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Encyclopedia > Aegina
Aegina  (Αίγινα)
Location
Coordinates 37°45′N 23°26′E / 37.75, 23.433Coordinates: 37°45′N 23°26′E / 37.75, 23.433
Time zone: EET/EEST (UTC+2/3)
Elevation (center): 0-532 m (-1,745 ft)
Government
Country: Greece
Periphery: Attica
Prefecture: Piraeus
Population statistics (as of 2001)
Municipality
 - Population: 13,552
 - Area: 87.41 km² (34 sq.mi.)
 - Density: 155 /km² (402 /sq.mi.)
Codes
Postal codes: 180 10
Area codes: 210
Website
www.aegina.gr

Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα (Egina)) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens. Tradition derives the name from Aegina, the mother of Aeacus, who was born in and ruled the island. During ancient times, Aegina was a rival to Athens, the great sea power of the era. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 685 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 700 pixel, file size: 27 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions Adapted from Image:Greece outline map. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... This is an alphabetical list of countries of the world, including independent states (both those that are internationally recognised and generally unrecognised), inhabited dependent territories and areas of special sovereignty. ... The peripheries (περιφέρειες) are the subnational divisions of Greece. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Greece consists of 13 administrative regions known as Peripheries of Greece, which are further subdivided into 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos, Greek: νομοί, νομός)): See also List of the prefectures of Greece by area List of the prefectures of Greece by population density List of the prefectures of Greece by population External... Piraeus is one of the prefectures of Greece. ... This is an alphabetical list of municipalities and communities in Greece. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Here are list of postal codes in Greece. ... This is a list of dialing codes in Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This is a list of some of the 3000 islands of Greece: Chrysi Crete Dia Euboea Gavdos Koufonisi Ydra The Cyclades Amorgos Anafi Andros Antiparos Anydro Delos Donoussa Folegandros Gyaros Ios Irakleia Kea Keros Kimolos Kithnos Makronisos Milos Mykonos (Mikonos) Naxos Paros Pholegandros Santorini (also called Thira) Serifos Sifnos Sikinos... The Saronic Gulf or Gulf of Aegina in Greece forms part of the Aegean Sea and defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Corinth. ... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); singular: see Origin of the name below) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... For the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof, see Tradition (song). ... In Greek mythology, Aeacus (Greek: Aiakos, bewailing or earth borne) was king in the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf. ... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); singular: see Origin of the name below) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ...


The island forms part of the Piraeus Prefecture and, on a bigger level, the Attica. The capital is the town of Aegina, situated at the northwestern end of the island. Due to its proximity to Athens, it is a popular quick getaway during the summer months, with quite a few Athenians owning second houses on the island. Piraeus is one of the prefectures of Greece. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ...

Contents

Geography, economy and climate

Aegina is roughly triangular in shape, approximately 11km (7 miles) from east to west and 9km (5.5 miles) from north to south, with an area of about 87 km² (34 square miles).


Two thirds of Aegina constitutes an extinct volcano. The northern and western side consist of stony but fertile plains, which are well cultivated and produce luxuriant crops of grain, with some cotton, vines, almonds, olives and figs, but the most characteristic crop of Aegina today (2000s) is pistachio. Economically, the sponge fisheries are of notable importance. The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name (Mill. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Binomial name L. The pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of Iran, Turkmenistan and western Afghanistan. ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ...


The southern volcanic part of the island is rugged and mountainous, and largely barren. Its highest rise is the conical Mount Oros in the south, and the Panhellenian ridge stretches northward with narrow fertile valleys on either side.

Agia Marina beach overlooked by local restaurants.
Agia Marina beach overlooked by local restaurants.

The beaches are also a popular tourist attraction. Hydrofoil ferries from Piraeus (Athens) take only forty minutes to reach Aegina; the regular ferry takes about an hour, with ticket prices for adults within the 4-15 Euro range. There are regular bus services from Aegina town to destinations throughout the island such as Agia Marina (shown). Image File history File links Aegina_Greece_Beach1. ... Image File history File links Aegina_Greece_Beach1. ... The Jetfoil Toppi is a ferry which connects Yakushima, Tanegashima Island and Kagoshima port in Japan. ... “EUR” redirects here. ...


History

Prehistory

Prehistoric archaeological findings of settlements with obsidian tools points to an early inhabitation of the island. [citations needed]


Earliest history (2,000 - 7th century BC)

Mycenaean and Minoan influence


Aegina, according to Herodotus [1], was a colony of Epidaurus, to which state it was originally subject. Its placement between Attica and the Peloponnesus made it a center of trade even earlier, and its earliest inhabitant came from Asia Minor[2]. Minoan ceramics have been found in contexts of ca. 2000 BC. The discovery in the island of a number of gold ornaments belonging to the latest period of Mycenaean art suggests the inference that the Mycenaean culture held its own in Aegina for some generations after the Dorian conquest of Argos and Lacedaemon [3]. It is probable that the island was not doricized before the 9th century BC. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Panoramic view of the theater at Epidaurus Epidaurus (Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece at the Saronic Gulf. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... Minoan may refer to the following: The Minoan civilization The (undeciphered) Eteocretan language The (undeciphered) Minoan language The script known as Linear A An old name for the Mycenean language before it was deciphered and discovered to be a form of Greek. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... [[Im Category: ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC...


Political Alliances


One of the earliest historical facts is its membership in the League of Calauria (Calaurian Amphictyony, ca. 8th century BC), which included, besides Aegina, Athens, the Minyan (Boeotian) Orchomenos, Troezen, Hermione, Nauplia and Prasiae, and was probably an organization of city-states that were still Mycenaean, for the purpose of suppressing piracy in the Aegean that arose as a result of the decay of the naval supremacy of the Mycenaean princes. Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); singular: see Origin of the name below) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... In Greek mythology and legendary prehistory of the Aegean region, the Minyans were a group among the autochthonous inhabitants. ... Orchomenos (Greek: ), the setting for many early Greek Myths, is a rich archaeological site in Boeotia, (modern Viotia, Greece) that was inhabited from the Neolithic through the Hellenistic periods. ... Troezen (TREE-zun) is a city in Argolis located southwest of Athens and a few miles south of Methana. ... Hermione may refer to: A daughter of Menelaus and Helen in Greek mythology; see Hermione (mythology). ... Náfplio (Ναύπλιον) is a town on the Peloponnese in Greece. ...


Aegina appears to have belonged to the Eretrian league during the Lelantine War; hence, perhaps, we may explain the war with Samos, a leading member of the rival Chalcidian league in the reign of King Amphicrates (Herod. iii. 59), i.e. not later than the earlier half of the 7th century BC. Image:Ac. ... The Lelantine War was a long battle between Eretria and Chalcis at the end of the 8th century BC. Eretria was defeated, losing a sum of land in Boeotia. ... Samos (Greek Σάμος) is a Greek island in the Eastern Aegean Sea, located between the island of Chios to the North and the archipelagic complex of the Dodecanese islands to the South and in particular the island of Patmos and off the coast of Turkey, on what was formely known as... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of...


Rise as a sea power (6th - 5th century BC)

Greek stater of Aegina. Obverse: Land tortoise / Reverse: ΑΙΓ(INA) and dolphin
Greek stater of Aegina. Obverse: Land tortoise / Reverse: ΑΙΓ(INA) and dolphin

It follows, therefore, that the maritime importance of the island dates back to pre-Dorian times. It is usually stated on the authority of Ephorus, that Pheidon of Argos established a mint in Aegina. Though this is probably false, it is almost certain that Aegina was the first state of European Greece to coin money. Thus it was the Aeginetes who, within 30 or 40 years of the invention of coinage by the Lydians (c. 700 BC), introduced coinage to the western world. The fact that the Aeginetan scale of coins, weights and measures (developed in the mid-7th century) was one of the two scales in general use in the Greek world (the other being the Euboic-Attic) is sufficient evidence of the early commercial importance of the island. Image File history File links BMC_193. ... Image File history File links BMC_193. ... The stater was an ancient coin of Greek or Lydian origin which circulated from about 500 BC to 50 AD. It was also heavily used by Celtic tribes. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Ephorus (c. ... Pheidon (8th or 7th century BC) was king of Argos, generally, though wrongly, called tyrant. ... See 110 Lydia for the asteroid. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ...


In the next century Aegina is one of the three principal states trading at the emporium of Naucratis, and it is the only state of European Greece that has a share in this factory (Herod. ii. 178). At the beginning of the 5th century it seems to have been an entrepôt of the Pontic grain trade, at a later date an Athenian monopoly (Herod. vii. 147). Emporium is an old-fashioned term for a Department store and for marketplaces or trading centers in ancient cities. ... Naucratis (nŏk´retĬs), was an ancient city of Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile, 45 mi (72 km) SE of Alexandria. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Pontus was a name applied in ancient times to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the Main), by the Greeks. ...


Unlike the other commercial states of the 7th and 6th centuries BC, such as Corinth, Chalcis, Eretria and Miletus, Aegina founded no colonies. The settlements to which Strabo refers (viii. 376) cannot be regarded as any real exceptions to this statement. Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Coordinates 38°28′ N 23°36′ E Country Greece Periphery Central Greece Prefecture Euboea Population 53,584 source (2001) Area 30. ... This is an article about the Greek city of Eretria. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now the Aydin Province of Turkey...


Rivalry with Athens (5th century BC)

The history of Aegina, as it has come down to us, is almost exclusively a history of its relations with the neighbouring state of Athens, which began to compete with the thalassocracy of Aegina at the beginning of the sixth century. Solon passed laws limiting Aeginetan commerce in Attica. The legendary history of these relations, as recorded by Herodotus (v. 79-89; vi. 49-51, 73, 85-94), involve critical problems of some difficulty and interest. He traces back the hostility of the two states to a dispute about the images of the goddesses Damia and Auxesia, which the Aeginetes had carried off from Epidauros, their parent state. The Epidaurians had been accustomed to make annual offerings to the Athenian deities Athena and Erechtheus in payment for the Athenian olive-wood of which the statues were made. Upon the refusal of the Aeginetes to continue these offerings, the Athenians endeavoured to carry away the images. Their design was miraculously frustrated – according to the Aeginetan version, the statues fell upon their knees – and only a single survivor returned to Athens, there to fall a victim to the fury of his comrades' widows, who pierced him with their brooch-pins. No date is assigned by Herodotus for this old feud; recent writers, e.g. J. B. Bury and R. W. Macan, suggest the period between Solon and Peisistratus, circa 570 BC. It may be questioned, however, whether the whole episode is not mythical. A critical analysis of the narrative seems to reveal little else than a series of aetiological traditions (explanatory of cults and customs, e.g. of the kneeling posture of the images of Damia and Auxesia, of the use of native ware instead of Athenian in their worship, and of the change in women's dress at Athens from the Dorian to the Ionian style. The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... Panoramic view of the theater at Epidaurus Epidaurus (Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece at the Saronic Gulf. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC Events and Trends 579 BC - Servius Tullius succeeds the assassinated Lucius Tarquinius Priscus as king of Rome. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ...


The account which Herodotus gives of the hostilities between the two states in the early years of the 5th century BC is to the following effect. Thebes, after the defeat by Athens about 507 BC, appealed to Aegina for assistance. The Aeginetans at first contented themselves with sending the images of the Aeacidae, the tutelary heroes of their island. Subsequently, however, they entered into an alliance, and ravaged the sea-board of Attica. The Athenians were preparing to make reprisals, in spite of the advice of the Delphic oracle that they should desist from attacking Aegina for thirty years, and content themselves meanwhile with dedicating a precinct to Aeacus, when their projects were interrupted by the Spartan intrigues for the restoration of Hippias. In 501 BC Aegina was one of the states which gave the symbols of submission (earth and water) to Persia. Athens at once appealed to Sparta to punish this act of medism, and Cleomenes I, one of the Spartan kings, crossed over to the island, to arrest those who were responsible for it. His attempt was at first unsuccessful; but, after the deposition of Demaratus, he visited the island a second time, accompanied by his new colleague Leotychides, seized ten of the leading citizens and deposited them at Athens as hostages. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... A tutelary spirit is a god, usually a minor god, who serves as the guardian or watcher over a particular site, person, or nation. ... The word Sibyl comes (via Latin) from the ancient Greek word sibylla, meaning prophetess. ... Hippias can also refer to a son of Pisistratus and a tyrant of Athens. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Cleomenes (Eng. ... Demaratus, king of Sparta from 515 until 491 BC of the Eurypontid line, successor to his father Ariston. ...


After the death of Cleomenes and the refusal of the Athenians to restore the hostages to Leotychides, the Aeginetans retaliated by seizing a number of Athenians at a festival at Sunium. Thereupon the Athenians concerted a plot with Nicodromus, the leader of the democratic party in the island, for the betrayal of Aegina. He was to seize the old city, and they were to come to his aid on the same day with seventy vessels. The plot failed owing to the late arrival of the Athenian force, when Nicodromus had already fled the island. An engagement followed in which the Aeginetans were defeated. Subsequently, however, they succeeded in winning a victory over the Athenian fleet. All the incidents subsequent to the appeal of Athens to Sparta are expressly referred by Herodotus to the interval between the sending of the heralds in 491 BC and the invasion of Datis and Artaphernes in 490 BC (cf. Herod. vi. 49 with 94). There are difficulties in this story, of which the following are the principal elements: – (i.) Herodotus nowhere states or implies that peace was concluded between the two states before 481 BC, nor does he distinguish between different wars during this period. Hence it would follow that the war lasted from shortly after 507 BC down to the congress at the Isthmus of Corinth in 481 BC (ii.) It is only for two years (490 and 491) out of the twenty-five that any details are given. It is the more remarkable that no incidents are recorded in the period between Marathon and Salamis, since at the time of the Isthmian Congress the war is described as the most important one then being waged in Greece (Herod. vii. 145). (iii.) It is improbable that Athens would have sent twenty vessels to the aid of the Ionians in 499 BC if at the time she was at war with Aegina. (iv.) There is an incidental indication of time, which points to the period after Marathon as the true date for the events which are referred by Herodotus to the year before Marathon, viz. the thirty years that were to elapse between the dedication of the precinct to Aeacus and the final victory of Athens (Herod. v. 89). Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC - 491 BC - 490 BC 489 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 486 BC 485 BC 484 BC 483 BC 482 BC _ 481 BC _ 480 BC... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 486 BC 485 BC 484 BC 483 BC 482 BC _ 481 BC _ 480 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC - 491 BC - 490 BC 489 BC... Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia, Halicarnassus Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Aristides of Athens Xerxes I of Persia, Ariamenes †, Artemisia Strength 366-380 ships a 1,000-1,207 ships [1]b Casualties 40 ships 500 ships a Herodotus gives 378 of the alliance, but... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 499 BC - 498 BC 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC Births Deaths Events Aristagoras...

Ruins of the Temple of Apollo
Ruins of the Temple of Apollo

As the final victory of Athens over Aegina was in 458 B.C., the thirty years of the oracle would carry us back to the year 488 BC as the date of the dedication of the precinct and the outbreak of hostilities. This inference is supported by the date of the building of the 200 triremes for the war against Aegina on the advice of Themistocles, which is given in the Constitution of Athens as 483-482 BC (Herod. vii. 144; Ath. Pol. r2. 7). It is probable, therefore, that Herodotus is in error both in tracing back the beginning of hostilities to an alliance between Thebes and Aegina (c. 507 BC) and in putting the episode of Nicodromus before Marathon. Overtures were unquestionably made by Thebes for an alliance with Aegina c. 507 BC, but they came to nothing. The refusal of Aegina was veiled under the diplomatic form of sending the Aeacidae. The real occasion of the outbreak of the war was the refusal of Athens to restore the hostages some twenty years later. There was but one war, and it lasted from 488 to 481. That Athens had the worst of it in this war is certain. Herodotus had no Athenian victories to record after the initial success, and the fact that Themistocles was able to carry his proposal to devote the surplus funds of the state to the building of so large a fleet seems to imply that the Athenians were themselves convinced that a supreme effort was necessary. It may be noted, in confirmation of this view, that the naval supremacy of Aegina is assigned by the ancient writers on chronology to precisely this period, i.e. the years 490-480 (Eusebius, Chron. Can. p. 337). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (880 × 660 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (880 × 660 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC 490 BC 489 BC - 488 BC - 487 BC 486 BC... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... The Constitution of the Athenians (or Athenaion Politeia, or The Athenians) is the name of either of two texts from Classical antiquity, one probably by Aristotle, the other attributed to Xenophon, but not by him. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ...



Persian, Peloponnesian, & Corinthian wars


In the repulse of Xerxes I it is possible that the Aeginetans played a larger part than is conceded to them by Herodotus. The Athenian tradition, which he follows in the main, would naturally seek to obscure their services. It was to Aegina rather than Athens that the prize of valour at Salamis was awarded, and the destruction of the Persian fleet appears to have been as much the work of the Aeginetan contingent as of the Athenian (Herod. viii. 91). There are other indications, too, of the importance of the Aeginetan fleet in the Greek scheme of defence. In view of these considerations it becomes difficult to credit the number of the vessels that is assigned to them by Herodotus (30 as against 180 Athenian vessels, cf. Greek History, sect. Authorities). During the next twenty years the Philo-laconian policy of Cimon secured Aegina, as a member of the Spartan league, from attack. The change in Athenian foreign policy, which was consequent upon the ostracism of Cimon in 461, led to what is sometimes called the First Peloponnesian War, in which the brunt of the fighting fell upon Corinth and Aegina. The latter state was forced to surrender to Athens after a siege, and to accept the position of a subject-ally (c. 456 BC). The tribute was fixed at 30 talents. Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... The History of Greece extends back to the arrival of the Greeks in Europe some time before 1500 BC, even though there has only been an independent state called Greece since 1821. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 461 BC 460 BC 459 BC 458 BC 457 BC - 456 BC - 455 BC 454 BC...


By the terms of the Thirty Years' Truce (445 BC) Athens covenanted to restore to Aegina her autonomy, but the clause remained a dead letter. In the first winter of the Peloponnesian War (431 BC) Athens expelled the Aeginetans, and established a cleruchy in their island. The exiles were settled by Sparta in Thyreatis, on the frontiers of Laconia and Argolis. Even in their new home they were not safe from Athenian rancour.1 A force landed under Nicias in 424, and put most of them to the sword. At the end of the Peloponnesian War Lysander restored the scattered remnants of the old inhabitants to the island, which was used by the Spartans as a base for operations against Athens in the Corinthian War. Its greatness, however, was at an end. The part which it plays henceforward is insignificant. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 450 BC 449 BC 448 BC 447 BC 446 BC - 445 BC - 444 BC 443 BC... For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 436 BC 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC - 431 BC - 430 BC 429 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC...


Economic decline


It would be a mistake to attribute the fall of Aegina solely to the development of the Athenian navy. It is probable that the power of Aegina had steadily declined during the twenty years after Salamis, and that it had declined absolutely, as well as relatively, to that of Athens. Commerce was the source of Aegina's greatness, and her trade, which appears to have been principally with the Levant, must have suffered seriously from the war with Persia. Her medism in 491 is to be explained by her commercial relations with the Persian Empire. She was forced into patriotism in spite of herself, and the glory won by Salamis was paid for by the loss of her trade and the decay of her marine. The completeness of the ruin of so powerful a state – we should look in vain for an analogous case in the history of the modern world – finds an explanation in the economic conditions of the island, the prosperity of which rested upon a basis of slave-labour. It is impossible, indeed, to accept Aristotle's (cf. Athenaeus vi. 272) estimate of 470,000 as the number of the slave-population; it is clear, however, that the number must have been out of all proportion to that of the free inhabitants. In this respect the history of Aegina does but anticipate the history of Greece as a whole. The constitutional history of Aegina is unusually simple. So long as the island retained its independence the government was an oligarchy. There is no trace of the heroic monarchy and no tradition of a tyrannis. The story of Nicodromus, while it proves the existence of a democratic party, suggests, at the same time, that it could count upon little support. Motto Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (introduced 1979) Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Establishment  -  Proto-Elamite Period 3200-2700 BCE... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC - 491 BC - 490 BC 489 BC... The Greek island of Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamina, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamis) is the largest island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ...


Pericles called Aegina the eye-sore (leme) of the Peiraeus.


Roman rule

Aegina passed with the rest of Greece under the successive dominations of Macedon, the Aetolians, Attalus of Pergamum and Rome. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ...


Byzantine period

The Monastery of Saint Nectarios.
The Monastery of Saint Nectarios.

Church construction activity in the 9th century AD provides evidence of a flourishing economy on the island before its eventual abandonment sometime in the second half of the ninth century as a consequence of Arab raids. 12th c. Emigration and the exactions of the Byzantine officials completed the tales of Michael Choniates in the late 12th century. In 1198, he addressed a memorial to the Emperor Alexios Komnenos III, on behalf of the Athenians, from which we learn that the city was free from the jurisdiction of the provincial governor, who resided at Thebes and who was not even allowed to enter the city, which like Patras and Monemvasia was governed by its own άρχοντες. Piracy Benedict of Peterborough gives a graphic account of Greece, as it was in 1191, that many of the islands were uninhabited from fear of pirates and that others were their chosen lairs. The islands of AEGINA, Salamis and Makronesos were strongholds of corsairs. They injured the property of the Athenian Church and dangerously wounded the nephew of Michael Choniates, who found it almost impossible to collect the ecclesiastical revenues of AEGINA. Most of the Aeginetan population had fled therefore, while those who remained had fraternized with the pirates. At the time of the Latin conquest most Greece was still nominally under the authority of the Byzantine Emperor. Continental Greece, from the Isthmus to the river Peneios in the north, and to Aetolia in the west, composed the «Θέμα Ελλάδος», which thus included Attica, Boeotia, Phokis, Lokris, part of Thessaly and the islands of Euboea and AEGINA. This Theme was at the time administrated together with the Theme of Peloponnese by the same official. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


The Franks and Venetians after 1204

Venetians took all the best harbors and markets in the Levant: The Levant The Levant (IPA: /ləvænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...

  • The Ionian Islands: Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Leukas
  • Oreos (north) and to the South, Karystos
  • AEGINA, Salamis and the province of Sunium with the Cyclades
  • Crete

Aegina and its external history



All the commercial privileges, which they had enjoyed in the time of the Byzantine Empire should be continued to them. Burgundian Athens embraced Attica, Boeotia, the Megarid, the ancient Opuntian Lokris and the fortresses of Nauplia and Argos and at least 4 ports ( Piraeus, Nauplia, Atalante, Livadostro ( Corinth )). They did a little amateur piracy. Thebes was the capital. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Burgundian is either of the following; An extinct language of the Germanic language group spoken by the Burgundians. ... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); singular: see Origin of the name below) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... Locris (Greek, Modern: Lokrida, Ancient: Lokris) was a region of ancient Greece, the homeland of the Locrians, made up of two districts. ... Náfplio (Ναύπλιον) is a town on the Peloponnese in Greece. ... Coordinates 37°37′ N 22°43′ E Country Greece Periphery Peloponnese Prefecture Argolis Province Argos Population 29,505 Area 5. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ... Akallabêth is the fourth part of The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ...

  • Athens, Thebes, Peloponnese, Euboea


In 1225 Othon de la Roche departed for Burgundy, leaving his nephew Guy as Duke. For 50 years, Athens enjoyed peace, till a fratricidal war between Guillaume de Villeardouin (Prince of Achaia) and the great Barons of Euboea involved Guy, who took the side of the Barons. He became regent of Achaia after the end of it. The Duchy of Athens was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... This article is about the modern Greek district Achaea. ... Various rulers or governments of Europe, of Japan bestow or recognise the title of baron. ... Euboea or Negropont (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Evia, Ancient Greek Εúβοια Eúboia; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ...



Guillaume de Villeardouin was captured by the Byzantines and when he was freed, he was accepted by the Duke of Athens in Thebes. There the Treaty of Thebes was signed between the Prince of Achaia, Venice and the Triarchs. William recognized Guglielmo da Verona, Narzotto dale Carceri and Grapella as Triarchs and they in turn recognized him as their suzerain and promised to destroy the Castle of Negroponte. Venice engaged to cancel all her fiefs by her Bailie since the death of Carintana. Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The Duchy of Athens was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade. ... A Bailiff in a United States courtroom Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian; cf. ...



When the Latin Empire of Constantinople fell, the Emperor Baldwin II spend time in the Duchy of Athens. Othon de Cicon, Lord of Karystos and AEGINA came to attend him along with other lords. He had played so active a part in the Euboean war and had lent him 5000 Hyperpera in his sore need. Baldwin liquidated his dept to the baron of Karystos with an arm of St. John the Baptist, which the pious Othon subsequently presented to the Burgundian Abbey of Citeaux. Map of Constantinople. ... Baldwin II may refer to: Baldwin II of Constantinople, Latin Emperor of Constantinople Baldwin II of Jerusalem, King of Jerusalem Baldwin II, Count of Hainaut (1056-1098) Baldwin II of Flanders This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... For other uses, see Lord (disambiguation). ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... 16th century Citeaux, perspective view (engraving) Cîteaux Abbey (French: abbaye de Cîteaux) is a Catholic abbey located in Saint-Nicolas-lès-Cîteaux, south of Dijon, France. ...



John (son of Guy) got involved in the war of Thessaly and Constantinople. He helped the Sevastokrator of Thessaly Ioannes I` Angelos against Emperor Michael VIII and he wan the imperial army. As a reward he took Ioannes’ daughter, Helena, as a bride for his younger brother William and he extended his influence as far as north as Thessaly. At a battle at Negroponte he was caught prisoner by the Greeks and was carried to Constantinople. Michael took ransom. A year later (1280) he died. This article is about a religious devotion. ... Michael VIII (1225 - December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ...



William (Guy’s brother) reigned the next 7 years as the leading figure of Frankish Greece. [The Angevin Kings of Naples had become overlords of Achaia by the treaty of Viterbo.] He spent money on the defense of Peloponnese and Euboea.



Helena Angelina (William’s Greek wife) left to rule after William’s death. She married his brother-in-law Hugh de Brienne. Helena’s son Guy II, at the ceremony of his coming of age and becoming Duke of Athens (1294), made Bonifate of Verona a knight and as a reward for his service, he gave him 13 castles on the mainland and Salamis (to bring him in revenue 50.000 sols ) and he bestowed the hand of Agnes de Cicon (daughter of Othon de Cicon), cousin of the Duke of Athens, lady of Euboea, Karystos (was at the time in the hands of Greeks) and AEGINA. Attica now for the first time supplies Euboea with corn. Guy II died in 1308. Salamis may refer to Salamis Island in the Saronic Gulf of the Aegean Sea, near Athens, Greece, where the Battle of Salamis was fought in 480 B.C.. Salamis, Cyprus, an ancient city on the east coast of Cyprus. ... Allan Salisbury, also known as Sols, is an Australian cartoonist, best known for his newspaper comic Snake Tales. ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ...



Walter de Brienne (Count of Lecce ) became the new Duke. He thought he might use the coming Catalans against the Duke of Thessaly (Ioannes II`), who made alliance with the Despot of Epeiros and the Emperor. The Catalans won but at the end turned against their employer and occupied the regions from Thessaly to Athens (1311). The only ones that survived were 4: Boniface of Verona, Roger Deslaur, the eldest son of the Duke of Naxos and Jean de Maisy ( άρχοντας of Euboea). This is about the Italian city of Lecce. ... Despotism is government by a singular authority, either a single person or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute power. ... The name Epirus, from the Greek Ήπειρος meaning continent may refer to: // Epirus (region) - a historical and geographical region of the southwestern Balkans, straddling modern Greece and Albania Epirus (periphery) - one of the thirteen peripheries (administrative divisions) of Greece. ...


The Catalans in Aegina (1311-1451)

The Catalan company annexed to Attica and Boeotia the Duchy of Neopatras, including part of Thessaly, while Catalan lords held the castles of Salona and Karystos and the island of AEGINA. The Company needed a leader and they offered the post to Boniface, but he refused. Then they turned to Roger Deslaur, who accepted for a while. King Frederick II of Sicily sent as their Duke his (bastard) son Manfred Fadrigo. He was among the Principal Catalans in 1335 and he died in 1338 leaving castles to his sons: His second son, Don Jaime, succeeded his elder brother (or cousin? ) Don Pedro in his estates, held for a time the island of AEGINA – cause the people of the island rebelled against him - and became later on vicar-general of the Company. Yet another son, Bonifacio, inherited Karystos and Lamia and received from Don Jaime, with certain reservations, Aegina, thereby reuniting the old possessions of his namesake and grandfather, Bonifacio da Verona. [The island of Salamis seems to have been subdued by the Greeks and paid taxes to the Byzantine governor of Monemvasia.]


Administration

The feudal system continued to exist, but not anymore under the Assizes, but under the Customs of Barcelona. And the official common language was now Catalan and not French. Fiefs of the Duchies of Athens and Neopatras (over the last years) Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); singular: see Origin of the name below) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Coat of Arms of the Duchy of Neopatras The Duchy of Neopatria or Neopatras was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade. ...

    • Κομητεία Δημητριάδος
    • Μαρκιονεία Βοδονίτσης
    • Κομητεία Σαλώνων

Count Ludwig Fadrique (1365-1381) was master of Lidoriki and Zetouni and later of Siderokastron (Delphoi) and Aegina. A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ...

    • Αυθεντεία Σιδηροκάστρου

Stefan Melissenos (1318-1333) => Othon de Novelles, marshal of the Duke, husband of Stefan’s sister => Count Ludwig Fadrique (1365-1381) => Maria Fadrique Cantacouzena (1382-1384?)

    • Αυθεντεία Αιγίνης
    • Αυθεντεία Στειρίου (Φωκίδα)
    • Αυθεντείαι Καρδίτσης και Αταλάντης
    • Αυθεντεία Καπραίνης (Χαιρώνεια)
    • Αυθεντεία Estanyol


Chief-officials = vicar-general , marshal in Thebes. Always chosen from the ranks of the Company and particularly from the house of de Novelles since 1363. Soon both offices were represented by one man, beginning at 1368 with Roger de Lluria. They minted no coins and they had no ducal Aula. Each city and district – on the example of Sicily - had its own local governor (veguer, castellano, capitan), whose term of office was fixed at 3 years and who was nominated by the Duke, the vicar or the local representatives. The principal towns and villages were represented by the sindici, which had their own councils and officers. Judges and notaries were elected for life or even as inherited offices. The Catalan state was declining under the Turkish and the Venetian (of Negroponte) threats; and also a new threat by Nerio Acciajuoli, Baron of Corinth. A vicar general (often abbreviated VG) is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority. ... A duke is a nobleman, historically of highest rank and usually controlling a duchy. ...

  • Frederick II sent his son Don Alfonso Fadrique as “President of the fortunate army of Franks in the Duchy of Athens. He married Marulla of Euboea, the heiress of Boniface and so received back everything that Guy II had given to her father. The Venetians renewed their truce with the Catalans. In 1355, he became also King of Sicily by the title of Frederick III.
  • Frederick III dies in 1377. The Navarrese Company makes its appearance till the early 1380s.
  • Problems with people of Athens and Salona wanting independence. Livadia, - always a privileged town in the Catalan period, - received confirmation of its rights by Pedro IV (king of Aragon and new Duke of Athens) and became the seat of the Order of St. George in Greece, an honor due to the fact that the head of the saint was then preserved there.
  • In 1380, Thebes and Livadia were still in the hands of the Navarrese. Don Louis Fadrique begged the king to bestow him and his heirs the dignity of Counts of Malta, to confirm to him the castle of Siderokastron, the island of AEGINA and any castles, which he might be able to recover from the Navarrese and their allies before the arrival of the new vicar-general. The king, conscious to the Count of Salona’s services, granted all these requests and received the envoy’s homage. Then he notified his subjects his intention to send Rocaberti to govern them.
  • Rocaberti arrived in Athens in autumn of 1380. Louis Fadrique and Galcerán de Peralta handed over their office to him. His instructions were:
      • to establish friendly relations with all the neighbouring potentates
      • to grant a general amnesty in his master’s name to all the inhabitants of the duchies
      • to reward those who had been conspicuous of their loyalty to the King
      • to restore to the rebel branch of the Fadrique clan all the castles and goods which they had forfeited. Among these was the classic island of AEGINA, which thus came to hands of Boniface’s son, John.
      • to grant exemption from taxes for 2 years to all Greeks and Albanians who would come and settle in the depleted duchies. He wanted to cover the gaps in the population cause of the invasion of the Navarrese Company.
      • At the request of the people of Livadia, he established in their town, where the head of St. George was preserved, a branch of the Order of that Saint. He privately ordered Rocaberti to bring the relic of the Saint to Spain, an order never executed.

See: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194-1250, king 1211/12-1250, emperor since 1220) Frederick II of Austria (?-1246, duke of Austria 1230-1246) Frederick II of Sicily (1272-1337) - who called himself Frederick III - see the article for details. ... There were three rulers known as Frederick (German Friedrich) III of Germany: Frederick the Handsome, Duke of Austria from 1308 to 1330, who was elected as German King in the time of Louis the Bavarian (1326) as the result of a compromise between the Houses of Wittelsbach and Habsburg. ... The Navarrese Company was a company of mercenaries, mostly from Navarre and Gascony, which fought in Greece during the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, in the twilight of Frankish power in the dwindling remnant of the Latin Empire. ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil; Pedro IV of Portugal Pedro I of Brazil, known as Dom Pedro (October 12, 1798 - September 24, 1834), proclaimed Brazil independent from Portugal and became Brazils first Emperor. ...

Caopena in Aegina

The Catalan company disappeared from the face of Attica, while 2 branches of the Fadrique family lingered on for a time, the one at Salona, the other at AEGINA, where we find their connections, the family of Caopena, ruling till 1451. From John Fadrique, it passed, - presumably by the marriage of his daughter, - to the family of Caopena, then settled at Nauplia, whose name undoubtedly points to a Catalan origin. The Catalans conveyed the head of St. George and thence the Venetians found it in AEGINA when they became possessed of the island and transported it to Venice, - to the church of St. Giorgio Maggiore, - in 1462. In 1425, Alioto Caopena, at that time ruler of AEGINA, placed himself with treaty under the protection of Venice in order to escape the danger of a Turkish raid. The island must then have been fruitful, for one of the conditions under which Venice accorded him her protection, was that he should supply corn her colonies. He agreed to surrender the island to Venice if his family became extinct. Antonio Acciajuoli was against the treaty for one of his adopted daughters had married the future lord of AEGINA, Antonello Caopena. Náfplio (Ναύπλιον) is a town on the Peloponnese in Greece. ... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ...


Venetians in Aegina (1451-1537)

In 1451, AEGINA became Venetian. The islanders welcomed the Venetian rule; the claims of Antonello’ s uncle Arnà, who had lands in Argolis, were satisfied by a pension. A Venetian governor (rettore) was appointed, who was dependant on the authorities of Nauplia. After Arnà’ s death, his son Alioto renewed his claim to the island but was told that the republic was firmly resolved to keep it. He and his family were pensioned and one of them aided in the defence of AEGINA against the Turks, in 1537, was captured with his family and died in a Turkish dungeon. Argolis (Greek, Modern: Αργολίδα Argolida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Αργολίς -- still the official, formal name) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ...


Ιn 1463 came the Turco-Venetian war, which was destined to cost the Venetians: AEGINA, Myconos, the Northern Sporades and their colonies in Morea. Peace was concluded in 1479. Venice still retained: Lepanto, Nauplia, Monemvasia, Coron, Modon, Navarino, Northern Sporades, Crete, Myconos and Tenos. AEGINA remained subject of Nauplia. Mykonos (hora) Mykonos is one of the Cyclades, a group of islands of the Aegean Sea, lying between Tinos, Siros, Paros and Naxos. ... This is a list of some of the 3000 islands of Greece: Chrysi Crete Dia Euboea Gavdos Koufonisi Ydra The Cyclades Amorgos Anafi Andros Antiparos Anydro Delos Donoussa Folegandros Gyaros Ios Irakleia Kea Keros Kimolos Kithnos Makronisos Milos Mykonos (Mikonos) Naxos Paros Pholegandros Santorini (also called Thira) Serifos Sifnos Sikinos... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... Monemvassia (Greek: Μονεμβασία, Μονεμβάσια, Μονεμβασιά), is a medieval fortress with an adjacent town, located on a small peninsula off the east coast of the Peloponnese in the Greek prefecture of Laconia. ... Coron can refer to the following things: Coron, a municipality in Palawan in the Philippines Coron Island, under the jurisdiction of the municipality Coron, Maine-et-Loire, a commune in the Maine-et-Loire département in France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... Modon is the name given by the Venetians to the coastal town of Methoni on the Ionian Sea, in present-day Greece. ... There are also Pylos in Ilia including Pylos Ilias and Pyrgos Trifylias which are both archaeological sites Pylos (Greek Πύλος) is the name of a bay and a town on the west coast of the Peloponnese, in the district of Messenia in southern Greece. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Tinos (Greek: Τήνος) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea, part of Greece. ...


Administration

AEGINA obtained money for her defences by the unwilling sacrifice of her cherished relic, the head of St. George, which had been carried there from Livadia by the Catalans. In 1462, the Venetian Senate ordered the relic to be removed to St. Giorgio Maggiore in Venice. On 12th November, it was transported from AEGINA, by Vettore Cappello, the famous Venetian commander. The Senate gave the Aeginetans 100 ducats apiece towards fortifying the island. The ducat was a gold coin that was used throughout Europe. ...


In 1519, the government was reformed. The system of having 2 rectors was found to lead in frequent quarrels and the republic thenceforth sent out a single official styled Bailie and Captain, assisted by 2 councilors, who performed the duties of camerlengo by turns. The Bailie’ s authority extended over the rector of AEGINA, whereas Kastri (opposite Hydra) had been granted to 2 families, the Palaiologoi and the Alberti. ... Coat of arms of the Cardinal Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (the escutcheon and motto are proper to the incumbent) The title Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (plu camerlenghi, Italian for Chamberlain) refers to an official of the Papal court---either the Chamberlain of the Roman Church, the... Kastri, older forms: Kastrio and Kastrion may refer to several places in Greece Kastri, a village in the Arcadia prefecture Kastri, a village in the Chania prefecture Kastri, a village in the Larissa prefecture Xenodoneio kastri by Stathis Psaltis Categories: | ... Baron Strucker, retconned founder of HYDRA, wearing the HYDRA logo on his chest. ... The Palaeologus family was the last dynasty ruling the Byzantine Empire. ... Alberti was an illustrious Florentine family, rivals of the Medicis and the Albizzi. ...


A democratic wave passed over the colony. Society at Nauplia was divided into 3 classes: nobles, citizens and plebeians; and it had been the ancient usage that the nobles alone should hold the much-coveted local offices, such as the judge of the inferior court ad inspector of weights and measures. The populace now demanded its share and the Home Government ordered that at least one of the 3 inspectors should be a man of the people.


AEGINA had always been exposed to the raids of the corsairs and was cursed with oppressive governors during these last 30 years of Venetian rule. Venetian nobles weren’t willing to go to this island. In 1533, 3 rectors of AEGINA were punished for their acts of injustice and we have a graphic account of the reception given by the Aeginetans to the captain of Nauplia, who came to hold and enquiry into the administration of these delinquents. [Vid. Inscription over the entrance of St. George the Catholic in Paliachora.] The rectors had spurned their ancient right to elect islander to keep one key of the money-chest. They had also threatened to leave the island in a body with the commissioner, unless the captain avenged their wrongs. In order to spare the pockets of the community, it was ordered that appeals from the governor’ s decision should lie to Crete, instead of Venice. The republic should pay a bakshish to the Turkish governor of the Morea and to the Voevode who was stationed at the frontier of Thermisi (opposite Hydra). The fortifications too, were allowed to fall into despair and were inadequately guarded. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into voivod. ...

  • 16th Century

After the fall of the Duchy of Athens and the principality of Achaia, the only Latin possessions left on the mainland of Greece were the papal city of Monemvasia, the fortress of Vonitsa, the Messenian stations Coron and Modon, Navarino, the castles of Argos and Nauplia, to which the island of AEGINA was subordinate, Lepanto and Pteleon. Vonitsa (Greek: Βόνιτσα) is a Greek island is a town and it serves the seat of the municipality of Anaktorio in the northwestern part of the Aitoloakarnania prefecture in Greece. ...


In 1502/3, the new peace left Venice with nothing but Cephalonia, Monemvasia and Nauplia, with their appurtenances in the Morea. And against the sack of Megara, she had to set the temporary capture of the castle of AEGINA by Kemal Reis and the carrying off of 2000 Aeginetans. This treaty was renewed in 1513 and 1521. All the supplies of corn of Nauplia and Monemvasia had now to be imported from the Turkish possessions, while corsairs rendered dangerous all traffic by sea. Göke (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (circa 1451-1511) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. ...


In 1537, Suleyman the Magnificent declared war upon Venice and his admiral Khairedin Barbarossa spread fire and sword upon the Ionian Islands and in October fell upon the island of AEGINA. On the 4th day Palaiochora fell, but the church of St George (Latin church) was spared. He massacred all the adult male population and took away 6000 women and children as slaves. So complete was the destruction of the Aeginetans, that when a French admiral, Baron de Blancard, touched the island soon afterwards, he found it devoid of inhabitants. Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ionioi Nisoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι; Ancient Greek: Ionioi Nesoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι) are a group of islands in Greece. ... Palaiochora (Greek Παλαιόχωρα) is a small town next to the White Mountains on the south coast of the Greek island of Crete. ...


There, as usual, an Albanian immigration replenished, at least to some extent, the devastated sites, but AEGINA couldn’t recover its former prosperity. Thence Barbarossa sailed to Naxos, whence he carried off an immense booty, compelling the Duke of Naxos to purchase his further independence by a tribute of 5000 ducats.



With the peace of 1540, Venice ceded Nauplia and Monemvasia. For nearly 150 years after, Venice did not own an inch of soil on the mainland of Greece, except the Ionian dependencies of Parga and Butrinto, but of her insular dominions Cyprus, Crete, Tenos and 6 Ionian islands still remained. Tinos (Greek: Τήνος) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea, part of Greece. ...


Ottoman Turks (1540-1687)

    • 1st desolation of the island by Morosini (1654)
    • 2nd desolation of the island by Morosini and occupation of Aegina (1687). Siege of Athens (1688) and plague => escape of the Athenians to Aegina.

The Venetian revival (1687-1715)

In 1684, the outbreak of war between Venice and the Ottoman Empire led to the temporary re-conquest of a large part of the country by the soldiers of the West and the reappearance of the lion of St. Mark in the South of Greece. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ...


Occupation of Attica by Morosini

In 1687 the Venetian army arrived in Piraeus and took command of Attica. The number of the Athenians at that time exceeded 6000, the Albanians from the villages of Attica excluded, and whilst in 1674 the population of Aegina did not seem to exceed 3000 inhabitants, 2/3 of which were women. The Aeginetans had been led to seediness to pay their taxes. The most significant plague epidemic though began in Attica in 1688, an occasion that caused the massive migration of all the Athenians toward south; most of them settled in Aegina. In 1693 Morosini resumed the command, but his only acts were to refortify the castle of AEGINA, which he had demolished during the Cretan war in 1655, the cost of upkeep being paid, as long as the war lasted, by the Athenian, and to place it and Salamis under Malipiero as Governor. This led the Athenians to send him a request for the renewal of Venetian protection and an offer of an annual tribute. He died in 1694 and Zeno was appointed at his place. Morosini, a noble Venetian family, probably of Hungarian extraction, which gave many doges, statesmen, generals and admirals to the Venetian Republic, and cardinals to the Church. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Combatants Macedon, Hierapytna, Olous, Aetolia, Spartan pirates Rhodes, Pergamum, Byzantium, Cyzicus, Athens, Knossos Commanders Philip V, Dicaearchus Attalus I, Theophiliscus of Rhodes, Cleonaeus of Rhodes The Cretan War (205 BC–200 BC) was fought by King Philip V of Macedon, the Aetolian League, some Cretan cities (of which Olous and...


In 1699, thanks to the English mediation, the war ended with the peace of Carlovitz by which Venice retained possession of the 7 Ionian islands, Butrinto and Parga, Morea, Spinalonga and Suda, Tenos, Santa Maura and AEGINA and ceased to pay a tribute for Zante, but restored to Sultan Lepanto. The burden of having to contribute to the maintenance of Cerigo and AEGINA, both united administratively with the Morea since the peace, the peninsula not only paid all the expenses of administration, but furnished a substantial balance to the naval defence of Venice, in which it was directly interested. Parga (Greek: Πάργα), is a town and a municipality located in the northwestern part of Preveza in northwestern Greece being surrounded entirely by the prefecture of Thesprotia and is the only municipality in Greece that is surrounded by another prefecture. ... Island of Spinalonga The Spinalonga island (official name Kalidon) is located in the eastern part of Crete next to the villages of Plaka and Elounda. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ... Lefkada, or Lefkas (Greek: Modern: Λευκάδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -as) is an Greek island in the Ionian Sea, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge. ... Zakýnthos (Ζάκυνθος, also known as Zante), the third largest of the Ionian Islands, covers an area of 410 square kilometers and its coastline is roughly 123 kilometers in length. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Kythira, also seen as Kythera, Cythera or Tsirigo, is an island, one of the Ionian Islands. ...

  • Ottoman Turks (1715-1770)
  • Russians (1770-1772)
  • Ottoman Turks (1772-1821)


After the Greek revolution of 1821, in the year 1828 Aegina becomes for 2 years the first capital of the mew Greek State, under the Governor John Capodistria(Ioannes Kapodistrias). Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776-1831). ...


Famous Aeginetans

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Paulus Aegineta. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift...

Attractions

Panorama of the main harbour on Aegina.
Panorama of the main harbour on Aegina.

Aegina is a famous tourist destination. It takes about 35 minutes to travel to Aegina from Piraeus, the main port of Athens. Notable attractions include: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 182 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 205 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 182 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 205 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ...

  • the Temple of Aphaea, dedicated to its namesake, a goddess which was later associated with Athena; the temple was part of a pre-Christian, equilateral holy triangle of temples including the Athenian Parthenon and the temple of Poseidon at Sounion marketed by tour companies as the "Golden Mean Triangle."[4]
  • the Monastery of Agios Nectarios, dedicated to Saint Nectarios, a recent saint of the Greek Orthodox Church. Aegina is said to have 365 churches because its inhabitants were constantly attacked from pirates as the island was too close to Athens therefore a primary target.
  • Ioannis Kapodistrias, the first leader of free modern Greece (1776-1831) had a large building erected intended for a barracks, which was subsequently used as a museum, a library and a school. The museum was the first institution of its kind in Greece, but the collection was transferred to Athens in 1834. A statue in the principal square commemorates him.
The Aegina town centre.
The Aegina town centre.

The Temple of Aphaia (or Aphaea) is located within a sanctuary complex dedicated to the goddess Aphaia on the Greek island of Aigina, which lies in the Saronic Gulf. ... Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type. ... The Parthenon seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Cape Sounion. ... St. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... statue of John Capodistria in Panepistimiou Street, Athens John Capodistria, (in Greek Ioannis Kapodistrias or Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας, and in Italian Giovanni Capo dIstria, Count Capo dIstria) (February 11, 1776 - October 9... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); singular: see Origin of the name below) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1952, 1391 KB) Aigina town centre I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1952, 1391 KB) Aigina town centre I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Communities and villages

  • Aegina the city
  • Kipseli
  • Agia Marina
  • Anitseon
  • Kontos
  • Kypseli
  • Marathon
  • Mesagros
  • Metochi
  • Perdika
  • Portes
  • Souvala
  • Vagia
  • Vathy

Historical population

Year Communal population Change Municipal/Island population Change
1981 6,730 - 11,127 -
1991 6,373 -357/-5.20% 11,639 512/4.50%

There are no municipal boundaries in the island, it is encircled with the Saronic Gulf. Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Saronic Gulf or Gulf of Aegina in Greece forms part of the Aegean Sea and defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Corinth. ...


Mythology

In Greek mythology, Aegina was a daughter of the river god Asopus and the nymph Metope. She bore at least two children: Menoetius by Actor, and Aeacus by Zeus. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... In Greek mythology, Aegina was the daughter of the river-god Asopus and the nymph Metope. ... Asopus or Asôpos is the name of five different rivers in Greece and also in Greek mythology the name of the gods of those rivers. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... In Greek mythology, Metope was a river nymph, the daughter of the river Ladon. ... In Greek mythology, Menoetius referred to several different people. ... In Greek mythology, Actor was a son of King Deion, of Phocis and Diomede, the daughter of Xuthus. ... In Greek mythology, Aeacus (Greek: Aiakos, bewailing or earth borne) was king in the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is...


When Zeus abducted Aegina, he took her to Oenone, an island close to Attica. This island would later be called Aegina. Here, Aegina gave birth to Aeacus, who would later become king of Oenone; henceforth, the island's name Aegina. In Greek mythology, Oenone (wine woman) was the first wife of Paris. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ...


Aegina is the gathering place of Myrmidons, in Aegina they gathered and they trained. Zeus needed an elite army and at first thought that Aegina who at the time did not have any villagers was the perfect place. So he turned the ants(in Greek Myrmigia,Μυρμύγκια) into warriors who had 6 hands and wore black armors. Later on Myrmidons were known as the most fearsome fighting unit in Greece leaded by Achilles.


Notes

  1. ^ Herodotus v. 83, viii.46; Pausanias 2.29.9
  2. ^ Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976
  3. ^ A. J. Evans, in Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xiii. p. 195
  4. ^ Saronic Tour

Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...

Bibliography

  • Welter Gabriel, Aigina, Archäol. Inst. d. Deutschen Reiches, Berlin 1938.
  • Miller William, Essays on the Latin orient, Rome 1921 (reprint: Amsterdam 1964).
  • Miller William, «Η Παληαχώρα της Αιγίνης. Ηρημωμένη ελληνική πόλις», Νέος Ελληνομνήμων Κ΄ (1926), p.363-365.
  • Rubio y Lluch A., «Συμβολαί εις την ιστορίαν των Καταλωνίων εν Ελλάδι», Δελτίον της Ιστορικής και Εθνολογικής Εταιρείας της Ελλάδος Β΄(1885), p.458-466.
  • Lambros Spyridon ed., Έγγραφα αναφερόμενα εις την μεσαιωνικήν ιστορίαν των Αθηνών, Athens 1906.
  • D’ Olwer Nic., Les seigneurs Catalans d’ Egine, τόμος εις μνήμην του Σπυρίδωνος Λάμπρου, Athens 1935.
  • Koulikourdi Georgia, Αίγινα, 2 vols., Athens 1990.
  • Moutsopoulos Nikolaos, Η Παλιαχώρα της Αιγίνης. Ιστορική και μορφολογική εξέτασις των μνημείων, Athens 1962.
  • Nikoloudis Nikolaos, "Η Αίγινα κατά τον Μεσαίωνα και την Τουρκοκρατία", Βυζαντινός Δόμος 7(1993-4), p.13-21.
  • Pennas Charalambos, The byzantine Aegina, Athens 2004.

External links

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This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

The Saronic Islands are so named because they lie in the Saronic Gulf just off the Greek mainland. ... Hydra (Greek: Υδρα, IPA pronunciation: ) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece, located in the Aegean Sea between the Saronic Gulf and the Argolic Gulf. ... Poros (Greek: Πόρος) is a small Greek island-pair in the southern part of the Saronic Gulf, at a distance about 48 km (32 miles) south from Piraeus and separated from the Peloponnese by a 200-metre wide sea channel. ... Spetses ( Modern Greek: Σπέτσες, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σπέτσαι, Spetsai) is an island of Greece, sometimes included as one of the Saronic Islands. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Greek island of Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamina, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamis) is the largest island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ... Psyttaleias location in the Saronic Gulf. ... Dokos is a small Greek island of the Argo-Saronic Gulf, adjacent to Hydra, and separated from the Peloponnese by a narrow strait called on some maps the Hydra Gulf. ... There are places that have the name Agios Georgios (Greek, Άγιος Γεώργιος, for Saint George): In Cyprus Agios Georgios/Ayyorgi, near Pegeia/Peyia In Greece Agios Georgios, a village in westcentral Achaia Agios Georgios, a suburban part of Patras... Piraeus is one of the prefectures of Greece. ... Agios Ioannis Rentis, Agios Ioannis Rendis, Agios Ioannis Redis, Ayios Ioannis Rentis, Ayios Ioannis Rendis, Ayios Ioannis Redis, (Greek: Άγιος Ιωάννης Ρέντης, first part meaning Saint John), older forms Aghios Ioannis Rentis, Aghios Ioannis Rendis... Ampelakia (Greek: Αμπελάκια, meaning vineyards), also Ambelakia or Abelakia is the capital city of the second municipality of Salamis, Greece, and is located in the southeastern part of Greece. ... Drapetsona (Greek, Δραπετσώνα), older form Drapetsonas is a suburb in the southwestern part of Athens, Greece. ... Hydra (Greek: Υδρα, IPA pronunciation: ) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece, located in the Aegean Sea between the Saronic Gulf and the Argolic Gulf. ... Keratsini (Greek, Modern: Κερατσίνι, Ancient/Katharevousa -on), older forms Keratsinio and Keratsinion is a suburb in the west southwestern part of Athens, Greece. ... Coordinates 37°48′ N 23°39′ E Country Greece Periphery Attica Prefecture Piraeus Population 67,456 source (2001) Area 4. ... Kythira (Îœodern Hellenic: Κύθηρα), also known as Cerigo (Τσιρίγο), also spelt: Kithira, Kythera, Cythera, Cerigo or Tsirigo, is an hellenic island, historically part of the Ionian Islands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nikaia or Nikea (Greek: Νίκαια) is a suburb in the west southwestern part of Athens, Greece. ... There are communities that have the name Perama: Perama (Greek: Πέραμα) is a port city and a suburb of Athens that lies on the southwest edge of the Aegaleo mountains. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ... Poros (Greek: Πόρος) is a small Greek island-pair in the southern part of the Saronic Gulf, at a distance about 48 km (32 miles) south from Piraeus and separated from the Peloponnese by a 200-metre wide sea channel. ... The Greek island of Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamina, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamis) is the largest island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ... Spetses ( Modern Greek: Σπέτσες, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σπέτσαι, Spetsai) is an island of Greece, sometimes included as one of the Saronic Islands. ... Troezen (TREE-zun) is a city in Argolis located southwest of Athens and a few miles south of Methana. ... Agkistri (Greek: Αγκίστρι) is a community of the Greek prefecture of Attica. ... Antikythera (Αντικύθηρα) is a Greek island with a land mass of 20 square kilometers, 38 kilometers south-east of Kythira. ...


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Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα Egina), one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens.
As the final victory of Athens over Aegina was in 458 B.C., the thirty years of the oracle would carry us back to the year 488 BC as the date of the dedication of the precinct and the outbreak of hostilities.
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Reproduced by permifsron.Jrom Furcwangh Aegina, das Heiligtum der Aphaia Emery Walker, Hence it would follow that the war lasted from shortly after 507 B.C. down to the congress at the Isthmus of Corinth in 481 B.C. (ii.) It is only for two years (490 and 491) out of the twenty-five that any details are given.
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