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Encyclopedia > Aegyptus (Roman province)
This article is part of the
History of Egypt series.
Ancient Egypt
Persian (Achaemenid) Egypt
Ptolemaic Egypt
Roman Egypt
Early Arab Egypt
Ottoman Egypt
Muhammad Ali and his successors
Modern Egypt
List of Egyptians
The Roman Empire ca. 120 AD, with Aegyptus province highlighted
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The Roman Empire ca. 120 AD, with Aegyptus province highlighted

Aegyptus was, in ancient geography, a province of the Roman Empire, encompassing most of modern-day Egypt except for the Sinai Peninsula. Both the provinces of Cyrenaica to the west and Arabia to the east bordered Aegyptus. The area originally came under Roman rule in 30 BC, and served as a major producer of grain for the empire. Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ... General context: Ancient Egypt. ... The period of history in which Achaemenid Persia ruled over Egypt is divided into three parts: the first Persian domination, an interval of independence, and the second Persian domination. ... Ptolemaic Egypt refers to the time period of hellenistic rule in Egypt. ... From the initial Islamic invasion in 639 CE Egypt became part of the Arab world. ... Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. ... The reign of Muhammad Ali and his successors over Egypt was a period of rapid reform and modernization that led to Egypt becoming one of the most developed states outside of Europe. ... The History of Modern Egypt is generally accepted as beginning in 1882, when Egypt became a de facto British colony. ... The following is a list of Egyptians: // Activists Alaa Abd El-Fatah علاء أحمد عبدالفتاح (Egyptian blogger) Saad Eddin Ibrahim, democracy advocate and former political prisoner Actors and actresses Adel Adham عادل أدهم Adel Imam عادل إمام Ahmed El Sakka أحمد السقا Ahmad Zaki أحمد زكي Amina Rizq أمينة رزق Anwar Wagdi أنور وجدي Boussy بوسى Farid Shawki فريد شوقى Faten Hamama فاتن حمامة Foad AlMohandess فؤاد المهندس Hanan Tork حنان ترك Hany Ramzy... Roman Empire with Aegyptus highlighted File links The following pages link to this file: Aegyptus Province Categories: GFDL images ... Roman Empire with Aegyptus highlighted File links The following pages link to this file: Aegyptus Province Categories: GFDL images ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Arabia Petraea Arabia Petraea, also called Provincia Arabia or simply Arabia, was a province of the Roman Empire beginning in the second century AD; it consisted of the former Nabataean kingdom in modern Jordan, Sinai, and northwestern Saudi Arabia. ...

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Roman conquest of Egypt

In 30 BC, following the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became part of the Roman Empire as the imperial province of Aegyptus, governed by a prefect selected by the Emperor from the Equestrian and not a governor from the Senatorial order, to prevent interference by the Roman Senate. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... Cleopatra VII Philopator (January 69 BC – August 12, 30 BC, Greek:Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ), later Cleopatra Thea Neotera Philopator kai Philopatris, was queen of ancient Egypt, the last member of the Ptolemaic dynasty and hence the last Hellenistic ruler of Egypt. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... An imperial province was a Roman province where the Emperor had the sole right to appoint governors. ... An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ... The Roman Senate (Latin, Senatus) was a deliberative body which was important in the government of both the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. ...


The main Roman interest in Egypt was always the reliable delivery of grain to the city of Rome. To this end the Roman administration made no change to the Ptolemaic system of government, although Romans replaced Greeks in the highest offices. But Greeks continued to staff most of the administrative offices and Greek remained the language of government except at the highest levels. Unlike the Greeks, the Romans did not settle in Egypt in large numbers. Culture, education and civic life largely remained Greek throughout the Roman period. The Romans, like the Ptolemies, respected and protected Egyptian religion and customs, although the cult of the Roman state and of the Emperor was gradually introduced. The megalopolis of ancient Rome could never be fed entirely from its own surrounding countryside. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ...


Roman rule in Egypt

The first prefect of Aegyptus, Gaius Cornelius Gallus, brought Upper Egypt under Roman control by force of arms, established a protectorate over the southern frontier district, which had been abandoned by the later Ptolemies. The second prefect, Aelius Gallus, made an unsuccessful expedition to conquer Arabia Petraea: the Red Sea coast of Egypt was not brought under Roman control until the reign of Claudius. The third prefect, Gaius Petronius, cleared the neglected canals for irrigation, stimulating a revival of agriculture. Gaius Cornelius Gallus (69 BC – 24 BC), was the first prefect of Roman Egypt. ... Aelius Gallus was the 2nd prefect of Roman Egypt (Aegyptus). ... Arabia Petraea Arabia Petraea, also called Provincia Arabia or simply Arabia, was a province of the Roman Empire beginning in the second century; it consisted of the former Nabataean kingdom in modern Jordan, southern modern Syria Sinai, and northwestern Saudi Arabia. ... Location of the Red Sea Image:Red Seaimage. ... For other uses, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Gaius Petronius was the 3rd prefect of Roman Egypt (Aegyptus). ...

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Hadrian coin celebrating the Aegyptus province.

From the reign of Nero onwards, Aegyptus enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century. Much trouble was caused by religious conflicts between the Greeks and the Jews, particularly in Alexandria, which after the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 become the world centre of Jewish religion and culture. Under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Aegyptus, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous. From his reign onwards buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. Image File history File links As-Hadrian-Aegyptus-RIC_0839,As. ... Image File history File links As-Hadrian-Aegyptus-RIC_0839,As. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76–July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117–138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... Nero Claudius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds; Greek Ιεροσόλυμα; Latin Aelia Capitolina) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 65 66 67 68 69 - 70 - 71 72 73 74 75 Events The building of the Colosseum starts (approximate date). ... Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (September 18, 53 – August 9, 117), Roman Emperor (98-117), commonly called Trajan, was the second of the Five Good Emperors of the Roman Empire. ... The Kitos War (115—117) is the name given to the second of the Jewish-Roman wars. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76–July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117–138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... Bust of Antinous in the Palazzo Altemps museum in Rome Antinous or Antinoos (Greek: Αντινοος, born circa 110 or 111 CE, died 130 CE), lover of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, was born to a Greek family in Bithynion-Claudiopolis, in the province of Bithynia in what is now north-west Turkey. ...


Under Marcus Aurelius, however, oppressive taxation led to a revolt (139) of the native Egyptians, which was suppressed only after several years of fighting. This Bucolic War caused great damage to the economy and marked the beginning of Aegyptus's economic decline. Avidius Cassius, who led the Roman forces in the war, declared himself Emperor, and was acknowledged by the armies of Syria and Aegyptus. On the approach of Marcus Aurelius, however, he was deposed and killed, and the clemency of the emperor restored peace. A similar revolt broke out in 193, when Pescennius Niger was proclaimed emperor on the death of Pertinax. The Emperor Septimius Severus gave a constitution to Alexandria and the provincial capitals in 202. Marcus Aurelius Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121 – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... Events Births Deaths Zhang Heng, Chinese mathematician Categories: 139 ... Gaius Avidius Cassius (ca. ... Events June 1 – Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated in his palace. ... Pescennius Niger as emperor. ... Pertinax (Archaeological museum, Antakya) Publius Helvius Pertinax (August 1, 126 - March 28, 193) was proclaimed Roman Emperor the morning following the assassination of Commodus on December 31, AD 192. ... Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146-February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ... Events Roman law bans female gladiators Deaths Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon (martyred) Perpetua (martyred) Felicitas (martyred) Yuan Shao, Chinese warlord Categories: 202 ...


The most revolutionary event in the history of Aegyptus was the introduction of Christianity in the 2nd century. It was at first vigorously persecuted by the Roman authorities, who feared religious discord more than anything else in a country where religion had always been paramount. But it soon gained adherents among the Jews of Alexandria. From them it rapidly passed to the Greeks, and then to the native Egyptians, who found its promise of personal salvation and its teachings of social equality appealing. The ancient religion of Egypt put up surprisingly little resistance to the spread of Christianity. Possibly its long history of collaboration with the Greek and Roman rulers of Egypt had robbed it of its authority. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ...


Caracalla (211-217) granted Roman citizenship to all Egyptians, in common with the other provincials, but this was mainly to extort more taxes, which grew increasingly onerous as the needs of the Emperors for more revenue grew more desperate. There was a series of revolts, both military and civilian, through the 3rd century. Under Decius, in 250, the Christians again suffered from persecution, but their religion continued to spread. The preafect of Egyptus in 260, Mussius Aemilianus, first supported the Macriani, Gallienus usurpers, and later (261) become usurper himself, but was defeated by Gallienus. In 272 Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, briefly conquered Aegyptus, but lost it when Aurelian crushed her rebellion against Rome. Two generals based in Egypt, Probus and Domitius Domitianus, led successful revolts and made themselves Emperor. Diocletian captured Alexandria from Domitius in 296 and reorganised the whole province. His edict of 303 against the Christians began a new era of persecution. But this was the last serious attempt to stem the steady growth of Christianity in Egypt. Caracalla Caracalla (April 4, 186–April 8, 217) was emperor of the Roman Empire from AD 211–217. ... This article is about the year 211. ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ... Bust of Traianus Decius. ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Events Valerian I captured by the Persian king Shapur I; Gallienus becomes sole Roman emperor. ... L. Mussius Aemilianus (died 261) was prefect of Egypt till 260, when he was proclaimed Roman emperor after the general upheaval following the capture and death of emperor Valerian and after the usurpation of the Macriani. ... Macriani can refer to: Macrianus Major Macrianus Minor Quietus This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... ΧÉThe Gallienus usurpers were the usurpers who claimed imperial power during the reign of Gallienus (253–268). ... Events Births Deaths Mussius Aemilianus, Roman Emperor Categories: 261 ... Usurpers were a common feature of the late Roman Empire, especially from the so-called crisis of the third century onwards, when political instability became the rule. ... Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. ... Zenobia coin reporting her title, Augusta. ... Palmyra was the name of an ancient city in Syria, now called Tadmor. ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (September 9, 214–275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... This antoninianus minted under Probus (c. ... Domitius Domitianus coin, struck in Alexandria, where Domitianus had the basis of his revolt and where his corrector Aurelius Achilleus kept resisting against Diocletian, even after the death of Domitianus. ... Emperor Diocletian. ... Events Galerius conquers Ctesiphon on the Persians; in the following peace settlement he returns it in exchange of Armenia Pope Marcellinus I succeeds Pope Caius Allectus, sucessor by assassination to Britain, is defeated by Constantius Chlorus and Britain is returned to the Roman Empire Births Deaths Pope Caius Categories: 296... Events Diocletian launched the last major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire; Hierocles was said to have been the instigator of the fierce persecution of the Christians under February 24 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Empire. ...


Christian Egypt

Earliest known use of cross symbol by Christians. Fayaom, Egypt 250.
Earliest known use of cross symbol by Christians. Fayaom, Egypt 250.
For the survival into modern times of Christianity in Egypt, see Coptic Christianity.

Egyptian Christians believe that the Patriarchate of Alexandria was founded by Mark the Evangelist around 33, but little is known about how Christianity entered Egypt. The historian Helmut Koester has suggested, with some evidence, that originally the Christians in Egypt were predominantly influenced by gnosticism until the efforts of Demetrius of Alexandria gradually brought the beliefs of the majority into harmony with the rest of Christianity. While the collective embarrassment over their heretical origins would explain the lack of details for the first centuries of Christianity in Egypt, there are too many gaps in the history of Roman times to claim that our ignorance in this situation is a special case. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (475x720, 131 KB)This is one of the best examples of the Egyptian origin of the cross as a symbol. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (475x720, 131 KB)This is one of the best examples of the Egyptian origin of the cross as a symbol. ... Image File history File links 3d_glasses_red_cyan. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon. ... The Patriarch of Alexandria is the bishop of Alexandria, Egypt. ... Mark the Evangelist (Greek: Markos) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark. ... Events The following Christian chronology uses traditional dates set by biblical scholars; 30 and 28 are also suggested as a date for the Messianic events. ... Helmut Koester (1926 - ) is a German-born American scholar of the New Testament, and currently Research Professor of Divinity and Ecclesiastical History at Harvard Divinity School. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Demetrius was Patriarch of Alexandria (189 - 232). ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ...


Nevertheless, by 200 it is clear that Alexandria was one of the great Christian centres. The Christian apologists Clement of Alexandria and Origen both lived part or all of their lives in that city, where they wrote, taught, and debated. Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Origen (ca. ...


With the Edict of Milan in 312, Constantine I ended the persecution of Christians, and in 324 he made Christianity the religion of the Empire. Over the course of the 4th century, paganism gradually lost its following, as the poet Palladius bitterly noted. It lingered underground for many decades: the final edict against paganism was issued in 390, but graffiti at Philae in Upper Egypt proves worship of Isis persisted at its temples into the 5th century. Many Egyptian Jews also became Christians, but many others refused to do so, leaving them as the only sizeable religious minority in a Christian country. The Edict of Milan (AD 313) declared that the Roman Empire would be neutral with regard to religious worship, officially ending all government-sanctioned persecution, especially of Christianity. ... Events October 28 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine defeats Maxentius in the fight to become emperor of Rome. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ... Palladius (fl. ... Events In response to the murder of his general Butheric, Theodosius I orders a massacre of the inhabitants of Thessalonica. ... Philae (or Pilak or Paaleq [Egyptian: remote place or the end or the angle island]; [Arabic: Anas el Wagud]) is an island in the Nile River and the previous site of an Ancient Egyptian temple complex in southern Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Isis in literature be merged into this article or section. ...


No sooner had the Egyptian Church achieved freedom and supremacy, however, than it became subject to schism and prolonged conflict which at times descended into civil war. Alexandria became the centre of the first great split in the Christian world, between the Arians, named for the Alexandrian priest Arius, and orthodoxy, represented by Athanasius, who became Archbishop of Alexandria in 326 after the First Council of Nicaea rejected Arius's views. The Arian controversy caused years of riots and rebellions throughout most of the fourth century. In the course of one of these, the great temple of Serapis, the stronghold of paganism, was destroyed. Athanasius was alternately expelled from Alexandria and reinstated as its Archbishop between five and seven times. The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ... This article is about the theological doctrine of Arius. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ... Events September 14 - Discovery of the (alleged) True Cross by Vatican City, where St. ... The First Council of Nicaea, convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the Christian Church. ... Serapis can refer to: A series of British ships named HMS Serapis. ...


It was never easy to impose religious orthodoxy on Egypt, a country with an ancient tradition of religious speculation. Not only did Arianism flourish there, but other heresies, such as Gnosticism and Manichaeism, either native or imported, found many followers. Another religious development in Egypt was the monasticism of the Desert Fathers, who renounced the material world in order to live a life of poverty in devotion to the Church. Egyptian Christians took up monasticism with such enthusiasm that the Emperor Valens had to restrict the number of men who could become monks. Egypt exported monasticism to the rest of the Christian world. Another development of this period was the mutation of the Ancient Egyptian language into Coptic, which became the liturgical language of Egyptian Christianity and remains so to this day. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Religious order. ... The Desert Fathers were Christian Hermits who lived in the Sahara desert of Egypt, beginning in about the third century. ... Flavius Julius Valens (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·FLAVIVS·IVLIVS·VALENS·AVGVSTVS) (328 – August 9, 378) was Roman emperor from 364 until his death, after he was given the Eastern part of the empire by his brother Valentinian I. His father was the general Gratian the Elder. ... Coptic is the most recent phase of ancient Egyptian. ...


Byzantine Egypt

The reign of Constantine also saw the founding of Constantinople as a new capital for the Roman Empire, and in the course of the 4th century the Empire was divided in two, with Egypt finding itself in the Eastern Empire with its capital at Constantinople. This meant that within a few years Latin, never well established in Egypt, disappeared, and Greek reasserted itself as the language of government. During the 5th and 6th centuries the Eastern Roman Empire gradually became the Byzantine Empire, a Christian, Greek-speaking state that had little in common with the old Empire of Rome, which disappeared in the face of the barbarian invasions in the 5th century. Another consequence of the triumph of Christianity was the final demise of the pagan culture: with the disappearance of the old Egyptian priesthood, no-one could read the hieroglyphics of Pharaonic Egypt, and its temples were converted to churches or abandoned to the desert. Map of Constantinople. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Hieroglyphs are a system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians, using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements. ...


The Eastern Empire became increasingly "oriental" in style as its links with the old Græco-Roman world faded. The Greek system of local government by citizens had now entirely disappeared. Offices, with new Byzantine names, were almost hereditary in the wealthy land-owning families. Alexandria, the second city of the Empire, continued to be a centre of religious controversy and violence. Cyril, the patriarch of Alexandria, convinced the city's governor to expel the Jews from the city in 415 with the aid of the mob, in response to the Jews' nighttime massacre of many Christians. The murder of the philosopher Hypatia marked the final end of classical Hellenic culture in Egypt. Another schism in the Church produced a prolonged civil war and alienated Egypt from the Empire. St. ... The Patriarch of Alexandria is the bishop of Alexandria, Egypt. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... Hypatia could refer to: Hypatia of Alexandria (?370–415), a neo-Platonic philosopher, mathematician, and teacher. ...


The new religious controversy was over the nature of the Trinity. The majority of the Christian world supported the orthodox view that God is three persons in one (Father, Son and Holy Spirit), and that Jesus was therefore of the same nature as God. But Egypt was a stronghold of Monophysitism: the belief that God has only one nature, that of God the Father, and that Jesus (God the Son) and the Holy Spirit are of a different nature: they are from God but not of God. This may seem an arcane distinction, but in an intensely religious age it was enough to divide an empire. The Monophysite controversy arose after the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and continued until the Council of Chalcedon in 451, which ruled in favour of the orthodox position. Many of the monophysites claimed that they were misunderstood, that there was really no difference between their position and the orthodox position, and that the Council of Chalcedon ruled against them because of political motivations. But Egypt and Syria remained hotbeds of Monophysite sentiment, and organised resistance to the orthodox view was not suppressed until the 570s. For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ... In various religions, most notably Trinitarian Christianity, the Holy Spirit (also called the Holy Ghost; in Hebrew רוח הקודש Ruah haqodesh) is the third Person of the Holy Trinity. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... Events First Council of Constantinople - second Ecumenical council of the Christian Church: The Nicene creed is affirmed and extended, Apollinarism is declared a heresy. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8–November 1, 451 at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Decades: 520s - 530s - 540s - 550s - 560s - 570s - 580s - 590s - 600s - 610s - 620s Years: 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 Events and Trends Birth of Muhammad, prophet of Islam, (possibly) Category: ...


The reign of Justinian (482565) saw the Empire recapture Rome and much of Italy from the barbarians, but these successes left the Empire's eastern flank exposed. Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... Events Qi Gao Di, ruler of the Chinese Qi Dynasty Byzantine emperor Zeno I issues the Henotikon, an attempt to reconcile the differences between the supporters of Orthodoxy and Monophysitism. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ...


Persian and Arab Conquests

The Persian occupation of Egypt, beginning in 619 or 618, was one of the triumphs in the last Sassanid war against Byzantium. Khosrow II Parvêz had begun this war in retaliation for the assassination of Emperor Maurice (582-602) and had achieved a series of early successes, culminating in the conquests of Jerusalem (614) and Alexandria (619). A Byzantine counteroffensive launched by Emperor Heraclius in spring 622 shifted the advantage, however, and the war was brought to an end by the fall of Khosrow on 25 February 628 (Frye, pp. 167-70). The Egyptians had no love of the Emperor in Constantinople and put up little resistance. Khosrow's son and successor, Kavadh II Šêrôe (Šêrôy), who reigned until September, concluded a peace treaty returning territories conquered by the Sassanids to the Eastern Roman Empire. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (in Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the forth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Byzantium was an ancient Greek city-state, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Khosrau II, Parvez (the Victorious), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... Maurice may refer to: Maurice, Elector of Saxony, a German nobleman Maurice (emperor), a Byzantine emperor Maurice, a novel by E. M. Forster Maurice, a 1987 film based on the Forster novel Maurice River, a tributary of the Delaware River in New Jersey Saint Maurice, a legendary martyr Maurice Ravel... Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds; Greek Ιεροσόλυμα; Latin Aelia Capitolina) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... For other uses, see Alexandria (disambiguation). ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... Kavadh II (Siroes), King of Persia, son of Khosrau II (590–628), was raised to the throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great victories of the Emperor Heraclius (610–641). ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ...


The Persian occupation allowed Monophysitism to resurface in Egypt, and when imperial rule was restored by Emperor Heraclius in 629, the Monophysites were persecuted and their patriarch expelled. Egypt was thus in a state of both religious and political alienation from the Empire when a new invader appeared. Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ...


An army of 4,000 Arabs led by Amr ibn al-As, was sent by the Caliph Umar, successor to the Prophet Muhammad, to spread his new faith, Islam, to the west. The Arabs crossed into Egypt from Palestine in December 639, and advanced rapidly into the Nile Delta. The Imperial garrisons retreated into the walled towns, where they successfully held out for a year or more. But the Arabs sent for reinforcements, and in April 641 they captured Alexandria, thus completing the Muslim conquest of Egypt. Most of the Egyptian Christians welcomed their new rulers: the accession of a new regime meant for them the end of the persecutions by the Byzantine state church. Thus ended 973 years of Græco-Roman rule over Egypt. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Amr ibn al-Ās (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (d. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Events Dagobert I succeeded by Clovis II as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy During the Islamic conquest of Persia, Susa is destroyed Births Deaths Pippin I of Landen, father of Gertrude of Nivelles Categories: 639 ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ...


See also

Ptolemaic Egypt refers to the time period of hellenistic rule in Egypt. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...

References

  • Bowman, Alan Keir. 1996. Egypt After the Pharaohs: 332 BC–AD 642; From Alexander to the Arab Conquest. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press
  • Chauveau, Michel. 2000. Egypt in the Age of Cleopatra: History and Society under the Ptolemies. Translated by David Lorton. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
  • Ellis, Simon P. 1992. Graeco-Roman Egypt. Shire Egyptology 17, ser. ed. Barbara G. Adams. Aylesbury: Shire Publications, ltd.
  • Hölbl, Günther. 2001. A History of the Ptolemaic Empire. Translated by Tina Saavedra. London: Routledge Ltd.
  • Lloyd, Alan Brian. 2000. "The Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BC)". In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 395–421
  • Peacock, David. 2000. "The Roman Period (30 BC–AD 311)". In The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 422–445



Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The Nile (Arabic: النيل an-nīl), in Africa, is the longest river on Earth. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... Abydos, one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, stood about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10 N. The Egyptian name was Abdju (technically, 3bdw, hieroglyphs shown to the right), the hill of the symbol or reliquary, in which the sacred head of... For other uses, see Alexandria (disambiguation). ... Al Fayyum or El Faiyûm (Arabic: الفيوم ) is the capital of Al Fayyum Governorate, Egypt. ... Map of Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tell el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of al... Dahshur (Arabic دهشور Dahšūr [often incorrectly rendered in English as Dashur]), located in a patch of desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo (), is a royal necropolis, known chiefly for several pyramids, two of which are amongst the oldest, largest and best preserved... The front of the Edfu Temple The first pylon at Edfu Temple Statue of Horus, Edfu Temple Edfu (also spelt Idfu or in modern French as Edfou and known in antiquity as Behdet) is an Egyptian city, located on the west bank of the River Nile between Esna and Aswan... Elephantine Island, showing the nilometer (lower left) and the Aswan Museum. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza with Khafres pyramid in the background. ... Heliopolis (Greek Ἡλίου πόλις) was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... The River Nile at Luxor Pharaonic statue in Luxor Temple Hot-air ballooning in Luxor Luxor (Arabic: الأقصر ) is a city in Upper (southern) Egypt and the capital of the Al Uqsur governorate, population approximately 200,000. ... Memphis, coordiates , , was the ancient capital of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 1300 BC. Its Ancient Egyptian name was Ineb Hedj (The White Walls). The name Memphis is the Greek deformation of the Egyptian name of Pepi... Philae (or Pilak or Paaleq [Egyptian: remote place or the end or the angle island]; [Arabic: Anas el Wagud]) is an island in the Nile River and the previous site of an Ancient Egyptian temple complex in southern Egypt. ... Qift (قفط) is a small town in the Qina governorate of Egypt about 43 km north of Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile. ... Rosetta is the anglicised name of the city of Rashid, a port city on the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt. ... Saqqara (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid. ... or Tanis (Τάνις), the Greek name of ancient Djanet (modern صان الحجر Ṣān al-Ḥaǧar), is a city in the north-eastern Nile delta of Egypt (). It lays on the Tanitic branch of the Nile (now silted up), and it was the supposed site of some of the action in the film... Thebes [Θηβαι Thēbai] is the Greek designation of ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the Nile (25. ... View over the East Valley The Valley of the Kings, or Wadi el-Muluk (وادي الملوك) in Arabic, is a valley in Egypt where tombs were built for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom, the Eighteenth through Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. ... The Valley of the Queens or Wadi el-Melikat is a place in Egypt where wives of Pharoahs were buried in ancient times. ... The Ennead (a word derived from Greek, meaning the nine) is a grouping of nine deities, most often used in the context of Egyptian mythology. ... Heliopolis (Greek Ἡλίου πόλις) was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ... History Atum (alternatively spelt Tem, Temu, Tum, and Atem) is an early deity in Egyptian mythology, whose cult centred on the Ennead of Heliopolis. ... In Egyptian mythology, Shu (meaning dryness and he who rises up) is one of the primordial gods, a personification of air, one of the Ennead of Heliopolis. ... In Egyptian mythology, Tefnut is a goddess of water and fertility, indeed her name means moist waters (i. ... Amongst the group who believed in the Ennead, a form of Egyptian mythology centred in Heliopolis, Geb (also spelt Seb, and Keb) was the personification of the earth, and indeed this is what his name means - earth, and thus it was said that when he laughed, it caused earthquakes. ... In Egyptian mythology, Nuit or Nut was the sky goddess, in contrast to most other mythologies, which usually have a sky father. ... Osiris (Greek language, also Usiris; the Egyptian language name is variously transliterated Asar, Aser, Ausar, or Ausare) is the Egyptian God of the dead and the underworld. ... It has been suggested that Isis in literature be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... In Egyptian mythology, Nephthys (spelt Nebet-het, and Nebt-het, in transliteration from hieroglyphs) is one of the Ennead of Heliopolis, a daughter of Nuit and Geb, and the wife of Set. ... Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imenand, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities, before fading into obscurity. ... Anubis is the Greek name for the ancient god in Egyptian mythology whose hieroglyphic is more accurately spelt Anpu (also Anup, Anupu, Wip, Ienpw, Inepu, Yinepu, or Inpw). ... An Egyptian deity wards off the snake-like Apep In Egyptian mythology, Apep (also spelled Apepi, and Aapep, or Apophis in Greek) was an evil demon, the deification of darkness and chaos, and thus opponent of light and Maat (order/truth), whose existence was believed about from the Middle... In Egyptian mythology, Apis or Hapis (alternatively spelt Hapi-ankh), was a bull-deity worshipped in the Memphis region. ... Aten is a creator of the universe in ancient Egyptian mythology, usually regarded as a sun god represented by the suns disk. ... In Egyptian mythology, Bast (also spelt Ubasti, and Pasht) is an ancient goddess, worshipped at least since the Second Dynasty, for whom the centre of her cult was in Per-Bast (Bubastis in greek), which was named after her. ... Thoth, pronounced tot, is the Greek name given to Djehuty, the Egyptian god of the Moon (lunar deity), wisdom, writing, magic, and measurement of time, among other things. ... Statue of Hathor (Luxor Museum) In Egyptian mythology, Hathor (Egyptian for house of Horus) was originally a personification of the Milky Way, which was seen as the milk that flowed from the udders of a heavenly cow. ... Horus is an ancient god of Egyptian mythology, whose cult survived so long that he evolved dramatically over time and gained many names. ... Khepri as a scarab beetle, pushing the sun across the sky In Egyptian mythology, Khepri (also spelt Khepera, Kheper, Chepri, Khepra) is the name of a minor god. ... Chons In Egyptian mythology, Chons (alternately Khensu, Khons, Khonsu or Khonshu) is an ancient lunar deity, from before formal structure was given to a pantheon. ... In Egyptian mythology, Maat was the goddess, or rather the concept, of truth, justice and order. ... Min (sometimes incorrectly transcribed as Chem) was a god and the patron of traveling caravans, in Egyptian mythology, known since the Predynastic Period, and even worshipped by the Scorpion King. ... Neith In Egyptian mythology, Neith (also known as Nit, Net and Neit) was a psychopomp, a goddess of war and the hunt and the patron deity of Sais, in the Western Delta. ... Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... , , , or [1] This article is about the Egyptian god. ... Two statues of Sekhmet (standing) in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin. ... Sobek (from the Temple of Kom Ombo) or In Egyptian mythology, Sobek (also spelt Sebek, Sochet, Sobk, Sobki, Soknopais, and in Greek, Suchos) was the deification of crocodiles, and was originally a demon, as crocodiles were deeply feared in the nation so dependent on the Nile River. ... In Egyptian mythology, Wepwawet (also spelt Upuaut, Wep-wawet, and Ophois) was originally a war god, whose cult centre was Atef-Khent (Lycopolis), in Upper Egypt. ... Harsaphes In Egyptian mythology, Heryshaf (Egyptian Ḥry-š=f He who is on his lake), transcribed in Greek as Harsaphes was an ancient ram-god whose cult was centered in Herakleopolis Magna (now Ihnasiyyah al-Madinah). ... In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad are the eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis. ... Heliopolis (Greek Ἡλίου πόλις) was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ... Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imenand, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities, before fading into obscurity. ... In Egyptian mythology, Amunet (also spelled Amonet, Amaunet, Amentet, Amentit, Imentet, Imentit, and Ament) was originally the female form of the originally androgynous god Amun. ... In Egyptian mythology, Huh (also spelt Hu, Hah, or Heh) was the deification of eternity in the Ogdoad, his name itself meaning endlessness, and is not to be confused with the identically named Hu a god in the Ennead system. ... In Egyptian mythology, Kuk (also spelt Keku) was the deification of the primordial concept of darkness, in the Ogdoad cosmogony, his name meaning darkness. ... In Egyptian mythology, Naunet (or Nunet) is the goddess of the primordial, watery abyss of the underworld and one of the Ogdoad. ... In Egyptian mythology, Anhur was a god of war and hunting, later identified with Horus and worshipped particularly in Thinis. ... In Egyptian mythology, Bast (also spelt Ubasti, and Pasht) is an ancient goddess, worshipped at least since the Second Dynasty, for whom the centre of her cult was in Per-Bast (Bubastis in greek), which was named after her. ... In Egyptian mythology, Maahes (also spelt Mihos, Miysis, and Mahes) was a lion-god. ... In Egyptian mythology, Pakhet (also spelled Pachet, Pekhet, Phastet, and Pasht, Egyptian ), a solar deity with a desert cats head. ... Two statues of Sekhmet (standing) in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin. ... Chons In Egyptian mythology, Chons (alternately Khensu, Khons, Khonsu or Khonshu) is an ancient lunar deity, from before formal structure was given to a pantheon. ... Hapy, meaning runner, was a solar deity in Egyptian mythology, and the symbolisation of the annual flood of the Nile River, which deposited rich silt on the banks, allowing the Egyptians to grow crops. ... In Egyptian mythology, Maat was the goddess, or rather the concept, of truth, justice and order. ... Min (sometimes incorrectly transcribed as Chem) was a god and the patron of traveling caravans, in Egyptian mythology, known since the Predynastic Period, and even worshipped by the Scorpion King. ... In Egyptian mythology, Renenutet was a goddess of cobras, children and fertility. ... Shai (also spelt Sai, occasionally Shay, and in Greek, Psais) was the deification of the concept of fate. ... In Egyptian mythology, Hu is the god of the word which Ra used to create the world (and is also the word itself). ... In Egyptian mythology, Saa (also spelt Sia) was the deification of wisdom, which is what his name means, in the Ennead cosmogeny. ... The god Bes. ... In Egyptian mythology, Chnum (also spelled Khnum, Knum, or Khnemu) was one of the earliest Egyptian gods, originally the god of the source of the Nile River. ... In Egyptian mythology, Seker is a god of craftsmen, the dead and funerals. ... In Egyptian mythology, Seshat (The Female Scribe) was a goddess of writing, science, literature, history, libraries, architecture and mathematics, and the consort of Thoth. ... Statue of Tawaret In Egyptian mythology, Tawaret (also spelt Taurt, Tuat, Taueret, Tuart, Ta-weret, Taweret, and Taueret, and in Greek, Thoeris and Toeris) was originally the demon-wife of Apep, the original god of evil. ... A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold or dryness, or airlessness. ... Image:PAM240. ... Among the ancient Egyptians, canopic jars were covered funerary vases, normally composed of clay, intended to keep the viscera of mummified corpses. ... [1] Ankh The ankh (pronounced ahnk, symbol ) was the Egyptian hieroglyphic character that stood for the word , which means life. ... Book of the Dead is the common name for ancient Egyptian funerary texts known as The Book of Coming [or Going] Forth By Day. ... KV is an acronym employed by Egyptologists to designate tombs located in the Valley of the Kings, Luxor, Egypt. ... Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut Mortuary temples (or memorial temples) were temples constructed adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, royal tombs in the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom periods of Ancient Egypt. ... A Ushabti (also called shabti or shawabti and with a number of variant spellings) is a small figurine of Ancient Egypt, included in the grave goods of the dead. ... The pyramids of Egypt, among the largest constructions ever built by humankind, [1], constitute one of the most potent and enduring symbols of Ancient Egyptian civilization. ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... The head of the Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt The Great Sphinx of Giza is a large half-human Sphinx statue in Egypt, on the Giza Plateau at the west bank of the Nile River, near modern-day Cairo (). It is one of the largest single-stone statues on Earth... The Pharos of Alexandria was a lighthouse built in the 3rd century BC on the island of Pharos in Alexandria, Egypt to serve as that ports landmark, and later, a lighthouse. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrī, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... The Colossi of Memnon The Colossi of Memnon (known to locals as el-Colossat, or es-Salamat) are two massive stone statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. For the past 3400 years they have stood in the Theban necropolis, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor. ... The Ramesseum is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of Pharaoh Ramses II (Ramses the Great). ... Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... The system of Egyptian numerals was a numeral system used in ancient Egypt. ... In the field of Egyptology, transliteration is the process of converting (or mapping) texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral hieroglyphs or their hieratic and demotic counterparts. ... Demotic script on a replica of the Rosetta stone. ... Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... General context: Ancient Egypt. ... Ptolemaic Egypt refers to the time period of hellenistic rule in Egypt. ... From the initial Islamic invasion in 639 CE Egypt became part of the Arab world. ... Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. ... The reign of Muhammad Ali and his successors over Egypt was a period of rapid reform and modernization that led to Egypt becoming one of the most developed states outside of Europe. ... The History of Modern Egypt is generally accepted as beginning in 1882, when Egypt became a de facto British colony. ... This page lists articles on dynasties of Ancient Egypt. ... This article contains a list of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic Period before 3000 BC through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, when Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC. It should be noted that there are three women rulers... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For at least ten thousand years, the Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world. ...

Roman Imperial Provinces, AD 120
Achaea | Aegyptus | Africa | Alpes Cottiae | Alpes Maritimae | Alpes Poenninae | Arabia Petraea | Armenia Inferior | Asia | Assyria | Bithynia | Britannia | Cappadocia | Cilicia | Commagene | Corduene | Corsica et Sardinia | Creta et Cyrenaica | Cyprus | Dacia | Dalmatia | Epirus | Galatia | Gallia Aquitania | Gallia Belgica | Gallia Lugdunensis | Gallia Narbonensis | Germania Inferior | Germania Superior | Hispania Baetica | Hispania Lusitania | Hispania Tarraconensis | Italia | Iudaea | Lycaonia | Lycia | Macedonia | Mauretania Caesariensis | Mauretania Tingitana | Moesia | Noricum | Numidia | Osroene | Pannonia | Pamphylia | Pisidia | Pontus | Raetia | Sicilia | Sophene | Syria | Thracia
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Roman Empire - an introduction to its history - History Forum (5346 words)
The Roman army and a number of strategically placed forts ensured that the empire was defended against hostile local peoples, and an efficient network of roads was built both to allow troops to move swiftly within the empire and to facilitate trade.
Once a province had become part of the empire, and Romans were seen to be the dominant group, it is probable that the desire to be associated with Roman ways and to seem to be Roman grew among the native people.
Romans considered the city an essential part of civilization, and it is certainly true that, especially in the west (where settlement had previously been almost entirely rural), the creation of cities and towns was one of the most dramatic effects of Roman rule.
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