncertain time between 3rd century BC and 3rd century AD. In about 100 BC, Indian philosopher Syntipas translated Babrius into Syriac, from where Andreopulos translated back to Greek, since original Greek scripts had all been lost. Aesop's fables and the Panchatantra share about a dozen tales, leading to discussions whether the Greeks learned these fables from Indian storytellers or the other way, or if the influences were mutual. Babrius was the author of a collection of fables written in Greek. ... In ancient Greek and Latin literature, choliambic verse referred to a limping or imperfect iambic trimeter, having a spondee as the last foot, a metre originally pioneered by the insult-poet Hipponax. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 3rd century BC started on January 1, 300 BC and ended on December 31, 201 BC. // Events The Pyramid of the Moon, one of several monuments built in Teotihuacán Teotihuacán, Mexico begun The first two Punic Wars between Carthage... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC 102 BC 101 BC - 100 BC - 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC 95... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... Syntipas (the Greek form of Sindibad or Sendabar) was an Indian philosopher supposed to have lived about 100 B.C., and the reputed author of a collection of tales known generally in Europe as The Story of the Seven Wise Masters. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Panchatantra [1] (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters) or Kelileh va Dimneh or Anvar-i-Suhayli [2][3] or The Lights of Canopus (in Persian)[4] or Kalilag and Damnag (in Syriac)[5] or Kalila and Dimna (also Kalilah and Dimnah, Arabic كليلة و دمنة Kalila wa Dimna)[6] or The...


In the 9th century, Ignatius Diaconus, created a version of fifty-five fables in choliambic tetrameters, into which stories from Oriental sources were added, ultimately mutated from the Sanskrit Panchatantra. From these collections the 14th-century monk Maximus Planudes compiled the collection which has come down under the name of Aesop.[1] As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... In poetry, a tetrameter is a line of four metrical feet: And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea (Anapaest tetrameter) (Byron, The Destruction of Sennacherib) You who are bent and bald and blind (Iambic tetrameter, except for the first foot which is a trochee) (W... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... The Panchatantra [1] (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters) or Kelileh va Dimneh or Anvar-i-Suhayli [2][3] or The Lights of Canopus (in Persian)[4] or Kalilag and Damnag (in Syriac)[5] or Kalila and Dimna (also Kalilah and Dimnah, Arabic كليلة و دمنة Kalila wa Dimna)[6] or The... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Maximus Planudes (c. ...


In 1484, William Caxton, the first printer of books in English, printed a version of Aesop's Fables, which was brought up to date by Sir Roger L'Estrange in 1692. An example of the fables in Caxton's collection follows: Events January 25 - Peter Arbues, chief of the Spanish Inquisition, is assassinated when he is praying in the cathedral at Saragossa, Spain July 6 - Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of Congo River December 5 - Pope Innocent VIII gives the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and... William Caxton (c. ... The word printer is used to describe a company that provides commercial printing services, involving typesetting, printing and book-binding. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Roger LEstrange (1616–1704) was an English pamphleteer and author, and staunch defender of royalist claims. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ...

   
Aesop's Fables
Men ought not to leue that thynge whiche is sure & certayne / for hope to haue the vncertayn / as to vs reherceth this fable of a fyssher whiche with his lyne toke a lytyll fysshe whiche sayd to hym / My frend I pray the / doo to me none euylle / ne putte me not to dethe / For now I am nought / for to be eten / but whanne I shalle be grete / yf thow come ageyne hyther / of me shalt thow mowe haue grete auaylle / For thenne I shalle goo with the a good whyle / And the Fyssher sayd to the fysshe Syn I hold the now / thou shalt not scape fro me / For grete foly hit were to me for to seke the here another tyme.
   
Aesop's Fables

The most reproduced modern English translations were made by Rev. George Fyler Townsend (18141900). Ben E. Perry, the editor of Aesopic fables of Babrius and Phaedrus for the Loeb Classical Library, compiled a numbered index by type. The edition by Olivia Temple and Robert Temple, titled The Complete Fables by Aesop, although the fables are not complete here since fables from Babrius, Phaedrus and other major ancient sources have been omitted. More recently, in 2002 a translation by Laura Gibbs was published by Oxford World's Classics, entitled Aesop's Fables. This book includes 359 fables and has selections from all the major Greek and Latin sources. Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... Reverend George Fyler Townsend (1814-1900) was the translator of the standard English edition of Aesops Fables. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Phaedrus, ¹ (15 B.C. – AD 50), Roman fabulist, was by birth a Macedonian and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. ... The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each... Robert K. G. Temple (born in the U.S. in 1945) is an American author best known for his controversial book, The Sirius Mystery (1976; though its writing began in 1967) which presents the idea that the Dogon people preserve the tradition of an extraterrestrial contact, contact with intelligent extraterrestrial... Phaedrus, ¹ (15 B.C. – AD 50), Roman fabulist, was by birth a Macedonian and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. ...


Aesop's Fables in other languages

  • Towards the end of the 17th century, the French fables of French poet Jean de la Fontaine were partly inspired by the Aesop's Fables, although he acknowledges that the greatest part of them is inspired by the original Sanskrit version.

(16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... A poet is some one who writes poetry. ... Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) is the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ... 1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. ... In its strict sense a fable is a short story or folk tale embodying a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim. ... Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (Иван Андреевич Крылов in Russian) (February 13, 1769 - November 21, 1844) was a famous Russian fabulist. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Nicolas Trigault (1577-1629) was a French Jesuit, and a missionary to China. ... Zhou Zuoren (Chinese: 周作人, Wade Giles: Chou Tso-jen) (1885-1967), political figure and well-known Chinese writer and brother of influential writer Lu Xun. ...

Adaptations

  • Brazilian dramatist Guilherme Figueiredo wrote a play The Fox and the Grapes (A raposa e as uvas) (1953) about Aesop's life. It was staged many times in the world's best theaters.

Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) is the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ... A poet is some one who writes poetry. ... // Events January - The Triple Alliance of 1668 is formed. ... Mighty Mouse, the signature character of the studio. ... Aesops Film Fables closing title Aesops Film Fables was a series of animated short subjects, created by American cartoonist, Paul Terry. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Van Beuren Studios was an animation studio that produced theatrical cartoons from 1928-1936. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Smothers Brothers are an American musical-comedy team, formed by real-life brothers Tom and Dick Smothers. ... Aesops Fables is a 1965 comedy album by The Smothers Brothers. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... A cartoon is any of several forms of illustrations, with varied meanings that evolved from one to another. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... Bullwinkle (left) and Rocky (right), the stars of Rocky and His Friends and The Bullwinkle Show. ...

List of some fables by Aesop

The fable Wolf in Sheep's Clothing is used in this World War II Soviet propaganda poster to allude to German treachery in Operation Barbarossa

Aesop's most famous fables include: A Soviet propaganda poster from World War II, using the wolf in sheeps clothes fable to allude to German treachery in Operation Barbarossa. ... A Soviet propaganda poster from World War II, using the wolf in sheeps clothes fable to allude to German treachery in Operation Barbarossa. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Joseph Stalin Strength ~ 3. ...

The Ant and the Grasshopper, also known as The Grasshopper and the Ant or The Grasshopper and the Ants, is a fable attributed to Aesop. ... The Boy Who Cried Wolf, also known as The Shepherd Boy and the Wolf, is a fable by Aesop. ... The Crow and the Pitcher is a fable ascribed to the slave Aesop. ... The Dog And The Bone is an Aesops fable teaching the importance of not being greedy. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... One of the fables of Æesop Spoiler warning: The Story Once upon a time, there lived a frog colony in a small pond. ... The Frogs Who Desired a King is a fable ascribed to the slave Aesop. ... The Fox and the Grapes is a fable attributed to Aesop. ... The Fox and the Crow are a pair of anthropomorphic cartoon characters created by Frank Tashlin for the Screen Gems studio. ... The Goose That laid the Golden Eggs is a fable ascribed to the writer/slave Aesop. ... The Lion and the Mouse is an Aesops fable to teach the importance of not judging people by sizes. ... The North Wind and the Sun is a fable attributed to Aesop. ... The Scorpion and the Frog is a fable attributed to Aesop. ... The Tortoise and the Hare or The Hare and the Tortoise is a fable attributed to Aesop. ... The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse is a fable attributed to the slave Aesop. ... // Media:Example. ...

See also

The Panchatantra [1] (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters) or Kelileh va Dimneh or Anvar-i-Suhayli [2][3] or The Lights of Canopus (in Persian)[4] or Kalilag and Damnag (in Syriac)[5] or Kalila and Dimna (also Kalilah and Dimnah, Arabic كليلة و دمنة Kalila wa Dimna)[6] or The...

Notes

  1. ^ D.L. Ashliman, "Introduction", p. xxii, in Aesop's Fables (2003)

Sources

  • Caxton, John, 1484. The history and fables of Aesop, Westminster. Modern reprint edited by Robert T. Lenaghan (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1967).
  • Bentley, Richard, 1697. Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris... and the Fables of Æsop. London.
  • Jacobs, Joseph, 1889. The Fables of Aesop: Selected, Told Anew, and Their History Traced, as first printed by William Caxton, 1484, from his French translation
    • i. A short history of the Aesopic fable
    • ii. The Fables of Aesop
  • Handford, S. A., 1954. Fables of Aesop. New York: Penguin.
  • Perry, Ben E. (editor), 1965. Babrius and Phaedrus, (Loeb Classical Library) Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965. English translations of 143 Greek verse fables by Babrius, 126 Latin verse fables by Phaedrus, 328 Greek fables not extant in Babrius, and 128 Latin fables not extant in Phaedrus (including some medieval materials) for a total of 725 fables.
  • Temple, Olivia and Robert (translators), 1998. Aesop, The Complete Fables, New York: Penguin Classics. (ISBN 0-14-044649-4)
    • Bryn Mawr Classical Review, with Aesop bibliography

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Aesop's Fables (in Greek)
Full Librivox Audio Book Catalog of Downloadable .iso CDs - some have Aesop's Fables
  • Librivox CDs
Ancient Greek literature

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