FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Aesculus" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Aesculus
Aesculus - Buckeyes and Horse-chestnuts
Aesculus hippocastanum
Aesculus hippocastanum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae
Genus: Aesculus
L.
Species

Aesculus arguta: Texas Buckeye
Aesculus californica: California Buckeye
Aesculus chinensis: Chinese Horse-chestnut
Aesculus flava (A. octandra): Yellow Buckeye
Aesculus glabra: Ohio Buckeye
Aesculus hippocastanum: Common Horse-chestnut
Aesculus indica: Indian Horse-chestnut
Aesculus neglecta: Dwarf Buckeye
Aesculus parviflora: Bottlebrush Buckeye
Aesculus pavia: Red Buckeye
Aesculus sylvatica: Painted Buckeye
Aesculus turbinata: Japanese Horse-chestnut
Aesculus wilsonii: Wilson's Horse-chestnut Aesculus wangii Download high resolution version (800x1100, 188 KB)Horse-chestnut. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... genera See text Sapindaceae, also known as the soapberry family, is a family of plants in the order Sapindales. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Aesculus californica (Spach) Nutt. ... Binomial name Aesculus flava Sol. ... Binomial name Willd. ... Binomial name Aesculus hippocastanum L. The Common Horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is a large deciduous tree, native to a small area in the mountains of the Balkans in southeast Europe, mainly in northeastern Greece but also locally in Albania and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. ... Binomial name Aesculus parviflora Walt. ... Binomial name Aesculus pavia L. Red Buckeye (Aesculus pavia), is a small deciduous tree or shrub native to the southern and eastern parts of the United States, found from Illinois to Virginia in the north and from Texas to Florida in the south. ... Binomial name Hu ex Fang Aesculus wangii is a species of plant in the Hippocastanaceae family. ...

The genus Aesculus comprises 20–25 species of deciduous trees and shrubs native to the temperate northern hemisphere, with 7–10 species native to North America and 13–15 species native in Eurasia; there are also several natural hybrids. They have traditionally been treated in their own usually monogeneric family Hippocastanaceae, but genetic evidence has led to this family, along with the Aceraceae (Maples and Dipteronia), being included in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae). Deciduous forest after leaf fall Like many deciduous plants, Forsythia flowers during the leafless season For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... This article is about a biological term. ... Genera Aesculus Billia Handeliodendron The Hippocastanaceae is a small family, with the most widespread genus Aesculus (the horsechestnuts), which today is taken to include Pavia (the buckeyes). ... Type Genus Acer L. Genera   AcerL. - Maple   DipteroniaOliver The Aceraceae (Maple family) comprises between 120-150 species of trees and shrubs. ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... Species Dipteronia sinensis Dipteronia dyeriana Dipteronia is a genus of two species in the soapberry family Sapindaceae, related to the maples and like them in the part of Sapindaceae often separated as Aceraceae. ... genera See text Sapindaceae, also known as the soapberry family, is a family of plants in the order Sapindales. ...


The North American species are known as Buckeyes and the Eurasian species as Horse-chestnuts. Some are also called "White Chestnut" or "Red Chestnut" (as in some of the Bach flower remedies. In Britain, they are sometimes called "Conker trees" because of their link with the game of Conkers ). Bach flower remedies are dilutions of flower essences developed by Dr.Edward Bach. ... This page is about the fruit of the Horse-chestnut tree; Conker is also the name of a character from the Rareware video game universe (see Conkers Bad Fur Day). ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Horse-chestnut, hyphenated here to avoid confusion with the true chestnuts (Castanea, Fagaceae), is also often given as "Horse Chestnut" or "Horsechestnut". One species very popular in cultivation, the Common Horse-chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum is also often known as just "Horse-chestnut". Linnaeus named the genus Aesculus after the Roman name for an edible acorn. The use of the term "horse" refers to their strength or inedibility, the word "horse" originally meant strong or powerful, and does not here refer to their fitness as fodder for horses, except in folk etymology. The name buckeye derives from the resemblance of the seed to the brown eye of a buck (male deer), and horse-chestnut from the external resemblance of the seed to a chestnut, but being inedible. The Buckeye blooms in summer and the Horse-chestnut in late spring. Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut is a... Genera Castanea - Chestnuts Castanopsis Chrysolepis - Golden chinkapin Colombobalanus Cyclobalanopsis Fagus - Beeches Formanodendron Lithocarpus - Stone oaks Quercus - Oaks Trigonobalanus The family Fagaceae, or beech family, is characterized by alternate leaves with pinnate venation, flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of nuts, one to seven in a... This article is about the ruminent animal. ...


Description

Aesculus are woody plants from 4 to 35 m tall (depending on species), and have stout shoots with resinous, often sticky, buds; opposite, palmately divided leaves, often very large (to 65 cm across in the Japanese Horse-chestnut Aesculus turbinata); and showy insect-pollinated flowers, with a single four- or five-lobed petal (actually four or five petals fused at the base). Flowering starts after 80–110 growing degree days. The fruit is a rich glossy brown to blackish-brown nut 2–5 cm diameter, usually globose with one nut in a green or brown husk, but sometimes two nuts together in one husk, in which case the nuts are flat on one side; the point of attachment of the nut in the husk shows as a large circular whitish scar. The husk has scattered soft spines in some species, spineless in others, and splits into three sections to release the nut. A woody plant is a vascular plant that has a stem (or more than one stem) that is lignified to a high degree. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Growing degree days (GDD) are a heuristic tool in phenology. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ...


Cultivation

Flower of the Red Horse-chestnut (Aesculus × carnea)
Flower of the Red Horse-chestnut (Aesculus × carnea)

The most familiar member of the genus worldwide is the Common Horse-chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, native to a small area of the Balkans in southeast Europe, but widely cultivated throughout the temperate world. The Yellow Buckeye Aesculus flava (syn. A. octandra) is also a valuable ornamental tree with yellow flowers, but is less widely planted. Among the smaller species, the Bottlebrush Buckeye Aesculus parviflora also makes a very interesting and unusual flowering shrub. Several other members of the genus are used as ornamentals, and several horticultural hybrids have also been developed, most notably the Red Horse-chestnut A. × carnea, a hybrid between A. hippocastanum and A. pavia. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Aesculus hippocastanum L. The Common Horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is a large deciduous tree, native to a small area in the mountains of the Balkans in southeast Europe, mainly in Albania, but also locally in northeastern Bulgaria (Preslavska Mountains), northern Greece and Macedonia. ... Balkan redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


They are generally fairly problem-free, though a recently discovered leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella is currently causing major problems in much of Europe, causing premature leaf fall which looks very unattractive. The symptoms (brown blotches on the leaves) can be confused with damage caused by the leaf fungus Guignardia aesculi, which is also very common but usually less serious. Common Horse-chestnut is also used as a food plant by The Sycamore, another species of moth. For other uses, see Moths A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly. ... Binomial name Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic, 1985 The horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella is a moth of the lepidopteran family Gracillariidae. ... Binomial name Acronicta aceris Linnaeus, 1758 The Sycamore (Acronicta aceris) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ...


Another disease in parts of North West Europe and North America is Bleeding canker [1][[2]].


Uses

The nuts contain high concentrations of a saponin-class toxin called Aesculin, which is toxic to many animals including humans because it causes hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). The saponin can be eliminated by leaching the pulverized nuts in multiple changes of boiling water, to yield a wholesome starchy porridge once important to some Native American tribes. Some animals, notably deer and squirrels, are resistant to the toxins and can eat the nuts directly. An interesting side-note is that Aesculin is a natural pH indicator which, when extracted turns from colorless to fluorescent blue under UV light in an acidic pH range. Saponins are the glycosides of 27 carbon atom steroids, or 30 carbon atom triterpenes. ... Aesculin is a glucoside that naturally occurs in the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum and in daphnin (the dark green resin of Daphne mezereum). ... {{otheruses4|1=medical hemoglobin]] into the surrounding fluid (plasma, in vivo). ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... This article is about the animal. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit A... Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength shorter than that of the visible region, but longer than that of soft X-rays. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...


Crushed buckeye nuts have also been thrown into lakes by poachers, to kill fish for easy capture. For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ...


California Buckeyes Aesculus californica are known to cause poisoning of honeybees from toxic nectar (other locally native bee species not being affected). Other buckeye species are thought to have the same effect, but the toxins are diluted because the trees are not usually abundant enough in any one area. Binomial name Aesculus californica (Spach) Nutt. ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ...


The wood is very pale whitish-brown, fairly soft and little-used. Uses include cheap furniture, boxes and firewood.


In Britain and Ireland the game of conkers remains a common childhood pastime. This page is about the fruit of the Horse-chestnut tree; Conker is also the name of a character from the Rareware video game universe (see Conkers Bad Fur Day). ...


In some cultures, the buckeye tree is thought to bring good luck.[3][4]


The Mexican Buckeye is related to Aesculus, but is in a separate genus, Ungnadia. Binomial name Ungnadia speciosa Endl. ...


Uses in homeopathic medicine

Aesculus is used in homeopathic medicine for pain in the sacroiliac region and rectal pain [1].


References

  1. ^ Morrsion, MD, Roger (1993). Desktop guide to keynotes and comfirmatory symptoms. Grass Valley, CA: Hahnemann Clinic Publishing. 

References and external links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Aesculus
  • Germplasm Resources Information Network: Aesculus
  • Forest, F., Drouin, J. N., Charest, R., Brouillet, L., & Bruneau A. (2001). A morphological phylogenetic analysis of Aesculus L. and Billia Peyr. (Sapindaceae). Canad. J. Botany 79 (2): 154-169. Abstract.
  • Aesculus glabra (Ohio Buckeye) King's American Dispensatory
  • Aesculus hippocastanum (aesc-hip.) "Kent's Lectures on Homeopathic Materia Medica" by Dr Robert Séror

  Results from FactBites:
 
aesculus (5407 words)
Aesculus assamica Griffith (A. chuniana, A. lantsangensis, A. megaphylla, A. polyneura, A.
Aesculus flava Solander (A. octandra Marshall, A. lutea Wanggenh.)
Aesculus pavia 'Humilis' (A. humilis Lindl., Pavia pendula hort., A. pavia var.
Aesculus (167 words)
The use of Aesculus in venous disorders has been recognised for a long time.
It is the seed of the Horse Chestnut tree, instantly recognisable to many children as the conker, that is used medicinally.
Often varicose veins are more troublesome in warmer weather and starting a course of Aesculus during the early summer can prevent the distressing symptoms emerging.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m