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Encyclopedia > Aeneid
Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome
Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome

The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: [əˈniːɪd]; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced [aɪˈne.ɪs] — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. It is written in dactylic hexameter. The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas' wanderings from Troy to Italy, and the poem's second half treats the Trojans' ultimately victorious war upon the Latins, under whose name Aeneas and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed. Download high resolution version (1050x729, 119 KB)Federico Barocci, Aeneas Flight from Troy 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Download high resolution version (1050x729, 119 KB)Federico Barocci, Aeneas Flight from Troy 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... The Villa Borghese Pinciana (begun 1605) houses the Galleria Borghese. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Dactyllic hexameter (also known as heroic hexameter) is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balkanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. ...


The hero Aeneas was already known to Greco-Roman legend and myth, having been a character in the Iliad; Virgil took the disconnected tales of Aeneas' wanderings, his vague association with the foundation of Rome and a personage of no fixed characteristics other than a scrupulous piety, and fashioned this into a compelling founding myth or nationalist epic that at once tied Rome to the legends of Troy, glorified traditional Roman virtues and legitimized the Julio-Claudian dynasty as descendants of the founders, heroes and gods of Rome and Troy. Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... In modern Olympic and amateur wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is a particular style and variation. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ... A founding myth is a story or myth surrounding the foundation of a nation-state. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ...

Contents

Story

The Aeneid can be divided into two halves based on the disparate subject matter of Books 1-6 (Aeneas' journey to Italy) and Books 7-12 (the war in Italy). These two halves are commonly regarded as reflecting Virgil's ambition to rival Homer by treating both the wandering theme of the Odyssey and the Iliad's themes of warfare.[1] This is, however, a rough correspondence whose limitations should be borne in mind.[2]


Journey to Italy (books 1-6)

Virgil begins his poem with a statement of his theme (Arma virumque cano…, "I sing of arms and of a man...") and an invocation to his Muse (Musa, mihi causas memora…, "O Muse, recall to me the reasons…"). He then explains the cause of the principal conflict of the plot; in this case, the resentment held by Juno against the Trojan people. This is in keeping with the style of the Homeric epics, except in that Virgil states the theme and then invokes his Muse, whereas Homer invokes the Muse and then states the theme. For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ... IVNO REGINA (Queen Juno) on a coin celebrating Julia Soaemias. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ...


Also in the manner of Homer, the story proper begins in medias res, with the Trojan fleet in the eastern Mediterranean, heading in the direction of Italy. The fleet, led by Aeneas, is on a voyage to find a second home. It has been foretold that in Italy, he will give rise to a race both noble and courageous, a race which will become known to all nations. Juno, wrathful because on one hand, she had not been chosen in the judgment of Paris against Aeneas's mother, Venus, on the other, her favorite city (Carthage) will be destroyed by Aeneas' descendants, goes to Aeolus, King of the Winds. She asks that he release the winds and so stir up a storm in return for a bribe (Deiopea, the loveliest of all the sea nymphs, as a wife). He agrees, and the storm devastates the fleet. Neptune takes notice: although he himself is no friend of the Trojans, he is infuriated by Juno's intrusion into his domain, and stills the winds and calms the waters. The fleet takes shelter on the coast of Africa. There, Aeneas's mother, Venus, in the form of a hunting woman very similar to the goddess Diana, encourages him and tells him the history of the city. Eventually, Aeneas ventures in, and in the temple of Juno, seeks and gains the favor of Dido, queen of Carthage, the city which has only recently been founded by refugees from Tyre and which will later become Rome's greatest enemy. In medias res, also medias in res (Latin for into the middle of things) is a literary and artistic technique where the narrative starts in the middle of the story instead of from its beginning (ab ovo or ab initio). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Adjectives: Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean Atmosphere Surface pressure: 9. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Neptune is usually depicted with a trident, as seen here in this statue by Jean de Boulogne in Bologna, Italy. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Aeneas recounting the Trojan War to Dido. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ...


At a banquet given in the honour of the Trojans, Aeneas recounts the events which occasioned the Trojans' fortuitous arrival. He begins the tale shortly after the events described in the Iliad. Crafty Ulysses devised a way for Greek warriors to gain entry into Troy by hiding in a large wooden horse. The Greeks pretended to sail away, leaving a man, Sinon, to tell the Trojans that the horse was an offering and that if it were taken into the city, the Trojans would be able to conquer Greece. The Trojan priest Laocoön, who had seen through the Greek plot and urged the horse's destruction, hurled his spear at the wooden horse. Just after, in what would be seen by the Trojans as punishment from the gods, Laocoon was suddenly grabbed and eaten, along with his two sons, by a giant sea snake. So the Trojans brought the horse inside the fortified walls, and after nightfall the armed Greeks emerged and began to slaughter the city's inhabitants. Aeneas woke up and saw with horror what was happening to his beloved city. At first he tried to fight against the enemy, but soon he lost his comrades and was left alone to fend off tens of Greeks. Venus intervened directly, telling him to flee with his family. Aeneas tells of his escape with his son Ascanius and father Anchises, his wife Creusa having been separated from the others and subsequently killed in the general catastrophe. He tells of how, rallying the other survivors, he built a fleet of ships and made landfall at various locations in the Mediterranean (including Thrace, Crete and Epirus). One of these locations was Buthrotum, a city which tried to replicate Troy. There, he met Andromache, the wife of Hector. She still laments for the loss of her valiant husband and beloved child. There, too, Aeneas saw and met Helenus, one of Priam's sons, who had the gift of prophecy. Through him, Aeneas learned the destiny laid out for him: he was divinely advised to seek out the land of Italy (also known as Ausonia or Hesperia), where his descendants would not only prosper, but in time rule the entire known world. In addition, Helenus also bade him go to the Sibyl in Cumae. Heading out into the open sea, Aeneas left Buthrotum. While in the open sea, Anchises, the father of Aeneas, peacefully died. The fleet reached as far as Sicily and was making for the mainland, until Juno raised up the storm which drove it back across the sea to Carthage. title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... For other meanings, see Odysseus crater, 1143 Odysseus “Ulysses” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Trojan Horse (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Sinon, a son of Aesimus (son of Autolycus), or of the crafty Sisyphus, was a Greek warrior during the Trojan War. ... Statue of Laocoön in the Vatican Laocoön (in Greek – Λαοκόων, pronounced roughly La — oh — koh — on), son of Priam, was allegedly a priest of Poseidon (or of Apollo, by some accounts) at Troy; he was famous for warning the Trojans in vain against accepting the Trojan Horse from the... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Ascanius Hunting the Stag of Silvia, by Claude Lorrain (1682). ... Aeneas Bearing Anchises from Troy, by Carle van Loo, 1729 (Louvre) In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus, son of Tros) or Hieromneme, a naiad. ... In Greek mythology, four people had the name Creusa. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Buthrotum (Albanian: Butrint or Butrinti) is an ancient city and an archeological site in Albania, close to the Greek border. ... Andromache grieves the loss of Hector In Greek mythology, Andromache was the wife of Hector and daughter of Eetion, sister to Podes. ... See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... The word sibyl comes (via Latin) from the Greek word sibylla, meaning prophetess. ... Cumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. ... Aeneas Bearing Anchises from Troy, by Carle van Loo, 1729 (Louvre) In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus, son of Tros) or Hieromneme, a naiad. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...

Boxing scene from the Aeneid (book 5), mosaic floor from a Gallo-Roman villa in Villelaure (France), ca. 175 AD, Getty Villa (71.AH.106)
Boxing scene from the Aeneid (book 5), mosaic floor from a Gallo-Roman villa in Villelaure (France), ca. 175 AD, Getty Villa (71.AH.106)

Meanwhile, Venus had her own plans. She went to her son (as well as Aeneas' half-brother) Cupid, and told him to imitate Ascanius. Disguised as such, he goes to Dido, and offers the gifts expected from a guest. With her motherly love revived in the sight of the small boy, her heart was pierced and she fell in love with the boy and his father. During the banquet, Dido realizes that she has fallen madly in love with Aeneas, although she had previously sworn fidelity to the soul of her late husband, Sychaeus, who was murdered by her cupidinous brother Pygmalion. Juno seizes upon this opportunity to make a deal with Venus, Aeneas' mother, with the intention of distracting him from his destiny of founding a city in Italy. Aeneas is inclined to return Dido's love, and during a hunting expedition, a storm drives them into a cave in which Aeneas and Dido presumably have sex, an event that Dido takes to indicate a marriage between them. But when Jupiter sends Mercury to remind Aeneas of his duty, he has no choice but to part. Her heart broken, Dido commits suicide by stabbing herself upon a pyre with Aeneas' sword. Before dying, she predicts eternal strife between Aeneas's people and hers; "rise up from my bones, avenging spirit" (4.625, trans. Fitzgerald) is an obvious invocation to Hannibal. Looking back from the deck of his ship, Aeneas sees Dido's funeral pyre's smoke and knows its meaning only too clearly. However, destiny calls and the Trojan fleet sails on to Italy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 559 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1872 × 2007 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 559 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1872 × 2007 pixel, file size: 2. ... Villelaure is a commune of the Vaucluse département in southern France. ... Events Pope Eleuterus succeeds Pope Soter (approximate date) Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius defeats the Marcomanni. ... The Getty Villa Main Courtyard of the Villa The new entrance to the Getty Villa sets the tone of entering an archaeological dig. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... It has been suggested that Cupid (holiday character) be merged into this article or section. ... Ascanius Hunting the Stag of Silvia, by Claude Lorrain (1682). ... Aeneas recounting the Trojan War to Dido. ... In Vergils epic Aeneid, Sychaeus was the husband of the Phoenician queen Dido. ... Pygmalion (also known as Pumayyaton) was king of Tyre from 820 to 774 BC and a son of King Mattan I (829-821 BC). ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... An Ubud cremation ceremony in 2005. ... Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, (247 BC – ca. ...


Aeneas's father Anchises having been hastily interred on Sicily during the fleet's previous landfall there, the Trojans returned to the island to hold funeral games in his honour. Eventually, the fleet lands on the mainland of Italy and further adventures ensue. Aeneas, with the guidance of the Cumaean Sibyl, descends to the underworld through an opening at Cumae, where he speaks with the spirit of his father and has a prophetic vision of the destiny of Rome. Upon returning to the land of the living, Aeneas leads the Trojans to settle in the land of Latium, where he courts Lavinia, the daughter of king Latinus. Aeneas Bearing Anchises from Troy, by Carle van Loo, 1729 (Louvre) In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus, son of Tros) or Hieromneme, a naiad. ... For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ... Cumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... In Roman mythology, Lavinia was the daughter of Latinus and Amata. ... Latinus or Latinos in Greek mythology, in Hesiods Theogony, was the son of Odysseus and Circe who ruled the Tyrsenoi, that is the Etruscans, with his brothers Agrius and Telegonus. ...

Roman bas-relief, 2nd century: Aeneas lands in Latium, leading Ascanias; the sow identifies the place to found his city (Book 6)
Roman bas-relief, 2nd century: Aeneas lands in Latium, leading Ascanias; the sow identifies the place to found his city (Book 6)

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3350 × 2233 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3350 × 2233 pixel, file size: 3. ...

War in Italy (books 7-12)

Although Aeneas would have wished to avoid it, war eventually breaks out. Juno is heavily involved in causing this war - she convinces the Queen of Latium to demand that Lavinia be married to Turnus, the king of a local people, the Rutuli. Juno continues to stir up trouble, even summoning the Fury Allecto to ensure that a war takes place. In Vergils Aeneid , Turnus was the King of the Rutuli, and the chief antagonist of the hero Aeneas. ... The Rutuli were members of a legendary Italian tribe. ...


Seeing the masses of Italians that Turnus has brought against him, Aeneas seeks help from the Tuscans, enemies of Turnus. He meets King Evander, whose son, Pallas, agrees to lead troops against the other Italians. Meanwhile, the Trojan camp is being attacked, and a midnight raid leads to the tragic deaths of Nisus and his love Euryalus, in one of the most emotional passages in the book. The gates, however, are defended until Aeneas returns. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In mythology, Nisus refers to two differerent people: In Greek mythology, Nisus was King of Megara, and he was invincible as long as a lock of red hair still existed, hidden in his white hair. ... In Greek mythology, Euryalus referred to two different people. ...


In the battling that follows, many heroes are killed, notably Pallas, who is killed by Turnus, and Mezentius, Turnus' close associate who inadvertently allowed his son to be killed while he himself fled; he reproached himself and faced Aeneas in single combat, an honourable but essentially futile pursuit. Another notable hero, Camilla, a sort of Amazon character, fights bravely but is eventually killed. Camilla had been a virgin devoted to Diana and to her nation; the man who killed her was struck dead by Diana's sentinel Opis after doing so, even though he tried to escape. In Roman folklore, Queen Camilla of the Volsci was the daughter of King Metabus and Casmilla. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


After this, single combat is proposed between Aeneas and Turnus, but Aeneas was so obviously superior that the Italians, urged on by Turnus' divine sister, Juturna, break the truce. Aeneas is injured, but returns to the battle shortly afterwards. Turnus and Aeneas dominate the battle on opposite wings, but when Aeneas makes a daring attack at the city of Latium itself, (causing the queen of Latium to hang herself in despair), he forces Turnus into single combat once more. In a dramatic scene, Turnus' strength deserts him as he tries to hurl a rock, and he is struck by Aeneas' spear in the leg. As Turnus is begging on his knees for his life, the poem ends with Aeneas killing him in rage when he sees that he is wearing the armour of his friend Pallas.


This is where the Aeneid ends, although we know that it is incomplete. Virgil died before finishing his work, and many people have felt that the poem is not complete without an account of Aeneas' marriage to Lavinia and his founding of the Roman race. To fill this perceived deficiency, the fifteenth-century Italian poet Maffeo Vegio (also known as Mapheus Vegius) composed a "supplement to the Aeneid", which was widely printed in Renaissance editions of the work. Others, however, see the violent ending to the Aeneid as a typically Virgilian comment on the darker, vengeful side of humanity. Maffio Vegio (1407-1458) was an Italian poet who wrote in Latin; he is regarded by many as the finest Latin poet of the fifteenth-century. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


Context

folio 22 from the Vergilius Vaticanus - flight from Troy

The work was written at a time of major change in Rome, both political and social. The Republic had fallen, civil war had ripped apart society, and the sudden return of prosperity and peace after a generation of chaos had badly eroded traditional social roles and cultural norms. In reaction, the emperor Augustus was trying to re-introduce traditional Roman moral values, and the Aeneid is thought to reflect that aim. Aeneas was depicted as a man devoted and loyal to his country and its prominence, rather than personal gains. He went off on a journey for the betterment of Rome. In addition, the Aeneid attempts to legitimize the rule of Julius Caesar (and by extension, of his adopted son Augustus and his heirs). Aeneas' son Ascanius, called Ilus from Ilium, meaning Troy, is renamed Iulus and offered by Virgil as an ancestor of the gens Julia, the family of Julius Caesar. When making his way through the underworld, Aeneas is given a prophecy of the greatness of his imperial descendants. Furthermore, Aeneas receives weapons and armour from Vulcan, including a shield which illustrates the future of Rome and lays stress once again upon the emperors, including Augustus. Folio 22r from Vergilius Vaticanus. ... Folio 22r from Vergilius Vaticanus. ... Folio 22r from the Vatican Virgil contains an illustration from the Aeneid of the flight from Troy. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Julius (fem. ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ...


One might also note the relationship between the Trojans and Greeks in the Aeneid. The Trojans were the ancestors of the Romans according to the Aeneid, and their enemies were the Greek forces who had besieged and sacked Troy; yet at the time the Aeneid was written, the Greeks were part of the Roman Empire and a respected people who were considered cultured and civilised. This situation is resolved by the fact that the Greeks beat the Trojans only through the use of a trick, the wooden horse, not on the open field of battle: Thus Roman dignity is saved.


Themes

Nearly the entirety of the Aeneid is devoted to the philosophical concept of opposition. The primary opposition is that Aeneas, as guided by Jupiter, representing pietas (reasoned judgment and performing one's duty), whereas Dido and Turnus are guided by Juno, representing unbridled furor (mindless passion and fury). Other oppositions within the Aeneid include: Fate versus Action, Male versus Female, Rome versus Carthage, Aeneas as Odysseus in Books I-VI versus Aeneas as Achilles in Books VII-XII, Calm Weather versus Storms, and the Horned Gate versus the Ivory Gate of Book VI. For the planet see Jupiter. ... Aeneas recounting the Trojan War to Dido. ... In Vergils Aeneid , Turnus was the King of the Rutuli, and the chief antagonist of the hero Aeneas. ... IVNO REGINA (Queen Juno) on a coin celebrating Julia Soaemias. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Look up fury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Destiny (disambiguation). ... Action, as a concept in philosophy, is what an agent can do, as for instance humans as agents can do. ... This article is about the Male sex. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... For other meanings, see Odysseus crater, 1143 Odysseus “Ulysses” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... Édouard Manet. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Categories: Stub ... In Greek mythology, the Oneiroi were the sons of Hypnos, the god of sleep. ... In Greek mythology, the Oneiroi were the sons of Hypnos, the god of sleep. ...


Pietas was possibly the key quality of any 'honourable' Roman, consisted of a series of duties: duty towards the Gods (hence the English word piety); duty towards one's homeland; duty towards one's followers and duty to one's family - especially one's father. Therefore, a further theme of the poem explores the strong relationship between fathers and sons. The bonds between Aeneas and Ascanius, Aeneas and Anchises, Evander and Pallas, Mezentius and Lausus are all worthy of note. This theme reflects Augustan moral reforms and was perhaps intended to set an example for Roman youth. Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ...


The major moral of the Aeneid is acceptance of the workings of the Gods as fate through the use of pietas or piety. Virgil, in composing the character of Aeneas alludes to Augustus, suggesting that the gods work their ways through humans; using Aeneas to found Rome, Augustus to lead Rome, and that one must accept one's fate. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...


Style

The Aeneid, like other classical epics, is written in dactylic hexameter, meaning that each line has six feet made up of dactyls, or one long syllable and two shorts, and spondees, or two long syllables. As with other classical Latin poetry, the meter is based on the length of syllables rather than the stress, though the interplay of meter and stress is also important. Virgil also incorporated such poetic devices as alliteration, onomatopoeia, synecdoche, and assonance. Dactyllic hexameter (also known as heroic hexameter) is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme. ... A dactyl (Gr. ... Look up Spondee in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alliteration is a literary device in which the same sound appears at the beginning of two or more consecutive words. ... For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ... Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which: a term denoting a part of something is used to refer to the whole thing, or a term denoting a thing (a whole) is used to refer to part of it, or a term denoting a specific class of thing (a species... Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in non-rhyming words as in, some ship in distress that cannot live. ...


Time

Unlike Homer's Odyssey, no time is set for the events which take place during the Aeneid. Even the age of Aeneas's son, Ascanius, cannot provide a clue to the sequence of events; in Book 4, for example, he is pictured both as participating in the hunt, and being impersonated by Cupid as a child in the arms of Dido, shooting arrows into her heart. During Book 4, however there is an indirect reference to a timeline. It is stated that Dido and Aeneas were together through the long winter, implying that Aeneas and his crew must have only stayed in Carthage for the winter, before they heeded Jupiter's message sent by Mercury to leave Carthage. Some suggest Virgil was being intentionally discreet with his use of time in the Aeneid.


Aeneid allegory

The most debated theories with regard to the Aeneid involve whether Virgil meant to convey a so-called "hidden message" or allegory within the poem. These, of course, are only speculative interpretations. The first section in question is:

"There are two gates of Sleep, one said to be of horn, whereby the true shades pass with ease, the other all white ivory agleam without a flaw, and yet false dreams are sent through this one by the ghost to the upper world. Anchises now, his last instructions given, took son and Sibyl and let them go by the Ivory Gate." (Italics added for emphasis)

(Book VI, Lines 893-899, Fitzgerald Trans.)


Aeneas's exiting of the underworld through the gate of false dreams has been variously interpreted: One suggestion is that the passage simply refers to the time of day at which Aeneas returned to the world of the living; another is that it implies that all of Aeneas's actions in the remainder of the poem are somehow "false." In an extension of the latter interpretation, it has been suggested that Virgil is conveying that the history of the world since the foundation of Rome is but a lie. Other scholars claim that Virgil is establishing that the theological implications of the preceding scene (i.e. an apparent system of reincarnation) are not to be taken as literal.[3] This article is about the theological concept. ...


The second section in question is:

"Then to his glance appeared the accurst swordbelt surmounting Turnus' shoulder, shining with its familiar studs - the strap Young Pallas wore when Turnus wounded him and left him dead upon the field; now Turnus bore that enemy token on his shoulder - enemy still. For when the sight came home to him, Aeneas raged at the relic of his anguish worn by this man as trophy. Blazing up and terrible in his anger, he called out: 'You in your plunder, torn from one of mine, shall I be robbed of you? This wound will come from Pallas: Pallas makes this offering, and from your criminal blood exacts his due.' He sank his blade in fury in Turnus' chest..."

(Italics added for emphasis) (Book XII, Lines 1281-1295, Fitzgerald Trans.).


This section has been interpreted to mean that for the entire passage of the poem, Aeneas who symbolizes pietas (reason) in a moment becomes furor (fury), thus destroying what is essentially the primary theme of the poem itself. Many have argued over these two sections. Some claim that Virgil meant to change them before he died, while others find that the location of the two passages, at the very end of the so-called Volume I (Books I-VI, the Odyssey), and Volume II (Books VII-XII, the Iliad), and their short length, which contrasts with the lengthy nature of the poem, are evidence that Virgil placed them purposefully there. This article is about the poem by Homer. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ...


The history of the Aeneid

The poetry of the Aeneid is polished and complex; legend has it that Virgil wrote only three lines of the poem each day. Although the work is substantially complete, with the same length and scope as Homer's epics, which it imitates, it does appear to lack some finishing touches: a number of lines are only half-complete, and the ending is generally felt to be too abrupt to have been intentional. It is common, however, for epic poems to contain incomplete, disputed, or badly adulterated text, and because this poem was composed and preserved in writing rather than orally, the Aeneid is more complete than most classical epics. Furthermore, it is possible to debate whether Virgil intended to rewrite and add to such lines. Some of them would be difficult to complete, and in some instances, the brevity of a line increases its dramatic impact. However, these arguments may be anachronistic - half-finished lines might equally, to Roman readers, have been a clear indication of an unfinished poem and have added nothing whatsoever to the dramatic effect.


However, another legend states that Virgil, fearing that he would die before he had properly revised the poem, gave instructions to friends that the Aeneid should be burned upon his death, owing to its unfinished state and because he had come to dislike one of the sequences in Book VIII, in which Venus and Vulcan have sex. He supposedly intended to alter this sequence to conform better to Roman moral virtues. The friends did not comply with Virgil's wishes, and Augustus himself ordered that they be disregarded. After minor modifications, the Aeneid was published. Adjectives: Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean Atmosphere Surface pressure: 9. ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ...


In the 15th century, there were two attempts to produce an addition to the Aeneid. One was made by Pier Candido Decembrio (which was never completed) and one was made by Maffeo Vegio, which was often included in 15th and 16th century printings of the Aeneid as the Supplementum. The most recent addition, though not strictly a sequel, is Claudio Salvucci's epic poem The Laviniad (1994). Among the most famous translations of the Aeneid is the English translation by the 17th-century poet John Dryden. Although it takes numerous, significant liberties with the text, along with the addition of a very non-Roman rhyme scheme, it is thought to be one of the very few examples of a poetic translation that retains the power and flow of the original in a new language, and it is often regarded as a classic in its own right. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Uberto Decembrio (- 1427), secretary to the Milanese duke Giangaleazzo Visconti (+ 1402) and to Peter of Candia (later counter Pope with the name Alexander 1409/1410). ... Maffio Vegio (1407-1458) was an Italian poet who wrote in Latin; he is regarded by many as the finest Latin poet of the fifteenth-century. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700 in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles...


Recent English verse translations include those by Allen Mandelbaum (honoured by a 1973 National Book Award), Library of Congress Poet Laureate Robert Fitzgerald (1981), Stanley Lombardo (2005), and Robert Fagles (2006). Allen Mandelbaum (born 1926 in American professor of Italian literature, a poet, and a prolific translator. ... The National Book Awards is one of the most preeminent literary prizes in the United States. ... The Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress is appointed by the United States Librarian of Congress and earns a stipend of $35,000 a year. ... Robert Stuart Fitzgerald (1910 - 1985) was best known as a translator of ancient Greek and Latin. ... Stanley Lombardo is a professor of Classics at the University of Kansas. ... Robert Fagles is a Professor of Comparative Literature at Princeton University. ...


Influence

The Aeneid is one of a small group of writings in Latin literature that have, since ancient times, traditionally been required for students of Latin. Traditionally, after reading the works of Julius Caesar, Cicero, Ovid and Catullus, students would then read the Aeneid. As a result, many phrases from this poem entered the Latin language, much as passages from Shakespeare and Alexander Pope have entered the English language. One example is from Aeneas' reaction to a painting of the sack of Troy: Sunt lacrimae rērum et mentem mortālia tangunt—"These are the tears of things, and our mortality cuts to the heart." (Aeneid I, 462) (PP A.1.462). The influence is also visible in very modern work: Brian Friel's Translations (a play written in the 1980s, set during the English colonisation of Ireland) makes references to the classics throughout, and ends with a passage from the Aeneid: Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Iliou persis (English: Sack of Ilion; Greek: Ἰλίου πέρσις; also known as Iliupersis, esp. ... The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. ... Brian Friel (born January 9, 1929) is a playwright and director from Northern Ireland. ... Translations (Aistrichiuain) is a three-act play by Irish playwright Brian Friel written in 1980. ...

"Urbs antiqua fuit—there was an ancient city which, 'tis said, Juno loved above all the lands. And it was the goddess's aim and cherished hope that here should be the capital of all nations—should the fates perchance allow that. Yet in truth she discovered that a race was springing from Trojan blood to overthrow some day these Tyrian towers—a people late regem belloque superbum—kings of broad realms and proud in war who would come forth for Libya's downfall."

IVNO REGINA (Queen Juno) on a coin celebrating Julia Soaemias. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ E.G. Knauer, "Vergil's Aeneid and Homer", Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 5 (1964) 61-84. Originating in Servius's observation [1]
  2. ^ The majority of the Odyssey is devoted to events on Ithaca, not to Odysseus' wanderings, so that the second half of the Odyssey very broadly corresponds to the second half of the Aeneid (the hero fights to establish himself in his new/renewed home). Joseph Farrell has observed, "...let us begin with the traditional view that Virgil's epic divides into 'Odyssean' and 'Iliadic' halves. Merely accepting this idea at face value is to mistake for a destination what Virgil clearly offered as the starting-point of a long and wondrous journey" ("The Virgilian Intertext", Cambridge Companion to Virgil, p. 229).
  3. ^ Trans. David West, "The Aeneid" (1991) xxiii.

Maurus (or Marius) Servius Honoratius, Roman grammarian and commentator on Virgil, flourished at the end of the 4th century AD. He is one of the interlocutors in the Saturnalia of Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius, and allusions in that work and a letter from Quintus Aurelius Symmachus to Servius show that he...

See also

Brutus of Troy or Brutus I of the Britons (Welsh: Bryttys), according to the accounts of the early Welsh historians Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the first king of the Britons. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ...

Further reading

  • Facing-page Latin-English edition: Virgil: Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid 1-6 (Loeb Classical Library, No 63) by Virgil, H. R. Fairclough (trans), G. P. Goold (rev) ISBN 0-674-99583-X, Virgil: Aeneid Books 7-12, Appendix Vergiliana (Loeb Classical Library, No 64) by Virgil, H. R. Fairclough (trans), G. P. Goold (rev) ISBN 0-674-99586-4
  • Virgil: The Aeneid (Landmarks of World Literature (Revival)) by K. W. Gransden ISBN 0-521-83213-6
  • Virgil's 'Aeneid': Cosmos and Imperium by Philip R. Hardie ISBN 0-19-814036-3
  • Richard Heinze, Virgil's Epic Technique, translated by Hazel and David Harvey and Fred Robinson. Berkeley: The University of California Press, 1993. ISBN 0-520-06444-5.
  • Darkness Visible: A Study of Vergil's Aeneid by W.R. Johnson ISBN 0-520-02942-9
  • Brooks Otis, Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry, Oxford, 1964
  • Lee Fratantuono, Madness Unchained: A Reading of Virgil's Aeneid, Lexington Books, 2007.

The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each... The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
The Classics Pages - Aeneid (975 words)
In Aeneid Book 1, Aeneas is shipwrecked on the coast of North Africa, near where Dido, the young Phoenician queen - herself a refugee from her homeland - is building a city which will become Carthage.
Aeneas, who had escaped death when Troy fell to the Greeks, has been wandering in search of a new land in the west, where it has been prophesied he shall establish a race whose destiny is to rule the world in peace and prosperity.
All the themes of the Aeneid are first developed in Book 1 - it's quite hard to understand Book 2, or Book 4, without reading this one first.
Aeneid Summary (481 words)
Below, he analyzes the versification, structure, and themes of the Aeneid, especially as they are displayed in the "corresponding" Books II and VIII.
In the following excerpt, Pöschl analyzes the early scenes of the Aeneid, in which the "symbolic relation between nature and politics, myth and history" establishes the themes of the epic as a whole.
Virgil's Aeneid is a perfect example of epic poetry, and it serves as a standard for other epics to follow.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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