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Encyclopedia > Advocacy journalism
Topics in Journalism.
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Journalism is a discipline of collecting, verifying, analyzing and presenting information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. ... Journalism ethics and standards include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. ... News values determine how much prominence a news story is given by a media outlet. ... Objectivity is frequently held to be essential to proper journalism (particularly in the United States); however, there is some disagreement about what the concept consists of. ... In journalism attribution is the identification of the source of reported information. ... Source is a term used in journalism to refer to any individual from whom information about a story has been received. ... News is essentially new information or current events. ... Investigative journalism is a kind of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a topic of interest, often related to crime, scandals, government corruption, or white collar crime. ... A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... News style is the prose style of short, front-page newspaper stories and the news bulletins that air on radio and television. ... Business journalism includes coverage of companies, the workplace, personal finance, and economics, including unemployment and other economic indicators. ... Citizen journalism, also known as participatory journalism, is the act of citizens playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information, according to the seminal report We Media: How Audiences are Shaping the Future of News and Information, by Shayne Bowman and Chris... As long as there has been media there has been alternative media. ... Science journalism is a relatively new branch of journalism, which utilizes the art of reporting to convey information on science topics to a public forum. ... List of journalism topics A-D AP Stylebook Arizona Republic Associated Press Bar chart Canadian Association of Journalists Chart Citizen journalism Committee to Protect Journalists Conservative bias Copy editing Desktop publishing E-J Editor Freedom of the press Graphic design Hedcut Headline Headlinese Hostile media effect House style Information graphic... List of books related to journalism: The Art of Editing, by Floyd K. Baskette, Jack Z. Scissors, Brian S. Brooks Designing Infographics The Elements of Journalism What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect, by Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel Infographics, by James Glen Stovall Media Management in the...

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Propaganda model Infotainment or soft news, refers to a general type of news media broadcast program which either provides a combination of current events news and entertainment programming, or an entertainment program structured in a news format. ... Celebrity news is an aspect of the wider infotainment/news trade which focuses on celebrities and celebrity gossip. ... Infotainers are entertainers in infotainment media, such as news anchors or news personalities who cross the line between journalism (quasi-journalism) and entertainment within the broader news trade. ... Infotainment or soft news, refers to a part of the wider news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers, as evident by attraction of a higher market demographic. ... Distorted news or planted news are terms in journalism for two deviated aspects of the wider news media wherein media outlets deliberately present false data, evidence, or sources as factual, in contradiction to the ethical practices in professional journalism. ... Public relations person, using a fictitious name, appears in U.S. Government Transportation Security Administration video news release on airport security (screenshot) A video news release (VNR) is a public relations or a propaganda technique whereby a video or radio program is produced, edited and distributed to various media outlets... Yellow journalism is a term given to any widespread tendencies or practices within media organizations that are detrimental to, or substandard from the point of view of, journalistic integrity. ... Public relations is, simply-stated, the art and science of building relationships between an organization and its key audiences. ... The propaganda model is a theory of political economy advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that seeks to explain the supposed systemic political biases of the mass media in terms of structural economic causes. ...

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Online & Blogging News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... A collection of magazines A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising and/or purchase by readers. ... A news agency is an of organization journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... Broadcast journalism refers to television news and radio news, as well as the online news outlets of broadcast affiliates. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A blog is a website in which journal entries are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. ...

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Journalists, Reporters, Editors, Anchors, Photojournalists, Visual journalists The terms news trade or news business refers to news-related organizations in the mass media (or information media) as a business entity —associated with but distinct from the profession of journalism. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... An Editor is a person who prepares text—typically language, but also images and sounds—for publication by correcting, condensing, or otherwise modifying it. ... NBC news anchor Tom Brokaw A news presenter is, broadly speaking, a person that presents a news show on television, radio or the Internet. ... Sports photojournalists at Indianapolis Motor Speedway Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. ...

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Advocacy journalism is a genre of journalism which is strongly fact-based, but may seek to support a point-of-view in some public or private sector issue. Corporate crime, government criticism, corruption and social issues are frequent topics of interest. In this way, advocacy journalists serve the public interest in a similar way to muckrakers. A genre is a division of a particular form of art according to criteria particular to that form. ... Journalism is a discipline of collecting, verifying, analyzing and presenting information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. ... The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the government, whether national, regional or local/municipal. ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of those entities which are not controlled by the state - i. ... Public interest is a term used to denote political movements and organizations that are in the public interest—supporting general public and civic causes, in opposition of private and corporate ones (particularistic goals). ... McClures Magazine (cover, Jan, 1901) published many early muckraker articles. ...


A hypothetical example of advocacy journalism

  • In Anytown, USA, there is public conflict regarding opposition and support for building a large power plant. A local print or electronic media outlet opposed to the plant presents a five part series strongly accenting negative consequences the power plant has for the town. The news outlet reports on the criminal activity of the builder, conflicts of interest between the builder and local politicians, and negative environmental impacts. It gives coverage to local demonstrations and town meetings. The news media outlet presents facts in a compelling, well-researched manner.

Traditionally, advocacy and criticism are restricted to editorial and op-ed pages: a fire-wall exists between the editorial section and the newsroom. The Wall Street Journal, for example, has a policy of strict separation between the news desk and the editorial board; most major print and electronic news outlets do as well. However, advocacy journalism describes journalism that crosses the line, in which one may observe subtle or obvious editorializing in reports. Even a television news presenter's facial expression, or a radio broadcaster's tone of voice, or other nuance, is interpreted as lending an opinion to what is being reported. Publishing is the industry of the production of literature or information - the activity of putting information for public view. ... Electronic media are those communications mediums which are based on electronic or electromechanical means of production and most often distinguished from print media. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... Conflicts of Interest is an episode from the fourth season of the science-fiction television series Babylon 5. ... The natural environment comprises all living and non-living things that occur naturally on Earth. ... News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... An editorial is a statement or article by a news organization (generally a newspaper) that expresses an opinion rather than attempting to simply report news, as the latter should ideally be done without bias. ... An Op-Ed is a piece of writing expressing an opinion. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with a worldwide average daily circulation of more than 2. ...


Advocacy journalism is often practiced by a broad range of alternative media and special interest publications and programs. Many of these media outlets have clearly defined political and editorial positions. The genre may apply to a single article in a publication, such as political stories in Rolling Stone; there are also "advocacy journals", or "alternative publications", which are marketed to target groups based on their interests or biases, for example: A genre is a division of a particular form of art according to criteria particular to that form. ... The Rolling Stone logo, designed by Rick Griffin. ...

Contents

Publishing is the industry of the production of literature or information - the activity of putting information for public view. ... The Spotlight was a weekly newspaper in the United States, published from 1975 to 2001 by a now-defunct organization called Liberty Lobby. ... The Nation is the name of several newspapers, periodicals or magazines in different countries, including: The Nation, an Irish Nationalist newspaper founded by Thomas Davis and Charles Gavan Duffy in the 1840s. ... National Review (NR) is a conservative political magazine founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... Mother Jones Mary Harris Jones (August 1, 1830 – November 30, 1930), better known as Mother Jones, was a prominent American labor and community organizer. ... Cover from the August 30th, 2004 issue. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication of The Economist Newspaper Limited in London. ... The Weekly Standard is an American conservative political magazine published 48 times per year. ... Electronic media are those communications mediums which are based on electronic or electromechanical means of production and most often distinguished from print media. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rachel Maddow is a lesbian -liberal political activist and the host of The Rachel Maddow Show on Air America Radio, which airs live weekdays from 5am to 6am Eastern Time. ... Rush Limbaugh. ...


Advocacy journalism and U.S. media bias

Related articles: Journalism ethics and standards, Media bias, Public relations

In the United States, Advocacy journalism is part of the nomenclature of questions related to debate over systemic media bias in domestic media. Investigative reporter Greg Palast has said there is "an electronic Berlin Wall that surrounds the United States," with regard to certain political stories, such as the U.S. Presidential election of 2000. In 2005, the board of PBS debated Advocacy journalism with regard to its programs, and subsequently reduced time and funding for the program Now with Bill Moyers, and expanded a show hosted by Tucker Carlson. Journalism ethics and standards include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. ... Media bias is a term used to describe a real or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media, in the selection of which events will be reported and how they are covered. ... Public relations is, simply-stated, the art and science of building relationships between an organization and its key audiences. ... Nomenclature is a system of naming and categorizing objects in a given category. ... Media bias is a term used to describe a real or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media, in the selection of which events will be reported and how they are covered. ... Investigative journalism is a branch of journalism that usually concentrates on a very specific topic, and typically requires a lot of work to yield results. ... Greg Palast is a New York Times-bestselling author and a journalist for the British Broadcasting Corporation as well as the British newspaper The Observer. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Now can mean: The Present (time) Network of Workstations Now (Steve Roach) NOW - the National Organization for Women Now Thats What I Call Music! (often shorted to Now!) - a set of compilation albums NOW - alternative weekly newspaper in Toronto, Ontario NOW, formerly NOW with Bill Moyers, a newsmagazine on... Bill Moyers William Daniel Moyers (born June 5, 1934) is an American journalist and public commentator. ... Tucker Carlson Tucker Swanson McNear Carlson (born May 16, 1969) is a libertarian-leaning conservative pundit best known as a former co-host for CNNs Crossfire, representing the right. ...


In the U.S., complex national and global issues are often covered with the use of simple, key terms (examples: War on Terrorism, Terry Schiavo, Liberals, Conservatives, Neo-Cons, Weapons of mass destruction, Plame affair, Iran-Contra Affair, Watergate). In these situations, reports are labeled "Advocacy journalism" by their subjects with the intent to dismiss the news report, attempting to relegate it to a dismissable report using an ad hominem argument. In other words, journalists and the public may observe a key figure dismiss a report as "advocacy journalism to cast doubt on the integrity of the reporter or the news media outlet it came from. The War on Terrorism or War on Terror (in U.S. foreign policy circles, the global war on terrorism or GWOT ) is a controversial campaign by the United States government and some of its allies with the stated goal of ending worldwide terrorism by stopping terrorist groups and ending state... Terri Schiavo before her 1990 collapse. ... In politics, the term liberal refers to: an adherent of the ideology of liberalism or a state or quality of this ideology. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the name of rapper Xzibits 2004 album. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... A TIME Magazine cover of Oliver North testifying in front of the U.S. Congress. ... The Watergate building. ... News is essentially new information or current events. ... An ad hominem argument, also known as argumentum ad hominem (Latin, literally argument to the man) or attacking the messenger, is a logical fallacy that involves replying to an argument or assertion by attacking the person presenting the argument or assertion rather than the argument itself. ... News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ...


In some instances a publication or journalist specifically advocates a particular political figure as part of the staff of a publication, such as Judith Miller's advocacy of the president's position that Iraq had Weapons of mass destruction. There are also paid-for propaganda campaigns, such as Armstrong Williams': he was paid to support the No Child Left Behind education plan of President Bush. Judith Miller (born January 2, 1948) was a writer for The New York Times. ... Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ... Armstrong Williams (born February 5, 1959) is an African American political commentator. ... Signing ceremony at Hamilton High School in Hamilton, Ohio. ...


The U.S. government has also made use of video news releases in covert domestic propaganda campaigns. In 2004 and 2005, Jeff Gannon was given access to the whitehouse press corps with the intent that he ask questions crafted to assist the whitehouse spokesperson, Scott McClellan, and the president, to give favorable answers which were understood to be the answer to be used by media outlets advocating the Whitehouse's overall public relations plan. This is also an example of advocacy journalism. Public relations person, using a ficticious name, appears in U.S. Government Transportation Security Administration video news release on airport security (screenshot) A video news release (VNR) is a public relations or a propaganda technique whereby a video or radio program is produced, edited and distributed to various media outlets... Soviet propaganda poster from the Great Patriotic War depicting the victory of war hero General Georgi Zhukov over Nazi Germany. ... James Guckert, a. ... Scott McClellan in the press room of the White House Scott McClellan (born 1968 in Austin, Texas) is the current White House Press Secretary for President George W. Bush. ...


Perspectives from advocacy journalists

One writer for the " alternative" journalism collaborative, the Independent Media Center, writes the following in a call to action: Alternative media are defined most broadly as those media practices falling outside the mainstreams of corporate communication. ... Indymedia Logo The Independent Media Center (aka Indymedia or the IMC) started as a vision for a global, open network of DIY journalists and alternative media activists. ...

Classic tenets of journalism call for objectivity and neutrality. These are antiquated principles no longer universally observed.... We must absolutely not feel bound by them. If we are ever to create meaningful change, advocacy journalism will be the single most crucial element to enable the necessary organizing. It is therefore very important that we learn how to be successful advocacy journalists. For many, this will require a different way of identifying and pursuing goals.1

In an April 2000 address to the Canadian Association of Journalists, Sue Careless gave the following commentary and advice to advocacy journalists, which seeks to establish a common view of what journalistic standards the genre should follow.2 This article is about the year 2000. ... Journalistic standards or journalism ethics, include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. ...

  • Acknowledge your perspective up front.
  • Be truthful, accurate, and credible. Don't spread propaganda, don't take quotes or facts out of context, "don't fabricate or falsify", and "don't fudge or suppress vital facts or present half-truths"
  • Don't give your opponents equal time, but don't ignore them, either.
  • Explore arguments that challenge your perspective, and report embarrassing facts that support the opposition. Ask critical questions of people who agree with you.
  • Avoid slogans, ranting, and polemics. Instead, "articulate complex issues clearly and carefully."
  • Be fair and thorough.
  • Make use of neutral sources to establish facts.

Sue Careless also criticized the mainstream media for unbalanced and politically biased coverage, for economic conflicts of interest, and for neglecting certain public causes. She said that alternative publications have advantages in independence, focus, and access, which make them more effective public-interest advocates than the mainstream media. Mass media is the term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...


History

The Crisis, the official magazine of the NAACP, was founded in 1910. It describes itself as inheriting the tradition of advocacy journalism from Freedom's Journal, [1], which began in 1827 as "the first African-American owned and operated newspaper published in the United States."[2] A 1911 copy of the NAACP journal The Crisis depicting Ra-Maat-Neb, one of the black kings of the Upper Nile. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ...


Muckrakers are often claimed as the professional ancestors of modern advocacy journalists; for example: Nellie Bly, Ida M. Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, Upton Sinclair, George Seldes, and I.F. Stone. In American English, a muckraker is a journalist or an author who searches for and exposes scandals and abuses occurring in business and politics. ... Elizabeth Jane Cochran (May 5, 1864 - January 27, 1922), born in Cochrans Mills, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, forty miles northeast of Pittsburgh. ... Ida Tarbell. ... Joseph Lincoln Steffens (April 6, 1866–August 9, 1936), American journalist, was one of the most famous and influential practitioners of the journalistic style called muckraking. ... Upton Beall Sinclair (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968)was a prolific American author who wrote in many genres, often advocating Socialist views, and achieved considerable popularity in the first half of the twentieth century. ... George Seldes (November 16, 1890 – July 2, 1995) was an influential American investigative journalist and media critic. ... Isador Feinstein Stone (better known as I.F. Stone) (December 24, 1907 – July 17, 1989) was an iconoclastic American investigative journalist best known for his influential political newsletter, . Stone was born in Philadelphia. ...


Objectivity

Main article: Objectivity (journalism)

Advocacy journalists may reject the principle of objectivity in their work for several different reasons. Objectivity is frequently held to be essential to proper journalism (particularly in the United States); however, there is some disagreement about what the concept consists of. ...


Many believe that there is no such thing as objective reporting, that there will always be some form of implicit bias, whether political, personal, or metaphysical, whether intentional or subconscious. This is not necessarily a rejection of the existence of an objective reality, merely a statement about our inability to report on it in a value-free fashion. This may sound like a radical idea, but many mainstream journalists accept the philosophical idea that pure "objectivity" is impossible, but still seek to minimize bias in their work. Other journalistic standards, such as balance, and neutrality, may be used to describe a more practical kind of "objectivity". Journalistic standards or journalism ethics, include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. ...


"Alternative" critics often charge that the mainstream's media claims of being "bias free" are harmful because they paper over inevitable (often subconscious) biases. They also argue that media sources claiming to be free of bias often advance certain political ideas which are disguised in a so-called "objective" viewpoint. Critics may contend that the mainstream media reinforce majority-held ideas, marginalizing dissent and harming the larger political and cultural discourse.


The proposed solution is to make biases explicit, with the intention of promoting transparency and self-awareness that better serves media consumers. Advocacy journalists often assume that their audiences will share their biases (especially in politically charged alternative media), or will at least be conscious of them while evaluating what are supposed to be well-researched and persuasive arguments.


Some who believe that objective (or balanced, neutral, etc.) reporting is possible, or that it is a laudable goal, do not find that striving for objectivity is always an appropriate goal, perhaps depending on the publication and the purpose at hand. For example, it might be argued that when attempting to expose a waste, corruption, or abuse, a neutral position would "get in the way" of the exposition, and a "bias" against this kind of criminal activity would be quite acceptable to the intended audience.


Many advocacy journalists claim that they can reject objectivity while holding on to the goals of fairness and accuracy, and claim that corporate journalists often lack both.


Investigative reporting

In some instances, advocacy journalism is the same as investigative journalism and muckraking, where these serve the public interest and the public's right to know. Investigative reports often focus on criminal or unethical activity, or aim to advance a generally accepted public interest, such as government accountability, alleviation of human suffering, etc. It might be argued that the journalist is assuming a point of view that public action is warranted to change the situation being described. Investigative journalism is a kind of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a topic of interest, often related to crime, scandals, government corruption, or white collar crime. ... McClures Magazine (cover, Jan, 1901) published many early muckraker articles. ... Public interest is a term used to denote political movements and organizations that are in the public interest—supporting general public and civic causes, in opposition of private and corporate ones (particularistic goals). ... Ethics (from Greek ethikos) is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ...


Criticism of advocacy journalism

Professional journalists and members of the public critical of the term assert that with the sacrifice of a measure of journalist objectivity you have bad journalism: reporting that does not serve the public interest. This is essentially editorializing or sensationalizing on the news pages or during electronic news media presentations. The editorializing is not announced but only advocated by the intrinsic structure of the report.


The term might also indicate a serious breach of journalistic canons and standards, such as rumor mongering, yellow journalism, sensationalism or other ethically flawed reportage — for example, the 2004 revelations created by a press leak in the Plame affair, where a leak was used to help an office holder's political position. Journalism ethics and standards include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. ... Yellow journalism is a term given to any widespread tendencies or practices within media organizations that are detrimental to, or substandard from the point of view of, journalistic integrity. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Some fear the activity of advocacy journalists will be harmful to the reputation of the mainstream press as an objective, reliable source of information. Another concern is that undiscriminating readers will accept the facts and opinions advanced in advocacy pieces as if they were objective and representative, becoming unknowingly and perhaps dangerously misinformed as a result. Mass media is the term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ...


Advocacy journalists vary in their response to these criticisms. Some believe that mainstream and "alternative" outlets serve different purposes, and sometimes different audiences entirely, and that the difference is readily apparent to the public. Many believe that the mainstream press is not an objective and reliable source of information, and so doesn't deserve the reputation it seeks to maintain.


See also

Howell Raines was Executive Editor of The New York Times from 2001 until his resignation following the Jayson Blair scandal in 2003. ...

External links

Groups

  • The NYC Grassroots Media Coalition seeks to "organize for increased resources for local communities and for media advocacy."

History

  • "The Revolution in Journalism with an Emphasis on the 1960's and 1970's" by Belinda Carberry. [3] Brief history of alternative journalistic forms, including references for further reading. Designed for use by high school teachers. From the Haven Teachers Institute.
  • "Cornel West: The Uses of Advocacy Journalism". The Tavis Smiley Show, 15 Dec 2004. "Commentator Cornel West and NPR's Tavis Smiley discuss the notion of advocacy journalism in America, in the tradition of W.E.B. Dubois, I. F. Stone and Ida B. Wells." [4] RealAudio or Windows Media audio program.
  • "A Brief History of American Alternative Journalism in the Twentieth Century." By Randolph T. Holhut. [5]

W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist, sociologist, historian, writer, editor, poet, freemason, and scholar. ... I.F. Stone Credit: Burnt Pixel / Keith Jenkins Isador Feinstein Stone (better known as I.F. Stone) (December 24, 1907 – July 17, 1989) was an iconoclastic American investigative journalist best known for his influential political newsletter, . Stone was born in Philadelphia. ... Ida Wells-Barnett Ida B. Wells, (July 16, 1862 – March 25, 1931), later known as Ida Wells-Barnett, was an African-American civil rights advocate, and led a strong cause against lynching. ...

Criticism of advocacy journalism

  • "Critical scan reveals that advocacy journalism is rampant" by Charles W. Moore. The New Brunswick Telegraph Journal 2004.06.29 [6]. This article criticizes the mainstream Canadian press for engaging in "advocacy journalism" on behalf of liberal causes.
  • "The sorry state of American journalism" by Dennis Campbell. October 7, 2003. [7] Criticizes "advocacy journalism" of all political stripes as "opinion disguised as news" and "propagandizing". Identifies "advocacy journalism" as a post-Watergate phenomenon.

References

  1. "Advocacy Journalism, The Least You Can Do, and The No Confidence Movement." Dave Berman, 29 Jun 2004. Independent Media Center. [8]
  2. "Advocacy journalism" by Sue Careless. The Interim, May 2000. [9] Rules and advice for advocacy journalists.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Advocacy journalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1813 words)
Advocacy journalism is a genre of journalism which is strongly fact-based, but may seek to support a point-of-view in some public or private sector issue.
In these situations, reports are labeled "Advocacy journalism" by their subjects with the intent to dismiss the news report, attempting to relegate it to a dismissable report using an ad hominem argument.
Advocacy journalists often assume that their audiences will share their biases (especially in politically charged alternative media), or will at least be conscious of them while evaluating what are supposed to be well-researched and persuasive arguments.
Media Magazine - Spring 1999 (2002 words)
Journalism's achievements in Vietnam and Watergate were, in fact, part of an assault on the virtues of autonomo us professionalism held up as the standard in the trustee model.
Inside journalism, there was the New Journalism, the entrance of a personal voice in writing, alternative journals, investigative reporting teams, and other developments designed to free up a rigid pattern of reporting that trusted far too naively in the statements of gover nment officials.
Some elite journal ists have responded hysterically to this notion, as if the public journalists were inviting the mobs into the newsroom, or at least the pollsters and the focus groups (as if they were not already there!).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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