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Encyclopedia > Adyghe
Adyghe
Total population 600,000 - 700,000
Regions with significant populations Russia:
   200,000
Turkey, Jordan, Israel, FYR Macedonia, Lebanon, Syria, United States
Language Adyghe language, Russian, Turkish
Religion Sunni Islam, Shamanism, Russian Orthodoxy
Related ethnic groups Kabardin, other "Circassian" peoples

The Adyghe or Adygs are a people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Adygeya (23 %) (now a constituent republic of the Russian Federation) and Karachay-Cherkessia (11 %) (where they are named as "Cherkess"). Shapsigh Autonomous District, an autonomous district founded for Shapsigh (or Shapsugh) tribe living on the Black Sea coast was abolished in 1943. Kabardin of Kabardino-Balkaria (along with Besleney tribe) who speak the Kabardian language are often conceived as the eastern branch of Adyghe. While Adyghe is the name this people apply to themselves, in the West they are often known as the Circassians, a term which can also apply to a broader group of peoples in the North Caucasus. Their language is also referred to as Adyghe or Adygeyan. Besleney speak a dialect of Kabardian. Adyghe (адыгэбзэ adygebze, adÉ™găbză) is one of the two official languages of the Federal Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves). ... The term Circassians is term derived from the Turkic Cherkess, and is not the self-designation of any people. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... The Republic of Adygea (Russian: Респу́блика Адыге́я; Adyghe: Адыгэ Республик) is a Russian Federation (a republic) enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. ... The Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia (Russian: Карача́ево-Черке́сская респу́блика, or, less formal, Карача́ево-Черке́ссия) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... An autonomous region or autonomous district is a subnational region with special powers of self-rule. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves). ... The Kabardino-Balkar Republic or Kabardino-Balkaria (Russian: ; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ; Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic), located in the northern Caucasus. ... The Kabardian language is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Russia, Jordan and Turkey. ... The term Circassians is term derived from the Turkic Cherkess, and is not the self-designation of any people. ... Adyghe (адыгэбзэ adygebze, adÉ™găbză) is one of the two official languages of the Federal Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. ... The Kabardian language is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Russia, Jordan and Turkey. ...

Contents


History

The Adyghe first emerged as a coherent entity somewhere around the tenth century A.D., although references to them exist much earlier. They were never politically united, a fact which reduced their influence in the area and their ability to withstand periodic invasions from groups like the Mongols, Avars, Pechenegs, Huns, and Khazars. The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia, supposedly of proto-Mongolian Turkic stock, who migrated from eastern Asia into central and eastern Europe in the 6th century. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes, most likely of diverse origin with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century, the most famous being Attila the Hun. ... The site of the Khazar fortress at Sarkel. ...


This lack of unity eventually cost the Adyghe their independence, as they were slowly conquered by Russia in a series of wars and campaigns in the late 18th and early to mid-19th centuries. During this period, the Adyghe plight achieved a certain celebrity status in the West, but pledges of assistance were never fulfilled. After the Crimean War, Russia turned her attention to the Caucasus in earnest, starting with the peoples of Chechnya and Dagestan. In 1859, the Russians had finished defeating Imam Shamil in the eastern Caucasus, and turned their attention westward, finally subjugating the Adyghe in 1864. Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Second French Empire, Ottoman Empire, Kingdom of Sardinia Imperial Russia Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 1,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Imam Shamil of Chechnya Imam Shamil (1797 - March 1871) was an Avar political and religious leader of the Muslim tribes of the Northern Caucasus. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Like other ethnic minorities under Russian rule, the Adyghe were subjected to policies of mass resettlement. Collectivization under the Communists also took its toll. Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...


Culture

The Adyghe were a warlike people. Grown men were expected to carry arms, and boys trained to be warriors. Familial ties were not strongly encouraged; parents fostered their children to other adults rather than raising them themselves. The Adyghe society was once matriarchal. Women fought in war alongside their husbands. Although the society is no longer matriarchal, women still have a high place of respect and dignity. A matriarchy is a tradition (and by extension a form of government) in which community power lies with the eldest mother of a community. ...


Adyghe society prior to the Russian invasion was highly stratified. While a few tribes in the mountainous regions of Adygeya were fairly egalitarian, most were broken into strict castes. The highest was the caste of the "princes", followed by a caste of lesser nobility, and then commoners, serfs, and slaves. In the decades before Russian rule, two tribes overthrew their traditional rulers and set up democratic processes, but this social experiment was cut short by the end of Adyghe independence. Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social stratification, such as clans, gentes, or the Indian caste system. ...


Today most Adyghe speak Russian and/or the original Adyghe language, a member of the Northwest Caucasian (Circassian) language family. Both languages are written with the Cyrillic alphabet. Adyghe (адыгэбзэ adygebze, adəgăbză) is one of the two official languages of the Federal Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. ... The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic or Abkhaz-Adyg/Circassian, are a group of languages spoken in Caucasian Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Kabardino-Balkaria (an autonomous republic in Russia) and Abkhazia ( de facto independent formally an autonomous republic in Georgia). ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


The primary religion among modern Adyghe is Sunni Islam. Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ...


The main Adyghe tribes are: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedugh;, Hatukuay, Kemirgoy, Makhosh;, Natekuay, Shapsigh;, Zhane, Yegerikuay, Besleney. Most Adyghe living in Caucasia are Bzhedugh and Kemirgoy, while the majority in diaspora are Abzekh and Shapsigh. Standard Adyghe language is based on Kemirgoy dialect. Look up Diaspora in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Diaspora

Adyghe have lived outside the Caucasus region since the Middle Ages. They formed a tradition of joining foreign armies, including those of Persia, Rome, Byzantium, and the Golden Horde. They were particularly well represented in the Mamluks of Turkey and Egypt. In fact, the Burji dynasty which ruled Egypt from 1382 to 1517 was founded by Adyghe Mamluks. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This article refers to the medieval Turkic state. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... The Burji dynasty ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Emperor Go-Komatsu ascends to the throne of Japan John Wyclifs teachings are condemned by the Synod of London. ... // 1517 Nothing Actuall 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 151== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517...


Much of Adyghe culture was disrupted after their conquest by Russia in 1864. This led to a diaspora of the peoples of the northwest Caucasus, mostly to various parts of the Ottoman Empire. The largest Adyghe diaspora community today is in Turkey, especially in Samsun, Balıkesir, Sakarya, and Düzce. Significant communities live in Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Israel (in the villages of Kfar-Kama and Rikhaniya), Libya, FYR Macedonia, and the United States (Upstate New York and New Jersey). The small community in Kosovo expatriated to Adygea in 1998. [1] A number of Adyghe were introduced to Bulgaria in 1864-1865 but most fled after it became separate from the Ottoman Empire in 1878. Today, their number in Bulgaria is estimated at around 1,300. 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Look up Diaspora in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... Shows the Location of the Province Samsun Samsun is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast with a population of 1,209,137 (2000). ... shows the Location of the Province Balıkesir Balıkesir is a province in midwestern Turkey, having shorelines on both Marmara and the Aegean seas. ... Sakarya is a province of Turkey and is located in the Marmara region. ... shows the Location of the Province Düzce Düzce is a province in northwestern Turkey. ... Kfar-Kama is located in the Galilee, Israel. ... Upstate New York is the region of New York State outside of the core of the New York metropolitan area. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The Republic of Adygea (Russian: ; Adyghe: Адыгэ Республик) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic) enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


References

  • Amjad Jaimoukha, The Circassians: A Handbook, New York: Palgrave, 2001; London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2001. ISBN 0-312-23994-7

External links

  • Circassian World
  • Adiga.com
  • Map of the Diaspora

  Results from FactBites:
 
Adyghe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (743 words)
While Adyghe is the name this people apply to themselves, in the West they are often known as the Circassians, a term which can also apply to a broader group of peoples in the North Caucasus.
This lack of unity eventually cost the Adyghe their independence, as they were slowly conquered by Russia in a series of wars and campaigns in the late 18th and early to mid-19th centuries.
Most Adyghe living in Caucasia are Bzhedugh and Kemirgoy, while the majority in diaspora are Abzekh and Shapsigh.
Adyghe language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (306 words)
Adyghe (адыгэбзэ adygebze, adəgăbză) is one of the two official languages of the Federal Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian.
Adyghe exhibits a large number of consonants: between fifty and sixty consonants in the various Adyghe dialects.
Adyghe, like all Northwest Caucasian languages, has a basic subject-object-verb typology, and is characterized by an ergative construction of the sentence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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