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Encyclopedia > Aerospace engineering

Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. Aerospace engineering has broken into two major branches, aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The former deals with craft that stay within Earth's atmosphere, and the latter deals with craft that operate outside of Earth's atmosphere. While "aeronautical" was the original term, the broader "aerospace" has superseded the it in usage, as flight technology advanced to include craft operating in outer space.[1] Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Six F-16 Fighting Falcons with the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team fly in delta formation in front of the Empire State Building. ... Astronautics is the branch of engineering that deals with machines designed to work outside of Earths atmosphere, whether manned or unmanned. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Atmosphere (disambiguation). ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ...


Aerospace engineering is often informally called rocket science in common terms. Look up rocket science in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

A Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle and the F-16 Falcon is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape.
A Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle and the F-16 Falcon is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape.

Contents

Image:Engine. ... Image:Engine. ... The F100 is an afterburning turbofan engine manufactured by Pratt & Whitney which powers the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Falcon. ... Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ... F-15 redirects here. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... Robins Air Force Base (Robins AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force located in Houston County, Georgia. ... State nickname: Peach State / Empire of the South Other U.S. States Capital Atlanta Largest city Atlanta Governor Sonny Perdue Official languages English Area 154,077 km² (24th)  - Land 150,132 km²  - Water 3,945 km² (2. ...

Overview

Modern flight vehicles must undergo severe conditions such as differences in atmospheric pressure and temperature, or heavy structural load applied upon vehicle components; numerous matters must be taken into account, especially during the design and manufacture of the flight vehicle. Consequently, they are usually the products of a complex synthesis of various technologies and sciences, including but not limited to aerodynamics, avionics, materials science and propulsion. The knowledge and the process of combining these various branches of studies is collectively known as aerospace engineering. Because of the complexity of the field, aerospace engineering is conducted by a team of engineers, each specializing in their own branches of science.,[2] The development and manufacturing of a flight vehicle demands careful balance and compromise between abilities, performance, available technology and costs. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... Avionics is a portmanteau which literally means aviation electronics. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Propulsion may refer to: Look up propulsion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


History

See also: Aviation history

One person who was important in bringing up the world of aviation as we know it was Alberto Santos Dumont, a pioneer in the field of aviation, who built the first machines that were able to fly. Some of the first ideas for powered flight may have come from Leonardo da Vinci, who, although he did not build any successful models, did come up with many sketches and ideas for "flying machines". Leonardo da Vincis Ornithopter body. ... Santos-Dumont in his trademark Panama hat. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... The human dream of flight: Utopian flying machines from the 18th Century (illustration from the late 19th Century). ...

Orville and Wilbur Wright flew the Wright Flyer I, the first airplane, on December 17, 1903. The aircraft took to the air in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
Orville and Wilbur Wright flew the Wright Flyer I, the first airplane, on December 17, 1903. The aircraft took to the air in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

The origin of modern-day aerospace engineering can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the late 19th century to early 20th centuries, although the work of Sir George Cayley has recently been dated as being from the last decade of the 18th century. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was largely empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering.[3] Also, scientists understood some key elements of aerospace engineering , like fluid dynamics, in the 18th century. Only a decade after the successful flights by the Wright brothers, the 1910s saw extensive development of aeronautical engineering through development of World War I military aircraft. Meanwhile, research to provide fundamental background science continued by combining theoretical physics with experiments. Download high resolution version (899x576, 106 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (899x576, 106 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... First flight, December 17, 1903. ... The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Sir George Cayley (27 December 1773 - 15 December 1857) was an exuberant polymath from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire. ... Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. ... The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871–January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867–May 30, 1912), were two Americans generally credited with building the worlds first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and heavier-than-air human flight on December 17, 1903. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The first definition of aerospace engineering appeared in February 1958.[1] The definition considered the Earth's atmosphere and the outer space as a single realm, thereby encompassing both aircraft (aero) and spacecraft (space) under a newly coined word aerospace. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded in 1958 as a response to the Cold War. United States aerospace engineers sent the American first satellite launched on January 31, 1958 in response the USSR launching Sputnik.[4] Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ...


Elements

See also: List of aerospace engineering topics

Some of the elements of aerospace engineering are:[5][6] This page aims to list all articles related to the specific discipline of aerospace engineering. ...

  • Fluid mechanics - the study of fluid flow around objects. Specifically aerodynamics concerning the flow of air over bodies such as wings or through objects such as wind tunnels (see also lift and aeronautics).
  • Astrodynamics - the study of orbital mechanics including manipulation, determination, and prediction of orbital elements when given a select few variables. While few schools in the United States teach this at the undergraduate level, several have graduate programs covering this topic (usually in conjunction with the Physics department of said college or university).
  • Statics and Dynamics (engineering mechanics) - the study of movement, forces, moments in mechanical systems.
  • Mathematics - as most subjects within aerospace engineering involve equations and mathematical manipulation and derivations, a solid and comprehensive study of mathematics is required to enable effective learning in the other modules.
  • Electrotechnology - the study of electronics within engineering.
  • Propulsion - the energy to move a vehicle through the air (or in outer space) is provided by internal combustion engines, jet engines and turbomachinery, or rockets (see also propeller and spacecraft propulsion). A more recent addition to this module is electric propulsion.
  • Control engineering - the study of mathematical modelling of the dynamic behavior of systems and designing them, usually using feedback signals, so that their dynamic behavior is desirable (stable, without large excursions, with minimum error). This applies to the dynamic behavior of aircraft, spacecraft, propulsion systems, and subsystems that exist on aerospace vehicles. As aircraft flight control systems become increasingly complex, they can be studied as a separate module.
  • Aircraft structures - design of the physical configuration of the craft to withstand the forces encountered during flight. Aerospace engineering aims very much at keeping structures lightweight.
  • Materials science - related to structures, aerospace engineering also studies the materials of which the aerospace structures are to be built. New materials with very specific properties are invented, or existing ones are modified to improve their performance.
  • Solid mechanics - Closely related to material science is solid mechanics which deals with stress and strain analysis of the components of the vehicle. Nowadays there are several Finite Element programs such as MSC Patran/Nastran which aid engineers in the analytical process.
  • Aeroelasticity - the interaction of aerodynamic forces and structural flexibility, potentially causing flutter, divergence, etc.
  • Avionics - specifically concerning the design and programming of any computer systems on board an aircraft or spacecraft and the simulation of systems. Navigation equipment may be the focus of this study.
  • Risk and reliability - the study of risk and reliability assessment techniques and the mathematics involved in the quantitative methods.
  • Noise control - the study of the mechanics of sound transfer. Required as noise levels are a massive consideration in the current aerospace industry.
  • Flight test - the discipline of designing and executing flight test programs in order to gather and analyze performance and handling qualities data in order to determine if an aircraft meets its design and performance goals and certification requirements.

The basis of most of these elements lies in theoretical mathematics, such as fluid dynamics for aerodynamics or the equations of motion for flight dynamics. However, there is also a large empirical component. Historically, this empirical component was derived from testing of scale models and prototypes, either in wind tunnels or in the free atmosphere. More recently, advances in computing have enabled the use of computational fluid dynamics to simulate the behavior of fluid, reducing time and expense spent on wind-tunnel testing. This box:      Fluid mechanics is the study of how fluids move and the forces on them. ... A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of the magnitude of the applied stress. ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... For other uses, see Wing (disambiguation). ... NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ... The lift force, lifting force or simply lift is a mechanical force generated by solid objects as they move through a fluid. ... Six F-16 Fighting Falcons with the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team fly in delta formation in front of the Empire State Building. ... Astrodynamics is the study of the motion of rockets, missiles, and space vehicles, as determined from Sir Isaac Newtons laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. ... This article or section should be merged with Celestial Mechanics Astrodynamics is the study and creation of orbits, especially those of artificial satellites. ... Statics is the branch of physics concerned with physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at rest under the action of external forces of equilibrium. ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Electrical engineers design power systems. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... In mechanical engineering, turbomachinery describes machines that transfer energy between a rotor and a fluid, including both turbines and compressors. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Control engineering is the engineering discipline that focuses on the mathematical modelling systems of a diverse nature, analysing their dynamic behaviour, and using control theory to make a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner. ... A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight. ... Aircraft Structures is the study of the methods of manufacturing aircraft so that their structure can withstand any potential stresses and strains as well as being able to be produced and assembled quickly, cheaply, and safely. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Solid mechanics is the branch of physics and mathematics that concern the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e. ... Aeroelasticity is the science which studies the interaction among inertial, elastic, and aerodynamic forces. ... Flutter: In electronics, rapid variation of signal parameters, such as amplitude, phase, and frequency. ... Avionics is a portmanteau which literally means aviation electronics. ... Reliability engineering is the discipline of ensuring that a system (or a device in general) will perform its intended function(s) when operated in a specified manner for a specified length of time. ... Noise Control: Building Interior Noise Control Reduction of Reverberation is one function of noise control, most often refered to when speaking of building and room interiors. ... The maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... Handling qualities, sometimes also referred to as flying qualities is one of the two principle regimes in the science of flight test (the other being performance). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. ... In advanced physics, equations of motion usually refer to the Euler-Lagrange equations, differential equations derived from the Lagrangian. ... Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... For the formal concept of computation, see computation. ... A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry. ...


Additionally, aerospace engineering addresses the integration of all components that constitute an aerospace vehicle (subsystems including power, communications, thermal control, life support, etc.) and its life cycle (design, temperature, pressure, radiation, velocity, life time), leading to extraordinary challenges and solutions specific to the domain of aerospace systems engineering. Temperature control is a process in which the temperature of an object is measured and the passage of heat energy into or out of the object is adjusted to achieve a desired temperature. ... Life support, in the medical field, refers to a set of therapies for preserving a patients life when essential body systems are not functioning sufficiently to sustain life unaided. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... This article is about velocity in physics. ... In materials science, fatigue is the progressive, localised, and permanent structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic or fluctuating strains at nominal stresses that have maximum values less than (often much less than) the static yield strength of the material. ...


Popular culture

Actual NASA engineers, like the ones depicted in Apollo 13, worked dilligently to save the lives of the astronauts on the mission.

Popular culture has not been unaffected by this branch of engineering. The term "rocket scientist" is at times used to describe a person of remarkable or in the considered context higher than average intelligence. Aerospace engineering has also been represented as the more "glittery" pinnacle of engineering. The movie Apollo 13 depicts the ground team as a group of heroes in a Hollywood fashion glorifying the intelligence and competence of white shirt and tie professionals as a sharp contrast to pop culture trends. This was later extended in more detail in the spin-off series From the Earth to the Moon. Apollo 13 is a 1995 film portrayal of the ill-fated Apollo 13 lunar mission in 1970. ... Apollo 13 is a 1995 film portrayal of the ill-fated Apollo 13 lunar mission in 1970. ... From the Earth to the Moon is a twelve-part HBO television miniseries (1998) co-produced by Ron Howard, Brian Grazer, Tom Hanks, and Michael Bostick detailing the landmark Apollo expeditions to the Moon during the 1960s and early 1970s. ...


Aerospace engineering degrees

See also: List of aerospace engineering schools

Aerospace (or aeronautical) engineering can be studied at the advanced diploma, bachelors, masters, and Ph.D. levels in aerospace engineering departments at many universities, and in mechanical engineering departments at others. A few departments offer degrees in space-focused astronautical engineering.[6] US News and World Report ranks the aerospace engineering programs at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, and University of Michigan as the top three best of doctorate granting universities.[7] The magazine also rates Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, United States Air Force Academy, and Embry Riddle Aeronautical University in Prescott, AZ as the premier aerospace engineering programs at university that do not grant doctorate degrees.[8] Aerospace (or aeronautical) engineering can be studied at the bachelors, masters, and Ph. ... Diploma from Mexico City College, 1948 (in Latin) A diploma (from Greek δίπλωµα diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, is a public, coeducational research university, part of the University System of Georgia, and located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, with satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia, Metz, France, Shanghai, China, and Singapore. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) is an independent, non-sectarian, non-profit, coeducational university with a history dating back to the early days of aviation. ... The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA or Air Force),[1] located immediately north of Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado, United States, is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers for the United States Air Force. ...


Aerospace engineers

See also: List of aerospace engineers

According to the United States Department of Labor, This is a list of aerospace engineers, people who were trained in or practiced aerospace engineering. ... The United States Department of Labor is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services, and some economic statistics. ...

Aerospace engineers design, develop, and test aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles, and supervise the production of these products. Those who work with aircraft are called aeronautical engineers, and those working specifically with spacecraft are astronautical engineers. Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas such as structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, or production methods. They also may specialize in a particular type of aerospace product, such as commercial aircraft, military fighter jets, helicopters, spacecraft, or missiles and rockets, and may become experts in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, celestial mechanics, propulsion, acoustics, or guidance and control systems.


Aerospace engineers are expected to have slower-than-average growth in employment over the projection period. Although increases in the number and scope of military aerospace projects likely will generate new jobs, increased efficiency will limit the number of new jobs in the design and production of commercial aircraft. Even with slow growth, the employment outlook for aerospace engineers through 2014 appears favorable: the number of degrees granted in aerospace engineering declined for many years because of a perceived lack of opportunities in this field, and, although this trend is reversing, new graduates continue to be needed to replace aerospace engineers who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons.

U.S. Department of Labor, Engineers[9]

Earnings for engineers vary significantly by specialty, industry, and education. Even so, as a group, engineers earn some of the highest average starting salaries among those holding bachelor’s degrees. Aerospace Engineers on average have a starting salary of $50,701 for 2005.[10]


References

  1. ^ a b Stanzione, Kaydon Al (1989). "Engineering". Encyclopædia Britannica (15) 18. 563–563. 
  2. ^ Career: Aerospace Engineer. Career Profiles. The Princeton Review. Retrieved on 2006-10-08. “Due to the complexity of the final product, an intricate and rigid organizational structure for production has to be maintained, severely curtailing any single engineer's ability to understand his role as it relates to the final project.”
  3. ^ {{cite encyclopedia | author = Van Every, Kermit E. | encyclopedia = Encyclopedia Americana | title = Aeronautical engineering | edition = | year = 1986 | publisher = Grolier Incorporated | volume =1
  4. ^ http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/factsheet.htm
  5. ^ "Science: Engineering: Aerospace". Open Site. Retrieved on 2006-10-08. 
  6. ^ a b Gruntman, Mike (September 19, 2007). "The Time for Academic Departments in Astronautical Engineering" in AIAA SPACE 2007 Conference & Exposition. AIAA SPACE 2007 Conference & Exposition Agenda, AIAA. 
  7. ^ http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/college/rankings/premium/enps01.php
  8. ^ http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/college/rankings/premium/enns01.php
  9. ^ Engineers. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  10. ^ http://money.cnn.com/2005/04/15/pf/college/starting_salaries/

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Open Site is a free internet encyclopedia with many editors. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is the scholarly society for the field of aerospace engineering. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more about Aerospace engineering at:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Degrees in Aerospace Engineering | Careers & Education (512 words)
Aerospace engineering requires a strong interest in aircraft and spacecraft.
Aerospace engineers create new designs and also update and modify older designs of airplanes and shuttles.
Aerospace engineering is a diverse and very complicated profession that requires a great deal of interest in science and mathematics.
Aerospace engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (831 words)
Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics.
Mathematics - as most subjects within aerospace engineering involve equations and mathematical manipulation and derivations, a solid and comprehensive study of mathematics is required to enable effective learning in the other modules.
Aerospace (or aeronautical) engineering can be studied at the bachelors, masters, and Ph.D. levels in aerospace engineering departments at many universities, and in mechanical engineering departments at others.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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