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Encyclopedia > Adzebill
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Gruiformes (but see article)
Family: Aptornithidae
Mantell 1848
Genus: Aptornis
Owen, 1844
  • Aptornis otidiformis
    Owen, 1844
  • Aptornis defossor
    Owen, 1871

Genus-level: The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... “Animalia” redirects here. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... Gideon Algernon Mantell (February 3, 1790 – November 10, 1852) was an English obstetrician, geologist and palaeontologist. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article, Richard Owen, includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Jan. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ...

  • Apterornis

A. otidiformis:

  • Aptornis otidiformes

The adzebills (genus Aptornis) were two closely related bird species, the North Island Adzebill (Aptornis otidiformis) and the South Island Adzebill (Aptornis defossor) of the extinct family Aptornithidae. The family was endemic to New Zealand. For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... “Aves” redirects here. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ...

They have been placed in the Gruiformes but this is not entirely certain. It was also proposed to ally them with the Galloanserae (Weber & Hesse 1995). Studies[citation needed] of morphology and DNA sequences place them variously close to and far off from the Kagu of New Caledonia, as well as the trumpeters. Its morphological closeness to the Kagu may be the result of convergent evolution, although New Zealand's proximity to New Caledonia and shared biological affinities (the two islands are part of the same microcontinent) has led some researchers to suggest they share a common ancestor from Gondwana. If so, it is interesting to note that the Gondwanan Sunbittern is most likely the closest living relative of the Kagu, and these two may also be reasonably close to the mesites, yet other "odd gruiforms" from the Southern Hemisphere, but do not seem to be close to the Gruiformes proper (i.e. cranes, rails and allies. See e.g. Fain & Houde 2004[1]). On the other hand, should the adzebills be closer to the trumpeters, placement in the Gruiformes is likely to be correct even if the Kagu and Sunbittern are split off. Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... Orders Galliformes Anseriformes Fowl is a term for certain birds often used as food by humans. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... Binomial name Rhynochetos jubatus Verreaux & DesMurs, 1860 The Kagu (Rhynochetos jubatus) is a long-legged greyish bird found in the dense mountain forests of New Caledonia. ... The trumpeters are a small family of birds restricted to the forests of the Amazon basin in South America. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous land mass. ... Gondwanaland redirects here. ... Binomial name Eurypiga helias (Pallas, 1781) The Sunbittern (Eurypiga helias) is a bittern-like bird of tropical regions of the Americas. ... Genera Mesitornis Monias The mesites are a small group of birds of uncertain affinities often alternatively placed with the Rallidae. ... Genera Grus Anthropoides Balearica Bugeranus Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. ... Genera Sarothrura Himantornis Canirallus Coturnicops Micropygia Rallina Anurolimnas Laterallus Nesoclopeus Gallirallus Rallus Lewinia Dryolimnas Crex Rougetius Aramidopsis Atlantisia Aramides Amaurolimnas Gymnocrex Amaurornis Porzana Aenigmatolimnas Cyanolimnas Neocrex Pardirallus Eulabeornis Habroptila Megacrex Gallicrex Porphyrio Gallinula Fulica The family Rallidae is a large group of small to medium-sized birds which includes the...

In life the adzebills were massive gruiforms, the size of small moa (with which they were initially confused with on their discovery) with enormous downward-curving and pointed bill, and strong legs. They were flightless and had extremely reduced wings, smaller than those of the dodo compared to the birds' overall size, and with an uniquely reduced carpometacarpus (Livezey, 1994). Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... MOA is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: Magnetic Field Oscillating Amplified Thruster, a novel propulsion system with several terrestrial applications Making of America, is a digital library project of the University of Michigan and Cornell University Mall of America, the United States largest mall located... Flightless birds evolved from flying ancestors; there are about forty species in existence today. ... A Laughing Gull with its wings extended in a gull wing profile Aircraft wing planform shapes: a swept wing KC-10 Extender (top) refuels a trapezoid-wing F/A-22 Raptor A wing is a surface used to produce lift and therefore flight, for travel in the air or another... Binomial name Raphus cucullatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Former range (in red) Synonyms Struthio cucullatus Linnaeus, 1758 Didus ineptus Linnaeus 1766 Probably the earliest accurate drawings of a dodo (1601-1603). ...

The two species varied mostly in size with the North Island Adzebill being the smaller species; their coploration in life is not known however. Their fossils have been found the drier areas of New Zealand, and only in the lowlands. Richard Owen, who described the two species, speculated that it was an omnivore, and analysis[citation needed] of its bones by stable isotope analysis supports this. They are thought to have fed on large invertebrates, lizards, tuataras and even small birds. FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The distribution of stable isotopes and certain elements within a food web make it possible to draw direct inferences regarding diet, trophic level, and subsistence. ... Invertebrate is a term that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Families Many, see text. ... black: range (northern New Zealand) Species Sphenodon punctatus (Gray, 1842) Sphenodon guntheri Buller, 1877 Sphenodon diversum † The tuatara is a reptile of the family Sphenodontidae, endemic to New Zealand. ... “Aves” redirects here. ...

The adzebills were never as widespread as the moa, but subjected to the same hunting pressure these and other large birds by the settling Polynesians. They became extinct before the arrival of European explorers. A hunt is an activity during which humans or animals chase some prey, such as wild or specially bred animals (traditionally targeted species are known as game), in order to catch or kill them, either for food, sale, or as a form of sport. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ...


  • Fain, Matthew G. & Houde, Peter (2004): Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds. Evolution 58(11): 2558-2573. DOI:10.1554/04-235 PDF fulltext
  • Livezey, Bradley C. (1994): The carpometacarpus of Apterornis. Notornis 41(1): 51–60. PDF fulltext
  • Weber, Erich & Hesse, Angelika (1995): The systematic position of Aptornis, a flightless bird from New Zealand. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 181: 292-301.
  • Worthy, Trevor H. (1989): The glossohyal and thyroid bone of Aptornis otidiformes. Notornis 36(3): 248 PDF fulltext
  • Worthy, Trevor H., & Holdaway, Richard N. (2002) The Lost World of the Moa, Indiana University Press:Bloomington, ISBN 0-253-34034-9

Evolution, the International Journal of Organic Evolution, is a bimonthly scientific journal that publishes significant new results of empirical or theoretical investigations concerning facts, processes, mechanics, or concepts of evolutionary phenomena and events. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...


  1. ^ Note that their proposed "Metaves" are only weakly supported, and contain several nigh-impossible grouping. A fairly close Kagu-Sunbittern relationship, on the other hand, seems almost certain by now.

External links

  • Reconstruction of A. otidiformis by Alexander Lang

  Results from FactBites:
Adzebill - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (369 words)
The adzebills (genus Aptornis) were two closely related bird species, the North Island Adzebill (Aptornis otidiformis Owen 1844) and the South Island Adzebill (Aptornis defossor Owen 1871) of the extinct family Aptornithidae (Mantell 1848).
In life the adzebills were massive gruiforms, the size of small moa (with which they were initially confused with on their discovery) with enormous downward pointed bill.
The adzebills were never as common as the moa, and subjected to the same hunting pressure as the moa and other large birds by the settling Polynesians, they went extinct before the arrival of European explorers.
  More results at FactBites »



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