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Encyclopedia > Aerial warfare

Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
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Siege · Total war · Trench For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Formations · Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Supply lines are roads, rail, and other transportation infrastructure needed to replenish the consumables that a military unit requires to function in the field. ...

Lists
Battles · Commanders · Operations
Sieges · Theorists · Wars
War crimes · Weapons · Writers

Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. Developing from unpowered observation hot air balloons in the 18th century and even older Kite, aerial warfare has become a high-technology affair that has led to many advances in technology and techniques such as propulsion, radar, and use of composites and engineered materials such as carbon fibers. This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1907. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... Military aircraft are airplanes used in warfare. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... This article is about transported goods. ... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ... Hot air balloon in flight The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology, dating back to its invention by the Montgolfier brothers in Annonay, France in 1783. ... Yokaichi Giant Kite Festival held on the fourth Sunday every May in Higashiomi, Shiga, Japan A man flying a kite on the beach, a good location for flying as winds travelling across the sea contain few up or down draughts which cause kites to fly erratically. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Air propulsion is the act of moving an object through the air. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ...

Contents

Kite warfare

The earliest documented aerial warfare took place in ancient China, when a manned Kite was set off to spy for military intelligence and communication. Yokaichi Giant Kite Festival held on the fourth Sunday every May in Higashiomi, Shiga, Japan A man flying a kite on the beach, a good location for flying as winds travelling across the sea contain few up or down draughts which cause kites to fly erratically. ...


Balloon warfare

Balloon warfare in Ancient China

In or around the 2nd or 3rd century, proto Hot air balloon, Kongming lantern was invented in China serving as military communication. Hot air balloon in flight The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology, dating back to its invention by the Montgolfier brothers in Annonay, France in 1783. ... The Kongming lantern (Chinese:zh:孔明灯) was the first hot air balloon, said to be invented by Zhuge Liang in popular lore, whose reverent term of address (his Chinese style name) was Kongming. ...


Balloon warfare in Europe

Some minor warfare use was made of balloons in the infancy of aeronautics. The first instance was by the French Aerostatic Corps at the Battle of Fleurus in 1794, who used a tethered balloon, "l'entreprenant", to gain a vantage point. The Battle of Fleurus, fought on June 26, 1794 was one of the most decisive battles in the Low Countries during the French, under Jourdan were able to more effectively concentrate their forces in order to achieve victory against the Austrian army under Saxe-Cobourg. ... North American members of the Aston Martin Owners Club receive four annual issues of The Vantage Point magazine. ...


During the American Civil War, balloons were used by both the North and South as a means of observing battlefields - initially it was thought they could be used for preparing better maps. In one instance the balloon of Prof. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe was used as an FAO (Forward Artillery Observer), by which Lowe was able to ascend to a height from which he could view an "unseen target," and with a series of flag signals was able to call artillery fire in from an unseen fire base. Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (1832-1913) Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (August 20, 1832 – January 16, 1913) was an American aeronaut, scientist and inventor. ...


Balloons had disadvantages. They could not fly in bad weather, fog, or high winds. They were piloted at the whims of the winds and were also a very large target. Union Army balloons were always under fire, and whatever type of shot, rifle or cannon, was aimed at them and missed, they fell on the Union side of the battlefield. Confederate balloons faced bigger problems. Because of embargoes they had no access to balloon silk. They used what there was of dress-making silk material to fashion balloons. Often the city, usually Richmond, had no inflation gas. For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ...


The use of balloons in warfare was not seen for another 30 years. The invention of the blimp, or dirigible, with its mechanical means of propulsion and steering made inflatable aerostats more useful. Added to this was the idea of dropping ordinance from the blimps onto enemy positions. The use of military aerostats became practical during World War I, and helium made the use of inflatables safer and more dependable during World War II. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


American Civil War

Battle of Fair Oaks with one of Lowe's balloons in the background
Battle of Fair Oaks with one of Lowe's balloons in the background

Download high resolution version (1118x713, 622 KB)TITLE: The Battle of Fair Oaks, Va. ... Download high resolution version (1118x713, 622 KB)TITLE: The Battle of Fair Oaks, Va. ... Battle of Seven Pines Conflict American Civil War Date May 31 - June 1, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks or Fair Oaks Station, took place from May 31 – June 1, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia...

Union Army Balloon Corps

The American Civil War was the first war to witness significant use of aeronautics in support of battle. In June 1861 Professor Thaddeus S. C. Lowe left his work in the private sector as a scientist/balloonist and offered his services as an aeronaut to President Lincoln, who took some interest in the idea of an air war. Lowe's demonstration of flying his balloon the Enterprise over Washington D. C. and transmitting a message via telegraph to the ground was enough to have him introduced to the commanders of the Topographical Engineers. Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (1832-1913) Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (August 20, 1832 – January 16, 1913) was an American aeronaut, scientist and inventor. ... The Enterprise was a hot air balloon used by the Union Army to spot oncoming troops during the American Civil War. ...


Lowe's first action was at the Battle of Bull Run in July 1861 with General Irvin McDowell and the Grand Army of the Potomac. With the use of his balloon Enterprise Lowe did a free flight observation of the Confederate positions, but as he had no identifying insignias or colors he was turned away by Union forces who could not identify him. He was forced to land behind enemy lines, but was rescued before he was discovered. Two conflicts during the American Civil War were known as Battle of Bull Run or Battle of Manassas: First Battle of Bull Run Second Battle of Bull Run This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In another demonstration, Lowe was called to Fort Corcoran by artillery General W. F. Smith. Lowe ascended to a given altitude in order to spot rebel encampments at Falls Church (Va.). With flag signals he directed artillery fire onto the sleeping encampment. As the General put it: "The signals from the balloon have enabled my gunners to hit with a fine degree of accuracy an unseen and dispersed target area."


By October he had orders in hand to build four balloons with portable hydrogen gas generators for use in aerial reconnaissance. Working with several other prominent American balloonists he formed the Union Army Balloon Corps who never received commissions, working as civilian contractors, This was of great concern should the aeronauts be shot down over enemy lines, as civilian spying is summarily punishable by death. Therefore Lowe instructed on the strict use of tethered (as opposed to free) flight, by which the balloons remained attached to ground crews by cable. By attaining altitudes from 1,000 feet to as much as 3-1/2 miles, an expansive view of the battle field and beyond could be had. Woodblock sketch of Lowes balloon with McClellans Army of the Potomac as depicted in Harpers Weekly. ...


Lowe built seven balloons: Eagle, his first; Constitution, one of the smaller balloons; its sister, Washington; Intrepid, a larger balloon and his favorite; a sister, Union; Excelsior; and United States, which never came out of storage.


As the Confederates retreated toward Richmond (Va.) the War turned into the Peninsular Campaign. Due to the heavy forests on the peninsula, the balloons were unable to follow on land. Lowe was introduced to the George Washington Parke Custis, a coal barge converted to a flat top that would serve as the first aircraft carrier in effect. The balloons with their gas generators were loaded aboard and taken down the Potomac, where reconnaissance of the peninsula could continue. The GWP Custis was taken up the Pawmunkey River, where Lowe was reunited with McClellan's army.

Prof. Lowe ascending in the Intrepid to observe the Battle of Fair Oaks

Lowe's most dramatic action came in the Battle of Fair Oaks, where he was able to view the advancing of Lee's army onto the isolated detachment of General Heintzelman. Working from two balloon camps, one at Mechanicsville and one at Gaine's Farm, Lowe galloped six miles twice daily to keep up with the reconnaissance reports. McClellan was sure that the rebels were feigning an attack, but Lowe could see differently. Heintzelman was left stranded on the other side of the Chickahominy River with the bridges having been taken out overnight by the swollen waters. Lowe sent a dispatch of utmost urgency to have the bridge repaired immediately and reserves sent to Heintzelman's aid. He then sent dispatch from Mechanicsville to Gaine's Farm calling for the immediate inflation of the large balloon Enterprise, which would aid him in overlooking the imminent battle. Image File history File links Balloon. ... Battle of Seven Pines Conflict American Civil War Date May 31 - June 1, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks or Fair Oaks Station, took place from May 31 – June 1, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia...


When Lowe arrived at Gaine's, the Intrepid will still far from being inflated. In a quick work of inventive ingenuity, Lowe had the bottom of a camp kettle cut out and joined the valve ends of the Intrepid and the partially inflated Constitution hooked together, thereby transferring the gas from the latter into the former. Within 15 minutes he was in the air to oversee the battle. McClellan took Lowe's advice and came to Heintzelman's aid, saving the day.


Lowe fell prey to malaria during Fair Oaks and was out of commission for more than a month. On his return he found that the Balloon Corps had been stripped of horses and wagons and left out of service for the Battle of Antietam. Lowe was called back into service at Sharpsburg and later responded to Gen. Burnside's army at Vicksburg. The ensuing defeat of the Union Army in what was referred to as the "Mud March" led to Gen. Joseph Hooker's replacement of Burnside. By this time the Balloon Corps had been assigned to the Engineers Corps, and a newly promoted Captain Comstock cut Lowe's pay dramatically. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also...


Lowe tendered a letter of intent to resign and was released from military duty in May 1863. The Balloon Corps continued to operate under the direction of the Allen Brothers who were ill-equipped to run the corps effectively. By August the Union Army Balloon Corps was disbanded.


Silk Dress Balloons

Due to the effectiveness of the Union Army Balloon Corps, the Confederates felt compelled to incorporate balloons as well. As coke gas was not always available in Richmond, the first balloons were made of the Montgolfier rigid style, cotton stretched over wood framing and filled with hot smoke from fires made of oil-soaked pinecones. They were piloted by Captain John R. Bryant for use at Yorktown. Though Bryant's performance was not all that bad, his handlers were poorly experienced and his balloon was left in the air spinning like a top. Another incident had one of the handlers becoming entangled in the ascending tether rope which had to be chopped loose, leaving the Captain free-flying over his own Confederate positions whose troops threatened to shoot him down. The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph Michel Montgolfier (August 26, 1740 – June 26, 1810) and Jacques Étienne Montgolfier (January 6, 1745 – August 2, 1799), inventors of the montgolfière hot air balloon. ...


Attempts at making gas-filled silk balloons were hampered by the South's inability to obtain any imports at all. They did fashion a balloon from dress silk (purportedly silk for making dresses, not from silk dresses themselves). The inflated spheres appeared as multi-colored orbs over Richmond and were piloted by Captain Landon Cheeves. Before the first balloon could be used it was captured during transportation on the James River by the crew of the Monitor. A second balloon did see action until summer 1863, when it was blown from its mooring and taken by Union forces only to be divided up as souvenirs for members of the Federal Congress. As the Union Army reduced its use of balloons, so did the Confederates, and much to their relief.


Before World War I

The armies of many countries evaluated the use of aircraft for observation purposes. Naval aviation was pursued as well; several tests were made in which floatplanes were launched by catapult from ships at sea, and recovered later by crane. A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery A seaplane is an aircraft designed to take off and land on water. ...


The U.S. Navy had been interested in naval aviation since the turn of the 20th century. In 1910-1911, the Navy conducted experiments which proved the practicality of carrier-based aviation. On November 14, 1910, near Hampton Roads, Virginia, civilian pilot Eugene Ely took off from a wooden platform installed on the scout cruiser USS Birmingham (CL-2) .He landed safely on shore a few minutes later. Ely proved several months later that it was also possible to land on a ship. On January 18, 1911, he landed on a platform attached to the American cruiser USS Pennsylvania (ACR-4) in San Francisco harbour. USN redirects here. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Hampton Roads, Virginia 1858 Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water and the land areas which surround it in southeastern Virginia in the United States. ... Eugene Burton Ely (October 21, 1886 - October 19, 1911) was an aviation pioneer, credited with the first shipboard aircraft take off and landing. ... USS Birmingham (CL-2), named for the city of Birmingham in Alabama, was a Chester class light cruiser laid down by the Fore River Shipbuilding Company at Quincy in Massachusetts on 14 August 1905, launched on 29 May 1907 by Mrs L. Underwood and commissioned on 11 April 1908, Commander... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The second USS Pennsylvania (ACR-4), also referred to Armored Cruiser No. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


The first use of airplanes in an actual war occurred in the 1911 Italo-Turkish War with the Italian Army Air Corps bombing a Turkish camp at Ain Zara, Libya, and in the 1912 First Balkan War with the Bulgarian Air Force bombing Turkish positions at Adrianople. Air reconnaissance was carried out in both wars too. The first air-dropped bomb in military history was developed by Captain Simeon Petrov of the Bulgarian Air Force, extensively used during the First Balkan War (including in the first ever night bombing on 7 November 1912), and subsequently shared with the Imperial German Air Service during World War I[1]. Combatants Italy Ottoman Empire Commanders Luigi Caneva Ismail Enver Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Strength 100,000 28,000 Casualties 3,380 dead 4,220 wounded 14,000 dead 5,370 wounded The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as guerra di Libia, the Libyan war, and in... Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojovi... Bulgarian Air Force Roundel Bulgarian Air Force (Bulgarian: Военновъздушни сили, ВВС) is a branch of the Bulgarian Army, the other two being the Bulgarian Navy and Bulgarian land forces. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... In 1912, during the Balkan War, Bulgarian Air Force pilot Christo Toprakchiev suggested the use of airplanes to drop bombs (as grenades were called in Bulgarian army at this time) on Turkish positions. ... Bulgarian Air Force Roundel Bulgarian Air Force (Bulgarian: Военновъздушни сили, ВВС) is a branch of the Bulgarian Army, the other two being the Bulgarian Navy and Bulgarian land forces. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojovi... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Luftstreitkräfte or Imperial German Army Air Service (Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches), was the over-land air arm of the German military during World War I (1914–1918). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


World War I

See also: World War I Aviation

Initially during that war both sides made use of tethered balloons and airplanes for observation purposes, both for information gathering and directing of artillery fire. A desire to prevent enemy observation led to airplane pilots attacking other airplanes and balloons, initially with small arms carried in the cockpit (even resorting to such objects as bricks), but due to the technology of the time pilots couldn't have forward facing machine guns. It wasn't until the Germans developed the Interrupter Gear which worked by jamming the gun every time the propeller was in front of the guns. Eventually the Allies were able to capture German fighter with the Interruptor Gear and reverse engineering it, this would lead to the birth of the dogfight. Unfortunately there were no set tactics or rules for dogfighting so many pilots had to go into combat through trial and error. Eventually the German ace Oswald Boelcke created the Dicta Boelcke, which contained the eight rules of dogfighting. Dogfights occurred when planes fought each other at close quarters, leading to the development of maneuvering tactics. Both sides also made use of aircraft for bombing, strafing and dropping of propaganda. The German military made use of Zeppelins and, later on, bombers such as the Gotha, to drop bombs on Britain. Nieuport Fighter Aisne, France 1917 The Early Years of War The early years of war saw canvas-and-wood aircraft used primarily to function as mobile observation vehicles. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Oswald Boelcke in 1916 Oswald Boelcke (19 May 1891–28 October 1916) was a German flying ace of the First World War and one of the most influential patrol leaders and tacticians of the early years of air combat. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dog fight is a common term used to describe close-range aerial combat between military aircraft. ... This article is about explosive devices. ... Strafing (adaptation of German strafen, to punish, specifically from the World War I humorous adaptation of the German catchphrase Gott strafe England), is the practice of firing on a static target from a moving platform. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... This is an article about Zeppelin airships. ... The Gotha G series was a family of heavy bombers used by the Luftstreitkräfte (Imperial German Air Service) during the First World War. ...


By the end of the war airplanes had become specialized into bombers, fighters and observation aircraft.


Between the wars

Between 1918 and 1939 aircraft technology developed very rapidly. In 1918 most aircraft were biplanes with wooden frames, canvas skins, wire rigging and air-cooled engines. Biplanes continued to be the mainstay of air forces around the world and were used extensively in conflicts such as the Spanish Civil War. Most industrial countries also created air forces separate from the army and navy. However, by 1939 military biplanes were in the process of being replaced with metal framed monoplanes, often with stressed skins and liquid cooled engines. Top speeds had tripled; altitudes doubled (and oxygen masks became commonplace); ranges and payloads of bombers increased enormously. It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... An air force, in some countries called an air army, is a military or armed service that primarily conducts aerial warfare. ... A monoplane is an aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces, in contrast to a biplane or triplane. ...


Some theorists, especially in Britain, considered that aircraft would become the dominant military arm in the future. They imagined that a future war would be won entirely by the destruction of the enemy's military and industrial capability from the air. The Italian general Giulio Douhet, author of The Command of the Air, was a seminal theorist of this school, which has been associated with Stanley Baldwin's statement that "The bomber will always get through"; that is, regardless of air defenses, sufficient raiders will survive to rain destruction on the enemy's cities. General Giulio Douhet (30 May 1869 - 15 February 1930) was an Italian air power theorist. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


Others, such as General Billy Mitchell in the United States, saw the potential of air power to neutralize the striking power of naval surface fleets. German and British pilots had experimented with aerial bombing of ships and air-dropped torpedoes during World War I with mixed results. But the vulnerability of capital ships to aircraft was finally demonstrated on 21 July 1921 when a squadron of bombers commanded by General Mitchell sank the ex-German battleship SMS Ostfriesland with aerial bombs. For other people with the same name, see Billy Mitchell (disambiguation). ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... SMS Ostfriesland was a Dreadnought-type battleship of the Helgoland class. ...


Germany was banned from possessing a significant air force by the terms of the WWI armistice. The German military continued to train its soldiers as pilots clandestinely until Hitler was ready to openly defy the ban.


World War II

Military aviation came into its own during the Second World War. The increased performance, range, and payload of contemporary aircraft meant that air power could move beyond the novelty applications of WWI, becoming a central striking force for all the combatant nations.


Over the course of the war, several distinct roles emerged for the application of air power.


Strategic bombings

Part of a USAAF stream of over 1,000 B-17 bombers.

Strategic bombing of civilian targets from the air was a strategy first proposed by the Italian theorist General Giulio Douhet. In his book The Command of the Air (1921), Douhet argued that future military leaders could avoid falling into bloody World War I-style trench stalemates by using aviation to strike past the enemy's forces directly at their vulnerable civilian population. Douhet believed that such strikes would cause these populations to rise up in revolt and overthrow their governments to stop the bombing. Image File history File links Bomber_stream. ... Image File history File links Bomber_stream. ... The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... General Giulio Douhet (30 May 1869 - 15 February 1930) was an Italian air power theorist. ...


Douhet's ideas were paralleled by other military theorists who emerged from World War I, including Sir Hugh Trenchard in Britain. In the interwar period, Britain and the United States became the most enthusiastic supporters of the strategic bombing theory, with each nation building specialized heavy bombers specifically for this task. Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard (February 3, 1873 - February 10, 1956) was the British Chief of the Air Staff during World War I, and was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force (RAF). ...


Luftwaffe

In the early days of WWII, the Luftwaffe launched devastating air attacks against the besieged cities of Warsaw and Rotterdam. In both cases, each city had managed to resist German ground forces, and the air attacks were seen as a means of breaking the city's will to fight.


During the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe, frustrated in its attempts to gain command of the air over Britain in preparation for the planned invasion, turned to the bombing of London and other large English cities. However, the Luftwaffe found that these raids did not have the effect that was predicted by prewar airpower theorists.


Royal Air Force

The British, erroneously believing that the German civilian morale was easier to break, started a strategic bombing campaign in 1940 that was to last for the rest of the war. The British bombers of the early war were all twin-engined designs and were lacking in defensive armament. Therefore they were quickly forced to adopt a policy of night bombing, which meant that they were never able to hit specific targets such as factories or power plants.


Military Air Forces of the Workers and Peasants Red Army

Abbreviated in Russian as ВВС РККА, and commonly known as the Red Air Force during WW2, it was organised according into Air armies, Air forces of the Fronts, Air forces of the (ground) Armies, Military district Air forces and Air Forces of the Military Fleets. There were also numerous independent Air Corps, divisions, brigades, regiments and squadrons, many of which were awarded the additional title of Guards. Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily), formed the official designation of the airforce of the Soviet Union. ... Military districts are territorial entities used for the purposes of military planning and strategizing. ... Several organizations from different countries are, or have been, known as the Air Corps. ... Guards (Russian: гвардия) or Guards units (Russian: гвардейские части) were and are elite military units in Imperial Russia, Soviet Union and Russian Federation. ...


During the course of the war the Red Air Force underwent numerous changes, the major of which were: Air forces of the Military districts were transformed into Air Armies on commencement of war; Air forces assigned to ground Armies were disbanded in May 1942; by the end of the Second World War there were eighteen Air Armies generally assigned at a rate of one per Front, and four Fleet Air forces, as well as four flotilla Air forces. Although lacking a strong strategic bombing air forces, the Red Air Force was famous for its Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik Ground Attack aircraft, and use of aircraft to support partisan troops operating behind the Wehrmacht lines. // Look up fleet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A flotilla (from Spanish, meaning a flota of small ships, and this from French flotte), or naval flotilla, is a formation of small warships that may be part of a larger fleet. ... The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... The Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik (Russian: ) was a ground attack aircraft of World War II, and was produced by the Soviet Union in huge numbers; in combination with its successor, the Ilyushin Il-10, a total of 36,163 were built. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ...


U.S. Army Air Force

When the U.S. Eighth Air Force arrived in England in 1942, the Americans were convinced that they could do what the RAF and the Luftwaffe could not. The 8th was equipped with B-17 Flying Fortresses and B-24 Liberators, both high-altitude four-engined designs with turbo-superchargers. The new bombers also featured the strongest defensive armament yet seen - up to 13 .50 caliber machine guns, depending on the version, most of them in power-operated turrets. Flying during daylight in large, close formations, U.S. doctrine held that tactical formations of heavy bombers would be sufficient to gain air superiority in the absence of escort fighters. The intended raids would hit hard on chokepoints in the German war economy such as oil refineries or ball bearing factories. The Eighth Air Force is a numbered air force (NAF) of the major command (MAJCOM) of Air Combat Command of the United States Air Force and it is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. ... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was an American heavy bomber that was produced in greater numbers than any other American combat aircraft during World War II and still holds the record as the most produced allied aircraft. ... It has been suggested that K6 HMG be merged into this article or section. ... Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... A 4 point angular contact ball bearing A ball bearing is a common type of rolling-element bearing, a kind of bearing. ...


The U.S.A.A.F. was compelled to change its doctrine that bombers alone, no matter how heavily armed, could achieve air superiority against single-engined fighters. Loss rates rose from five per cent to twenty per cent in a series of missions penetrating beyond the range of fighter cover between August 17 and October 14 1943, when raids against Regensburg and Schweinfurt resulted in the loss of 60 bombers on each mission. is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that the section World War II from the article Schweinfurt be merged into this article or section. ...


Air superiority

During the Battle of Britain many of the Luftwaffe's best pilots had been forced to bail out over British soil, where they were captured. As the quality of the Luftwaffe fighter arm decreased, the Americans introduced the long-ranged P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang escort fighters, carrying drop tanks. Newer, inexperienced German pilots—flying potentially superior aircraft like the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, Heinkel He 162 and the Messerschmitt Me 262—gradually became less and less effective at thinning the late-war American bomber streams. Adding fighters to the daylight raids gave the bombers much-needed protection and greatly improved the impact of the strategic bombing effort. The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was a World War II American fighter aircraft. ... The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang was an American long-range single-seat fighter aircraft that entered service with Allied air forces in the middle years of World War II. The P-51 became one of the conflicts most successful and recognizable aircraft. ... The P-51 Mustang is one of the best-known escort fighters of World War II. The escort fighter was a World War II concept for a fighter aircraft designed to escort a bomber formation to and from its target. ... The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (shrike), often called Butcher-bird, was a single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft of Germanys Luftwaffe, and one of the best fighters of its generation. ... The Heinkel He 162 Volksjäger (Peoples Fighter) was a single engined, jet powered fighter aircraft fielded by the Luftwaffe in WWII. It was the fastest of the first generation of Axis and Allied jets. ... The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (German: Swallow) was the worlds first operational turbojet fighter aircraft. ... A map of part of the Kammhuber Line showing the belt and nightfighter boxes through which the bomber stream flew The bomber stream was a tactic developed by the Royal Air Force (RAF) Bomber Command to overwhelm the German aerial defences of the Kammhuber Line during World War II. The...


Effectiveness

Strategic bombing by non-atomic means did not win the war for the Allies, nor did it succeed in breaking the will to resist of the German (and Japanese) people, but in the words of the German armaments minister Albert Speer it created "a second front in the air" long before D-day created the second front on the ground. Speer succeeded in increasing the output of armaments right up to mid-1944 in spite of the bombing. Still, the war against the British and American bombers demanded enormous amounts of resources: antiaircraft guns, day and night fighters, radars, searchlights, manpower, ammo and fuel. As a result, the German army groups in Russia, Italy and France rarely saw friendly aircraft and constantly ran short of tanks, trucks, and anti-tank weapons. The only option left was to create World War I-style slit trench defenses quite unlike the Blitzkriegs of 1939-1941. Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer, commonly known as Albert Speer ( ; March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981), was an architect, author and high-ranking Nazi German government official, sometimes called the first architect of the Third Reich. His two bestselling autobiographical works, Inside the Third Reich and Spandau: the Secret Diaries... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ...


Tactical air support

By contrast with the British strategists, the primary purpose of the German Luftwaffe was to support the ground army. This accounted for the presence of large numbers of dive bombers in the make-up, and the scarcity of long-range heavy bombers. This 'flying artillery' greatly assisted in the successes of the German Army in the Battle of France (1940). Hitler determined that air superiority was a requirement for the invasion of Britain. When this was not achieved in the Battle of Britain during the summer of 1940 the invasion was cancelled, making this the first major battle whose outcome was determined primarily in the air. The Soviet Air Force was also primarily used in the tactical support role and towards the end of the war was used very well in the support of the Red Army in its advance across Eastern Europe. The main reason it was used in this role was because it had large numbers of tactical aircraft including meduim bombers like the Ilyushin Il-4, Tupolev Tu-2 and the B-25 Mitchell, Low Altitude Fighters like the P-39 Airacobra, P-40, P-63 Kingcobra, Yak-1, Yak-3, Yak-9, LaGG-3, La-5 and La-7 and ground attack planes like the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and the Chance-Vought F4U-1, F4U-2 and AU-1 The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III (Belgian) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R... Operation Sealion (Unternehmen (Undertaking) Seelöwe in German) was a World War II German plan to invade the United Kingdom. ... Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from:[1] Poland New Zealand Canada Czechoslovakia Belgium Australia South Africa France Ireland United States Jamaica Palestine Rhodesia Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Strength 754 single-seat fighters 149 two-seat fighters 560 bombers 500 coastal 1,963 total... The Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily), formed the official designation of the air force of the Soviet Union. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The Ilyushin Il-4 was a Soviet World War II bomber aircraft, widely used by the VVS although not well known. ... Tupolev Tu-2 The Tupolev Tu-2 (Development names ANT-58 and 103, NATO reporting name Bat) was a twin-engine Soviet light bomber aircraft of World War II vintage. ... Lt. ... The Bell P-39 Airacobra was one of the principal American fighter aircraft in service at the start of World War II. Although its mid-engine placement was innovative, the P-39 design was handicapped by the lack of an efficient turbo-supercharger, limiting it to low-altitude work, although... The Curtiss P-40 was a US single-engine, single-seat, low-wing, all-metal fighter and ground attack aircraft which first flew in 1938, and was used in great numbers in World War II. It was a direct adaptation of the existing P-36 airframe to enable mass production... The Bell P-63 Kingcobra was an American fighter developed in World War II from the P-39 Airacobra in an attempt to correct that aircrafts deficiencies. ... The Yakovlev Yak-1 was a World War II Soviet fighter aircraft and the first among the wars many successful Yakovlev fighters. ... The Yak-3 fighter The Yakovlev Yak-3 (Russian language: Як-3) was a World War II Soviet fighter aircraft regarded as one of the best fighters of the war. ... Yak-9 Yak-9D The Yakovlev Yak-9 was a single-engine fighter aircraft used by the Soviet Union in World War II. Like the Yak-3, it was a development of the earlier Yak-1. ... The Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Goudkov LaGG-3 (Лавочкин-Горбунов-Гудков ЛаГГ-3) was a Soviet fighter aircraft of World War II. It was a refinement of the earlier LaGG-1, and was one of the most modern aircraft available to the Soviet Air Force at the time of Germanys attempted invasion. ... The Lavochkin La-5 (Лавочкин Ла-5) was a Soviet fighter aircraft of World War II. It was a development and refinement of the LaGG-3 and was one of the Soviet Air Forces most capable types of warplane. ... Lavochkin La-7 This article is about the WW2 Soviet airplane. ...


Military transport aviation and use of airborne troops

Military transport aviation was invaluable to all sides in maintaining supply and communications of ground troops, and was used on many notable occasions such as resupply of German troops in and around Stalingrad after Operation Uranus, and employment of airborne troops. After the first trials in use of airborne troops by the Red Army displayed in the early 1930s many European nations and Japan also formed the airborne troops, and these saw extensive service on in all Theatres of the Second World War. However their effectiveness as shock troops employed to surprise enemy static troops proved to be of limited success, and notable failures. Most airborne troops served as light infantry by the end of the war despite attempts at massed use in the Western Theatre by US and Britain during the Operation Market Garden. The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... Paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division jump from a C17 Globemaster at Ft. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Stormtrooper. ... Look up surprise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... Operation Market Garden was an Allied military operation in World War II, which took place in September 1944. ...


Naval aviation

Aircraft and the aircraft carrier first became important in naval battles in World War II, particularly at the following battles: Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Combatants United Kingdom Italy Commanders Lumley Lyster Inigo Campioni Strength 21 bombers 6 battleships Casualties 2 bombers destroyed 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships damaged 1 cruiser damaged The naval Battle of Taranto took place on the night of 11 November – 12 November 1840 during World War II. The Royal Navy... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS) (1st aerial wave), Shigekazu Shimazaki (IJNAS) (2nd aerial wave) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Japan Commanders Sir Tom Phillips † J. C. Leach † W. G. Tennant T. A. Vigors N. Nakanishi Shichizo Miyauchi Strength 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser 4 destroyers 10 aircraft 88 aircraft (34 torpedo aircraft, 51 level bombers, 3 scouting aircraft) Casualties 1 battleship, 1 battlecruiser sunk, 840 killed... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi â€  Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Combatants United States, Australia Empire of Japan Commanders George C. Kenney Masatomi Kimura Strength 39 heavy bombers; 41 medium bombers; 34 light bombers; 54 fighters 8 destroyers, 8 troop transports, 100 aircraft Casualties 2 bombers, 3 fighters destroyed 8 transports, 4 destroyers sunk 20 fighters destroyed, 5,000 troops killed... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 7 heavy carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 6 heavy carriers, 3 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties 123 planes... Combatants  United States  Australia  Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... The title of largest naval battle in history depends on criteria that may include the number of people and ships involved, the total tonnage of vessels, the size of the battlefield, and the duration of the action. ...

Post World War II

Military aviation in the post-war years was dominated by the needs of the Cold War. The post-war years saw the almost total conversion of combat aircraft to jet power, which resulted in enormous increases in speeds and altitudes of aircraft. Until the advent of the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile major powers relied on high-altitude bombers to deliver their newly-developed nuclear deterrent; each country strove to develop the technology of bombers and the high-altitude fighters that could intercept them. The concept of air superiority began to play a heavy role in aircraft designs for both the United States and the Soviet Union. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ...


The Americans developed and made extensive use of the high-altitude observation aircraft for intelligence-gathering. The U-2, and later the SR-71 Blackbird were developed in great secrecy. The U-2 at its time was supposed to be invulnerable to defensive measures, due to its extreme altitude. It therefore came as a great shock when the Soviets downed one piloted by Gary Powers with a surface-to-air missile.[2] The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed Dragon Lady, is a single-seat, single-engine, high-altitude aircraft flown by the United States Air Force. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was an advanced, long-range, Mach 3 strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed YF-12A and A-12 aircraft by the Lockheed Skunk Works. ... Francis Gary Powers with a model of the U-2. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ...


Air combat was also transformed through increased use of air-to-air guided missiles with increased sophistication in guidance and increased range. This article or section should be merged with Missile guidance A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ... Look up range in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the 70s and 80s it became clear that speed and altitude was not enough to protect a bomber against air defences. The emphasis shifted therefore to maneuverable attack aircraft that could fly 'under the radar', at altitudes of a few hundred feet.


India-Pakistan War of 1965

The war saw the Indian Air Force and the Pakistani Air Force being involved in full scale combat for the first time since independence. Though the two forces had previously faced off in the First Kashmir War during the late 1940s, it was limited in scale compared to the '65 conflict.


Both countries hold highly contradictory claims on combat losses during the war and hardly any neutral sources have thoroughly verified the claims of both countries' claim. PAF claimed it had shot down 104 IAF planes losing only 19 in the process. India meanwhile officially stated that 35 IAF planes were lost while shooting down 73 PAF aircraft. According to Indian figures, the overall attrition rate was 2.16% for Pakistan Air Force and 1.49% for IAF. India also pointed that despite PAF claims of losing only a squadron of combat craft, Pakistan had been seeking urgent help from Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Turkey and China, for additional aircraft within 10 days of the war.


Pakistan's main strike force comprised the U.S. made F-86 Sabre jets, which claimed a fair share of Indian planes, though remaining vulnerable to the dimunitive Folland Gnat, nicknamed "Sabre Slayer". The F-104 Starfighter of the PAF was by far the fastest fighter plane operating in the subcontinent at that time. On the other hand, the Indian Air Force relied largely on the Hawker Hunter for attacks. Unlike the PAF whose planes largely consisted of American craft, IAF flew an assortment of planes from Vampires to Mysteres, many of which were outdated in comparison to PAF planes, with even the Hunters and Gnats being outmatched by the Sabres and Starfighters. Some of the fiercest dogfights occurred over Sargodha which was PAF's main base housing the bulk of its planes; IAF planes attacked the base but PAF was able to repulse the attacks. PAF responded by attacking Indian bases with some success, especially in air to ground attacks but were soon forced to back off, in order to provide cover for its ground troops elsewhere. In one incident, the Gujarat Chief Minister, Balawant Rai Mehta's civilian craft was shot down by PAF Sabres inside Indian territory, killing him and the crew. By the end of the war, neither the numerically larger IAF, nor the PAF which possessed a qualitative advantage, achieved air superiority.


Air mobility

Soviet Mi-24 epitomized combat helicopter usage in aerial warfare during the Russo-Afghan war in the '80s
Soviet Mi-24 epitomized combat helicopter usage in aerial warfare during the Russo-Afghan war in the '80s

The development of the helicopter revolutionised the entire battlefield by the improvement of the "Third Dimension" of "Vertical Envelopment" that had been introduced shortly before World War II with the development of Airborne units (pioneered by the USSR). This included the aerial support of ground forces, and expansion of the "Cannae Maneuver" from two dimensions (Encirclement) to one of Three Dimensions (Encirclement and Vertical Envelopment). In addition, the introduction of the helicopter removed most barriers to troop movement on the battlefield, and provided the sort of mobility that the artillery had been dreaming of since its inception. A helicopter could deliver troops and weapons quickly to areas inaccessible to fixed-wing aircraft - and, unlike paratroops, they could be recovered again. Likewise, ground units could call for aerial fire support that could save them from capture or destruction. The first such operation was undertaken by the British Army during the Suez Crisis of 1956. This led to an entirely new class of airmobile troops, and the introduction of "Air Cavalry" in the U.S., able to land unexpectedly, strike, and leave again. Such tactics played a major part in the Vietnam War, and is today an integral element of US tactical thinking for all forms of warfare. Soviet campaign in Afghanistan also saw widespread use of helicopters as part or the Air Assault (Воздушный десант) brigades and regiments. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2740x1900, 752 KB)Front view of a Soviet Mi-24 HIND E ground-attack helicopter. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2740x1900, 752 KB)Front view of a Soviet Mi-24 HIND E ground-attack helicopter. ... The Mil Mi-24 is a large combat helicopter gunship and low-capacity troop transport operated from 1976 by the Soviet Air Force, its successors, and over thirty other nations. ... Combatants USSR DRA Mujahideen of Afghanistan supported by: USA Saudi Arabia Pakistan Iran China and others. ... A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Air assault (or air mobile) is a military term used to describe the movement of friendly forces by helicopter to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. ... Air cavalry are infantry units that use air units like the helicopter for mobility and firepower. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A US Army UH-1 Huey seen offloading troops during the Vietnam War Air Assault (or air mobile, in the U.S.) is the movement of forces by helicopter or aircraft to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. ...


Post Cold War

USS Abraham Lincoln rides out a storm in the Arabian Sea while on station in support of Operation Southern Watch and Operation Enduring Freedom.

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 forced Western air forces to undergo a shift from the massive numbers felt to be necessary during the Cold War to smaller numbers of multi-role aircraft. The closure of several military bases overseas and the U.S. Base Realignment and Closure program have served to highlight the effectiveness of aircraft carriers in the absence of dedicated military or air forces bases, as the Falklands war and U.S. operations in the Persian Gulf have highlighted. While the advent of precision-guided munitions have allowed for strikes at arbitrary surface targets once proper reconnaissance is performed (network-centric warfare). In some cases, such as the NATO Operation Allied Force effort against the Serbian invasion of Kosovo, air power was the deciding factor with ground forces mostly securing the area afterwards.. However in most case the standard military doctrine still applies: wars against third-world regional entities still cannot be won through air power alone. Download high resolution version (2100x2188, 1953 KB)At sea aboard USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72) Nov. ... Download high resolution version (2100x2188, 1953 KB)At sea aboard USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72) Nov. ... USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), nicknamed Abe, is the fifth Nimitz-class supercarrier in the United States Navy. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Two F-16 Falcon aircraft prepare to depart on a patrol as part of Operation Southern Watch in 2000 Operation Southern Watch was a operation conducted by Joint Task Force Southwest Asia (JTF-SWA) with the mission of monitoring and controlling airspace south of the 33rd Parallel in Iraq, following... Combatants United States, Poland, France, Canada, Pakistan, India, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only), Northern Alliance, Italy, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ethiopia, Somalia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Portugal, Bulgaria, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Georgia Taliban, al-Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, Jemaah... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... Network-centric warfare (NCW), now commonly called Network-centric operations (NCO), is a new military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... An USAF F-15E takes off from Aviano, Italy Operation Allied Force aka Kosovo-NATO War was NATOs military operation against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that lasted from 24 March to 11 June 1999 and is considered a major part of Kosovo War. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova or Kosovë, Serbian: , transliterated ; also , transliterated ) is a region in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ...


Operation: Desert Storm

The role of air power in modern warfare was dramatically demonstrated during the Gulf War in 1991. Behind-the-lines air attacks were made on Iraqi command and control centers, communications facilities, supply depots, and reinforcement forces. Air superiority over Iraq was gained before ground units moved in and Operation Desert Storm commenced. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian...


The initial strikes were composed of Tomahawk cruise missiles launched from battleships situated in the Persian Gulf, F-117A Nighthawk stealth bombers with an armament of laser-guided smart bombs, and F-4G Wild Weasel aircraft armed with HARM anti-radar missiles. These first attacks allowed F-14, F-15, F-16, and F/A-18 fighter bombers to gain air superiority over the country and then continue to drop TV and laser-guided bombs. Armed with a gatling gun and heat-seeking or optically guided Maverick missiles, the A-10 Thunderbolt bombed and destroyed Iraqi armored forces, supporting the advance of US ground troops. The AH-64 Apache and AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters, fired laser guided Hellfire missiles and TOW missiles which were guided to tanks by ground observers or scout helicopters. The allied air fleet also made use of the E-3A Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) and a fleet of B-52 bombers. A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The United States Air Forces F-117A Nighthawk is the worlds first operational aircraft designed to exploit low-observable stealth technology. ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... “F-4” redirects here. ... The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, variable geometry wing aircraft. ... The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F-15 Eagle is an all-weather tactical fighter designed to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ... The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18 Hornet is a modern all-weather carrier-capable strike fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets. ... An 1865 Gatling gun. ... The AGM-65 Maverick is an air-to-ground tactical missile (AGM) designed for close air support. ... The Fairchild-Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft designed to provide air interdiction and close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets. ... The AH-64 Apache is the United States Armys principal attack helicopter, and is the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ... The Bell AH-1 Cobra is an attack helicopter. ... Type Air-to-ground and surface-to-surface Missile Nationality United States Era Cold War and through Global War on Terrorism Launch platform Rotary- and fixed-wing platforms, Unmanned aerial vehicle, tri-pods, ships, and ground vehicles Target Three warhead variants defeat an array of targets including tanks, light armored... A TOW missile being fired from a Jeep. ... rolling out of the Boeing factory in the 1970s A Sentry AEW1 of the RAF takes off USAF E-3 Sentry prepared for flight at 4 Wing Cold Lake, Canada The NATO E-3s have the Coat of arms of Luxembourg and the registration LX on the tail. ... “B-52” redirects here. ...


The aerial strike force was made up of over 2,250 combat aircraft, which included 1,800 US aircraft, which fought against an Iraqi force of about 500 Soviet-built MiG-29 and French-made Mirage F-1 fighters. More than 88,000 combat missions had been flown by allied forces with over 88,000 tons of bombs dropped by the end of the fifth week. Soviet redirects here. ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Russian: ) (NATO reporting name Fulcrum) is a fighter aircraft designed for the air superiority role in the Soviet Union. ... The Dassault Mirage F1 is a single-seat air-superiority fighter and attack aircraft built by Dassault of France. ...


Operation: Iraqi Freedom

During the 2003 invasion of Iraq led by US and British forces to defeat the regime of Saddam Hussein, aerial warfare continued to be decisive. The US-British alliance began its air campaign on March 19 with limited nighttime bombing on the Iraqi capital of Baghdad. Several days later, intensive bombardment began. About 14,000 sorties were flown, and at a cost of $1 million dollars each, 800 Tomahawk cruise missiles were fired at numerous targets in Iraq from March 19 until mid-April 2003. By this time Iraqi resistance had largely ended. The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Iraqi anti-aircraft weapons were unable to open fire on high-altitude US bombers such as the B-52 or stealth aircraft such as the B-2 bomber and the F-117A. US and British aircraft used radar-detecting devices and aerial reconnaissance to locate Iraqi anti-aircraft weapons. Bunker buster bombs, designed to penetrate and destroy underground bunkers, were dropped on Iraqi command and control centers. Iraqi ground forces could not seriously challenge the American ground forces because of their air supremacy. By mid-April 2003, US-British forces controlled all of Iraq's major cities and oil fields. The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit is a multi-role stealth heavy bomber, capable of deploying both conventional and nuclear weapons. ... A bunker buster is a bomb designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ...


Other conflicts

A few other spans of conflicts opened up the use of aerial warfare in recent times. In 1999, India and Pakistan were involved in a brief conflict over Kashmir. The Indian Air Force used Mirage 2000 fighter jet effectively to carry out ground assault sorties against Pakistani positions. The air operations were notable given the high altitude terrain of Kashmir. During the 2006 Lebanon War, the Israeli Air Force used their airpower to attack Hezbollah territories and other important areas in Lebanon. There have also been reports during the conflict that a Hezbollah-manned flying drone penetrated Israeli airspace, and returned to Lebanese territory. This article is about the year. ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... The Mirage 2000 is a French-built multirole fighter jet manufactured by Dassault Aviation. ... Combatants Hezbollah Lebanon Amal[2] LCP[3] PFLP-GC[4]  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[11] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Terror bombing. ... An air force, in some countries called an air army, is a military or armed service that primarily conducts aerial warfare. ... Antonov An-124 loading a container for the Dutch military A large military cargo aircraft: the Boeing C-17A Globemaster III An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies primarily via aircraft. ... Airstrike in Kosovo War An airstrike is a military strike by air forces on either a suspected or a confirmed enemy ground position, which depending on the selected tactics may or may not be followed up by artillery, armor, or infantry units. ... An Aviator Badge is an insignia used in most of the world’s militaries to designate those who have received training and qualification in military aviation. ... This article is about the aerial combat maneuver. ... The Flying Heritage Collection is Paul Allens private collection of 20th century military aviation. ... Balloons were the first mechanisms used in air warfare. ... Just-in-Time Strike Augmentation (JITSA) is a United States Air Force program proposal for commanding the battlefield from the air. ... It has been suggested that Aerial warfare be merged into this article or section. ...

References

  • "War in the Air" from Oral Histories of the First World War: Veterans 1914-1918 at Library and Archives Canada

Footnotes

  1. ^ Bulgarian Aviation (html). Stanislav Kostadinov. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  2. ^ The U-2 Spy Plane Incident (html). Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library. Retrieved on 2007-05-19.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Is Aerial Warfare Doomed? (2454 words)
Cities and enemy military positions are to be demolished with bombs and poison gas hurled from the sky, with the odds for victory 100 per cent in favor of the aerial attacking forces.
They close their eyes to the fact that no aerial bombing can be effective unless the aviators can clearly see the target they are trying to hit it is a well-established fact that any bomb-dropping from an altitude of more than about 4000 feet is notoriously inaccurate.
The aerial bomb is dropped at a target and hitting the target is largely a matter of guesswork.
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