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Encyclopedia > Advertising

Contents

Headline text

Marketing
Key concepts

Product / Price / Promotion
Placement / Service / Retail
Market research
Marketing strategy
Marketing management
Market dominance
Look up advert in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Scale model of a Wheaties cereal box at a pep rally Promotion is one of the four key aspects of the marketing mix. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... Market research is the process of systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data about customers, competitors and the market. ... A marketing strategy[1] [2] is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Marketing management is a business discipline focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a firms marketing resources and activities. ... Market dominance is a measure of the strength of a brand, product, service, or firm, relative to competitive offerings. ...

Promotional content

Advertising / Branding
Direct marketing / Personal Sales
Product placement / Public relations
Publicity / Sales promotion
Underwriting For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Direct marketing is a discipline within marketing that involves contacting individual customers (business-to-business or consumer) directly and obtaining their responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships. ... Sales are the activities involved in providing products or services in return for money or other compensation. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Product placement advertisements are promotional ads placed by marketers using real commercial products and services in media, where the presence of a particular brand is the result of an economic exchange. ... // Dictionary. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Look up publicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Sales promotion is one of the four aspects of promotional mix. ... An underwriting spot is an announcement made on public broadcasting outlets, especially in the United States, in exchange for funding. ...

Promotional media

Printing / Publication / Broadcasting
Out-of-home / Internet marketing
Point of sale / Novelty items
Digital marketing / In-game
Word of mouth
For other uses, see Print. ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Out-of-home advertising (also referred to as OOH) is essentially all type of advertising that reaches the consumer while he or she is outside the home. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Internet marketing, also referred to as online marketing or Emarketing, is the marketing of products or services over the Internet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Promotional items or promotional products refers to articles of merchandise that are used in marketing and communication programs. ... Digital Marketing refers to the practice of marketing services, products and other items using digital tools and techniques that have appeared relatively recently since the rise of the Internet as a mainstream communications platform. ... In-game advertising (IGA) refers to the use of computer and video games as a medium in which to deliver advertising. ... Word-of-mouth marketing is a term used in the marketing and advertising industry to describe activities that companies undertake to generate personal recommendations as well as referrals for brand names, products and services. ...

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Advertising is a form of communication whose purpose is to inform potential customers about products and services and how to obtain and use them. Many advertisements are also designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinforcement of brand image and brand loyalty. For these purposes advertisements often contain both factual information and persuasive messages. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including: television, radio, movies, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet (see Internet advertising), and billboards. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company. In this Internet world of ours, people are joining programs without achieving success. ...


Advertisements can also be seen on the seats of grocery carts, on the walls of an airport walkway, on the sides of buses, heard in telephone hold messages and in-store public address systems. Advertisements are usually placed anywhere an audience can easily and/or frequently access visuals and/or audio and print School public address system A public address or PA system is an electronic amplification system with a mixer, amplifier and loudspeakers, used to reinforce a given sound (e. ...


Organizations which frequently spend large sums of money on advertising but do not strictly sell a product or service to the general public include: political parties, interest groups, religion-supporting organizations, and militaries looking for new recruits. Additionally, some non-profit organizations are not typical advertising clients and rely upon free channels, such as public service announcements. “Electioneering” redirects here. ... This article is about political advocates. ... Religious activities generally need some infrastructure to be conducted. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... A public service announcement or PSA is a non-commercial advertisement—typically on U.S. or Canadian radio or television, broadcast for the public good. ...


Advertising spending has increased dramatically in recent years. In the United States alone in 2006, spending on advertising reached $155 billion, reported TNS Media Intelligence.[1] That same year, according to a report titled Global Entertainment and Media Outlook: 2006-2010[2] issued by global accounting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers, worldwide advertising spending was $385 billion. The accounting firm's report projected worldwide advertisement spending to exceed half-a-trillion dollars by 2010.


While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without social costs. Unsolicited Commercial Email and other forms of spam have become so prevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users of these services, as well as being a financial burden on internet service providers.[3] Advertising is increasingly invading public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation.[4][5] World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Social cost, in economics, is the total of all the costs associated with an economic activity. ... A typical spam advertisement Spam by e-mail is one type of spamming that involves sending identical or nearly identical messages to thousands (or millions) of recipients. ... This article is about electronic spam. ... An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a business or organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ...


History

Black-figured lekythos with the inscription: “buy me and you'll get a good bargain”, ca. 550 BC, Louvre
Black-figured lekythos with the inscription: “buy me and you'll get a good bargain”, ca. 550 BC, Louvre

Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of ancient Arabia. Egyptians used papyrus to create sales messages and wall posters, while lost-and-found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock-art paintings that date back to 4000 BCE.[6] As printing developed in the 15th and 16th century, advertising expanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote: books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2300x2080, 3551 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Advertising Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2300x2080, 3551 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Advertising Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... The black-figure pottery technique is a style of ancient Greek pottery painting in which the decoration appears as black silhouettes on a red background. ... Theseus and the Marathonian bull, white-ground lekythos, ca. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... This article is about the museum. ... An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). ... “Electioneering” redirects here. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... Lost And Found is a Christian rock band from the United States. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Rock art is a term in archaeology for any man-made markings made on natural stone. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pietro Longhi: The Charlatan, 1757 Quackery is a derogatory term used to describe unscientific medical practices. ...

Edo period advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called Kinseitan
Edo period advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called Kinseitan

As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In 1841, the first advertising agency was established by Volney Palmer in Boston. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. N. W. Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayer opened in 1875, and was located in Philadelphia. At the turn of the century, there were few career choices for women in business; however, advertising was one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in their household, advertisers and agencies recognised the value of women's insight during the creative process. In fact, the first American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman – for a soap product. Although tame by today's standards, the advertisement featured a couple with the message "The skin you love to touch". Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1405x1786, 832 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Advertising ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1405x1786, 832 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Advertising ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for its clients. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... N. W. Ayer & Son was the first advertising agency in the United States, founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1869. ...

A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the Encyclopædia Britannica
A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the Encyclopædia Britannica

When radio stations began broadcasting in the early 1920s, the programs were however nearly exploded. This was so because the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and civic groups.[7] When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularised, each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored shows. However, radio station owners soon realised they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio station's broadcasts, rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show. This practice was carried over to television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. A fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialise the radio and people who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of the commons – to be used only non-commercially and for the public good. The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC, originally a private company but incorporated as a public body by Royal Charter in 1927. In Canada, advocates like Graham Spry were likewise able to persuade the federal government to adopt a public funding model. However, in the United States, the capitalist model prevailed with the passage of the 1934 Communications Act which created the Federal Communications Commission.[8] To placate the socialists, the U.S. Congress did require commercial broadcasters to operate in the "public interest, convenience, and necessity".[9] Nevertheless, public radio does exist in the United States of America. In the early 1950s, the Dumont television network began the modern trend of selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Previously, Dumont had trouble finding sponsors for many of their programs and compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses. This eventually became the norm for the commercial television industry in the United States. However, it was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows, such as the U.S. Steel Hour. In some instances the sponsors exercised great control over the content of the show - up to and including having one's advertising agency actually writing the show. The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now, a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame. Modified version of Image:EncycBrit1913. ... Modified version of Image:EncycBrit1913. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... Graham Spry (February 20, 1900 - November 24, 1983) was a Canadian intellectual, political activist, business executive and socialist. ... The Communications Act of 1934 was a United States federal law enacted as Public Law Number 416, Act of June 19, 1934, ch. ... FCC redirects here. ...


The 1960s saw advertising transform into a modern approach in which creativity was allowed to shine, producing unexpected messages that made advertisements more tempting to consumers' eyes. The Volkswagen ad campaign--featuring such headlines as "Think Small" and "Lemon" (which were used to describe the appearance of the car)--ushered in the era of modern advertising by promoting a "position" or "unique selling proposition" designed to associate each brand with a specific idea in the reader or viewer's mind. This period of American advertising is called the Creative Revolution and its poster boy was Bill Bernbach who helped create the revolutionary Volkswagen ads among others. Some of the most creative and long-standing American advertising dates to this incredibly creative period. VW redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Public advertising on Times Square, New York City.
Public advertising on Times Square, New York City.

The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. Pioneering the concept of the music video, MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in for the advertising message, rather than it being a byproduct or afterthought. As cable and satellite television became increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged, including channels entirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC, Home Shopping Network, and ShopTV. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 1024 pixel, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Advertising ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 1024 pixel, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Advertising ... For other uses, see Times Square (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ... A music video is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ... For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation). ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... QVC is a West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA, multinational corporation, specialising in televised home shopping. ... The Home Shopping Network (HSN) is a mostly 24-hour shopping network that is seen on cable, satellite, and some terrestrial channels in the United States. ...


Marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century, a number of websites including the search engine Google, started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant, unobtrusive ads intended to help, rather than inundate, users. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising. The dot-com bubble was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 during which stock markets in Western nations saw their value increase rapidly from growth in the new Internet sector and related fields. ... A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. ... This article is about the corporation. ... Interactive Advertising is the use of interactive media to promote and/or influence the buying decisions of the consumer in an online and offline environment. ...


The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in media. For example, in the U.S. in 1925, the main advertising media were newspapers, magazines, signs on streetcars, and outdoor posters. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2.9%. By 1998, television and radio had become major advertising media. Nonetheless, advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower -- about 2.4%.[10] GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reading the newspaper: Brookgreen Gardens in Pawleys Island, South Carolina. ... This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... 1942 US government war poster. ...


A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla promotions", which involve unusual approaches such as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brand messages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message. This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and "embedded" ads, such as via product placement, having consumers vote through text messages, and various innovations utilizing social networking sites (e.g. MySpace). Guerrilla marketing, as described by Jay Conrad Levinson in his popular 1982 book Guerrilla Marketing, is an unconventional way of performing promotional activities on a very low budget. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Product placement advertisements are promotional ads placed by marketers using real commercial products and services in media, where the presence of a particular brand is the result of an economic exchange. ... A received SMS being announced on a Nokia phone. ... A social network is a map of the relationships between individuals, indicating the ways in which they are connected through various social familiarities ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds. ... MySpace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos. ...


Paul McManus, the Creative Director of TBWAEurope in the late 90's summed up advertising as being "...all about understanding. Understanding of the brand, the product or the service being offered and understanding of the people (their hopes and fears and needs) who are going to interact with it. Great advertising is the creative expression of that understanding."[citation needed]


Mobile Billboard Advertising

Mobile Billboards are flat-panel campaign units in which their sole purpose is to carry advertisements along dedicated routes selected by clients prior to the start of a campaign. Mobile Billboard companies do not typically carry third-party cargo or freight. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world, including:

  • Target advertising
  • One day, and long term campaigns
  • Convention
  • Sporting events
  • Store openings or other similar promotional events
  • Big advertisements from smaller companies

Public service advertising

The same advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and services can be used to inform, educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues, such as AIDS, political ideology, energy conservation, religious recruitment, and deforestation.


Advertising, in its non-commercial guise, is a powerful educational tool capable of reaching and motivating large audiences. "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest - it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes." - Attributed to Howard Gossage by David Ogilvy Cover David MacKenzie Ogilvy (June 23, 1911–July 21, 1999), was a notable advertising executive. ...


Public service advertising, non-commercial advertising, public interest advertising, cause marketing, and social marketing are different terms for (or aspects of) the use of sophisticated advertising and marketing communications techniques (generally associated with commercial enterprise) on behalf of non-commercial, public interest issues and initiatives. Cause marketing or cause-related marketing refers to a type of marketing involving the cooperative efforts of a for profit business and a non-profit organization for mutual benefit. ... Social marketing is the systematic application of marketing alongside other concepts and techniques to achieve specific behavioural goals for a social good. ...


In the United States, the granting of television and radio licenses by the FCC is contingent upon the station broadcasting a certain amount of public service advertising. To meet these requirements, many broadcast stations in America air the bulk of their required Public Service Announcements during the late night or early morning when the smallest percentage of viewers are watching, leaving more day and prime time commercial slots available for high-paying advertisers.


Public service advertising reached its height during World Wars I and II under the direction of several governments. Now in days, people average around 500 advertisements a day, found one researcher.


Types of advertising

Media

Paying people to hold signs is one of the oldest forms of advertising, as with this Human directional pictured above
Paying people to hold signs is one of the oldest forms of advertising, as with this Human directional pictured above
A bus with an advertisement for GAP in Singapore. Buses and other vehicles are popular mediums for advertisers.
A bus with an advertisement for GAP in Singapore. Buses and other vehicles are popular mediums for advertisers.
A DBAG Class 101 with UNICEF ads at Ingolstadt main railway station
A DBAG Class 101 with UNICEF ads at Ingolstadt main railway station


Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema and television ads, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches, human directional, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses or airplanes ("logojets"), taxicab doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, stickers on apples in supermarkets, the opening section of streaming audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising. Image File history File links Advertisingman. ... Image File history File links Advertisingman. ... A human directional A human directional/ Sign twirler is a person who can provide businesses with maxium exposure. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1070 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Advertising User:Advanced/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1070 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Advertising User:Advanced/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Autobus redirects here. ... Gap, Incorporated (NYSE: GPS) is an American clothing and accessories retailer based in San Francisco, California and founded in 1969 by Donald Fisher and Doris Fisher. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 667 pixel, file size: 389 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Advertising Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 667 pixel, file size: 389 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Advertising Metadata This file contains additional... DBAG Class 101 is a class of three-phase electric locomotives built by Adtranz and operated by DB Fernverkehr in Germany. ... Billboard redirects here. ... A 1990 hand-drawn flyer advertising a Goa trance party from Israel. ... A rack card is a document used for commercial advertising, frequently in convenience stores, hotels, landmarks, restaurants, rest areas and other locations that enjoy significant foot traffic. ... A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web. ... Dozens of pop-up ads cover a desktop. ... Skywriting is the process of using a small aircraft, able to expel special smoke during flight, to fly in certain patterns as to create writing readable by someone on the ground. ... A human directional A human directional/ Sign twirler is a person who can provide businesses with maxium exposure. ... A town crier is a person who is employed by a town council to make public announcements in the streets. ... A HLX Boeing 737 logojet A logojet is an airliner with a special advertising paint scheme. ... Cabvision is a narrowcast private recorded television service provided in London taxicabs. ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... Placard redirects here: this should not be confused with Plaque or Plack Poster from the Spanish Revolution A poster is any large piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. ...


Another way to measure advertising effectiveness is known as ad tracking. This advertising research methodology measures shifts in target market perceptions about the brand and product or service. These shifts in perception are plotted against the consumers’ levels of exposure to the company’s advertisements and promotions.The purpose of Ad Tracking is generally to provide a measure of the combined effect of the media weight or spending level, the effectiveness of the media buy or targeting, and the quality of the advertising executions or creative. Ad Tracking Article // Advertising research is a specialized form of marketing research conducted to improve the efficacy of advertising. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... According to Decision Analyst, “Once commercials go ‘on air,’ the only way to know if the advertising is working is tracking research. ... Advertising media selection is the process of choosing the most cost-effective media to achieve the necessary coverage, and number of exposures, among the target audience. ...

See also Advertising media scheduling and Advertising-free media

In advertising media planning, scheduling refers to the pattern in which advertising is timed. ... Advertising-free media refers to media outlets whose output is not funded or subsidised by the sale of advertising space. ...

Covert advertising

Main article: Product placement

Covert advertising is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them "classics," because the film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, Vaio, BMW and Aston-Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films, most notably Casino Royale. Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Product placement advertisements are promotional ads placed by marketers using real commercial products and services in media, where the presence of a particular brand is the result of an economic exchange. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Minority Report is a 2002 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, loosely based on the Philip K. Dick 1956 short story The Minority Report. It is set in the year 1895, when criminals are interviewed based on foreknowledge. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ... This article is about the telecommunications corporation. ... Italian jeweler and luxury goods retailer Bulgari (usually written BVLGARI in ancient Roman style) is named after its founder, Greek Sotirio Bulgari (Σωτήριος Βούλγαρης). The company was founded in 1884 in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see I, Robot (disambiguation). ... “W. S.” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Converse (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see I, Robot (disambiguation). ... Bold text Spaceballs is a 1987 science fiction parody film co-written, directed by, and starring Mel Brooks. ... Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and has been an almost wholly owned (99. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... The Matrix Reloaded is the second installment of The Matrix series, written and directed by the Wachowski Brothers. ... Omega SA is a watch company based in Biel/Bienne Switzerland and is one of the more prestigious brands in timepieces. ... Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... VAIO logo VAIO, an acronym for Video Audio Integrated Operation, is a sub-brand for many of Sonys computer products. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury performance cars, whose headquarters are at Gaydon, Warwickshire, England. ... This article is about the spy series. ... Casino Royale (2006) is the 21st film in the James Bond series and the first to star Daniel Craig as MI6 agent James Bond. ...


Television commercials

The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached $2.7 million (as of 2007). A television advertisement, advert or commercial is a form of advertising in which goods, services, organizations, thoughts, etc. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video signals (programs) to a number of recipients (listeners or viewers) that belong to a large group. ... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ...


Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops[6] or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience.[11] More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background[12] where none existing in real-life. Virtual product placement is also possible.[13] [14]


Newer media and advertising approaches

Increasingly, other media are overtaking television because of a shift towards consumer's usage of the internet as well as devices such as TiVo. TiVo (pronounced tee-voh, IPA: ) is a popular brand of digital video recorder (DVR) in the United States (and coming to Canada in December 7, 2007) and is a consumer video device which allows users to capture television programming to internal hard disk storage for later viewing (time shifting), provides...


Advertising on the World Wide Web is a recent phenomenon. Prices of Web-based advertising space are dependent on the "relevance" of the surrounding web content and the traffic that the website receives. WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ...


E-mail advertising is another recent phenomenon. Unsolicited bulk E-mail advertising is known as "spam". Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... E-mail spam, also known as bulk e-mail or junk e-mail is a subset of spam that involves sending nearly identical messages to numerous recipients by e-mail. ...


Some companies have proposed to place messages or corporate logos on the side of booster rockets and the International Space Station. Controversy exists on the effectiveness of subliminal advertising (see mind control), and the pervasiveness of mass messages (see propaganda). This is a list of types of companies, i. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... ISS redirects here. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... A subliminal message is a signal or message embedded in another object, designed to pass below the normal limits of perception. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ...


Unpaid advertising (also called word of mouth advertising), can provide good exposure at minimal cost. Personal recommendations ("bring a friend", "sell it"), spreading buzz, or achieving the feat of equating a brand with a common noun (in the United States, "Xerox" = "photocopier", "Kleenex" = tissue, "Vaseline" = petroleum jelly, "Hoover" = vacuum cleaner, and "Band-Aid" = adhesive bandage) — these are the pinnacles of any advertising campaign. However, some companies oppose the use of their brand name to label an object. Equating a brand with a common noun also risks turning that brand into a genericized trademark - turning it into a generic term which means that its legal protection as a trademark is lost. For other uses, see Word of mouth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... Kleenex logo This article is about the Kleenex brand. ... A box of tissues Another Box of Tissues. ... Petroleum jelly or petrolatum is a byproduct of the refining of petroleum, made from the residue of petroleum distillation left in the still after all the oil has been vaporized. ... White Petrolatum Petroleum jelly, vaseline, petrolatum or soft paraffin [2] is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25),[3] originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties. ... Hoover Company logo, originally designed by Henry Dreyfuss The Hoover Company started out as an American floor care manufacturer based in North Canton, Ohio. ... Regular canister vacuum cleaner for home use. ... Band Aid can refer to: BAND-AID, a brand of adhesive bandage Band Aid, a musical ensemble raising money for famine relief. ... A genericized trademark, generic trade mark, generic descriptor, or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name which has become the colloquial or generic description for a particular class of product or service. ...


SMS (Short Message Service) text messages have taken Europe by storm and are breaking into the USA. The addition of a text-back number is gaining prevalence as a www address of yesterday. Used as part of your companies 'how to contact us' these can be very effective. These can be a (rented) keyword on a short-code or your own system on a standard number (like Mojio Messenger). The benefit of SMS text messages is people can respond where they are, right now, stuck in traffic, sitting on the metro. The use of SMS text messages can also be a great way to get a viral (word-of-mouth) campaign off the ground to build your own database of prospects see Viral marketing. Interstitial advertisement is a form of advertisement which takes place while a page loads. Viral marketing and viral advertising refer to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness, through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of pathological and computer viruses. ... On the World Wide Web, interstitials are web pages that are displayed before an expected content page, often to display advertisements or confirm the users age. ...


From time to time, The CW airs short programming breaks called "Content Wraps," to advertise one company's product during an entire commercial break. The CW pioneered "content wraps" and some products featured were Herbal Essences, Crest, Guitar Hero 2, Cover Girl, and recently Toyota. The Crimson White, known colloquially as The CW, is the student-run newspaper of the University of Alabama. ...


Measuring the impact of mass advertising

The most common method for measuring the impact of mass media advertising is the use of the rating point (rp) or the more accurate target rating point (trp). These two measures refer to the percentage of the universe of the existing base of audience members that can be reached by the use of each media outlet in a particular moment in time. The difference between the two is that the rating point refers to the percentage to the entire universe while the target rating point refers to the percentage of a particular segment or target. This becomes very useful when focusing advertising efforts on a particular group of people. One of the reasons advertising is successful is because it can target a particular audience to build awareness of what the advertiser has to offer.


Optimization

In an effort to improve messaging, and gain audience attention, advertisers create branding moments that will resonate with target markets, and motivate audiences to purchase the advertised product or service, advertisers copy test their advertisements before releasing them to the public. (Young, pp.15-21) // A specialized field of marketing research, copy testing is the study of television commercials prior to airing them. ...


Effect on memories and behaviour

"Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted; the trouble is, I don't know which half." - popular quote generally attributed to either John Wanamaker or William Lever; also one of the Wrigley people from the gum company.
Billboard, New York City, (2005).The ad says, "60 days of daylight for Apartment 6F."
Billboard, New York City, (2005).The ad says, "60 days of daylight for Apartment 6F."

The impact of advertising has been a matter of considerable debate and many different claims have been made in different contexts. During debates about the banning of cigarette advertising, a common claim from cigarette manufacturers was that cigarette advertising does not encourage people to smoke who would not otherwise. The (eventually successful) opponents of advertising, on the other hand, claim that advertising does in fact increase consumption. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... John Wanamaker (July 11, 1838 – December 12, 1922) was a United States businessman, civic and political figure, considered the father of modern advertising. ... William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme Lord Leverhulme is the most familiar name of William Hesketh Lever, (19 September 1851-7 May 1925), a British Industrialist and colonialist who was created 1st Viscount Leverhulme. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 1,800 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 1,800 pixels, file size: 1. ...


According to many sources, the past experience and state of mind of the person subjected to advertising may determine the impact that advertising has. Children under the age of four may be unable to distinguish advertising from other television programs, while the ability to determine the truthfulness of the message may not be developed until the age of 8.


Over the past fifteen years a whole science of marketing analytics and marketing effectiveness has been developed to determine the impact of marketing actions on consumers, sales, profit and market share. Marketing Mix Modeling, direct response measurement and other techniques are included in this science. Marketing Effectiveness is the function of improving how marketers go to market with the goal of optimizing their marketing spend to achieve even better results for both the short-term and long-term. ... Market share, in strategic management and marketing, is the percentage or proportion of the total available market or market segment that is being serviced by a company. ...


Public perception of the medium

As advertising and marketing efforts become increasingly ubiquitous in modern Western societies, the industry has come under criticism of groups such as Adbusters via culture jamming which criticizes the media and consumerism using advertising's own techniques. The industry is accused of being one of the engines powering a convoluted economic mass production system which promotes consumption. Recognizing the social impact of advertising, Mediawatch-uk, a British special interest group, works to educate consumers about how they can register their concerns with advertisers and regulators. It has developed educational materials for use in schools. The award-winning book, How Advertising Works and Why You Should Know, by former Mediawatch (a feminist organization founded by Ann Simonton not linked to mediawatch-uk) president Shari Graydon, provides context for these issues for young readers. Adbusters is a political magazine, founded by Kalle Lasn and Bill Schmalz that is published in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada by the Media Foundation. ... mediawatch-uk, formerly the National Viewers and Listeners Association (NVALA) is a controversial special interest pressure group in the United Kingdom, which seeks to highlight what it sees as regulatory failure on harmful and offensive broadcast content violence, bad language, sex, homosexuality and blasphemy in the United Kingdom. ... Ann J. Simonton is a writer, lecturer and feminist, media activist. ...


Public interest groups are increasingly suggesting that access to the mental space targeted by advertisers should be taxed[citation needed], in that at the present moment that space is being freely taken advantage of by advertisers with no compensation paid to the members of the public who are thus being intruded upon. This kind of tax would be a Pigovian tax in that it would act to reduce what is now increasingly seen as a public nuisance. Efforts to that end are gathering more momentum, with Arkansas and Maine considering bills to implement such a taxation. Florida enacted such a tax in 1987 but was forced to repeal it after six months, as a result of a concerted effort by national commercial interests, which withdrew planned conventions, causing major losses to the tourism industry, and canceled advertising, causing a loss of 12 million dollars to the broadcast industry alone. A Pigovian tax is a tax levied to correct the negative externalities of an activity. ...

Billboard in Lund, Sweden, saying "One Night Stand?" (2005)
Billboard in Lund, Sweden, saying "One Night Stand?" (2005)

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 601 KB) Ununderstandable billboard in Lund. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 601 KB) Ununderstandable billboard in Lund. ...   IPA: is a city in SkÃ¥ne in southern Sweden. ...

Negative effects of advertising

An extensively documented effect is the control and vetoing of free information by the advertisers. Any negative information on a company or its products or operations often results in pressures from the company to withdraw such information lines, threatening to cut their ads. This behaviour makes the editors of the media self-censor content that might upset their ad payers. The bigger the companies are, the bigger their relation becomes, maximising control over a single piece of information.


Advertisers may try to minimise information about or from consumer groups, consumer-controlled purchasing initiatives (as joint purchase systems), or consumer-controlled quality information systems.


Another indirect effect of advertising is to modify the nature of the communication media where it is shown. Media that get most of their revenues from publicity try to make their medium a good place for communicating ads before anything else. The clearest example is television, where broadcasters try to make the public stay for a long time in a mental state that encourages spectators not to switch the channel during advertisements. Programs that are low in mental stimulus, require light concentration and are varied best for long sitting times. These also make for much easier emotional transition to ads, which are occasionally more entertaining than the regular shows. A simple way to understand objectives in television programming is to compare the content of programs paid for and chosen by the viewer with those on channels that get their income mainly from advertisements.


In several books, articles and videos, communication professor Sut Jhally has argued that pervasive commercial advertising, by constantly reinforcing a bogus association between consumption and happiness and by focusing on individual immediate needs, leads to a squandering of resources and stands in the way of a discussion of fundamental societal and long-term needs. Sut Jhally, discussing Tough Guise: Men, Violence and the Crisis in Masculinity at the Mens Project Collaborative, Amherst College in March 2004 Sut Jhally (born 29 May 1955) is a professor of Communication at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, regarded as one of the world’s leading cultural studies...


Regulation

In the US many communities believe that many forms of outdoor advertising blight the public realm [7]. As long ago as the 1960s in the US there were attempts to ban billboard advertising in the open countryside [8]. Cities such as São Paulo have introduced an outright ban [9] with the UK capital also having specific legislation to control unlawful displays. Bold text Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. ...


There have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest by regulating the content and the influence of advertising. Some examples are: the ban on television tobacco advertising imposed in many countries, and the total ban of advertising to children under twelve imposed by the Swedish government in 1991. Though that regulation continues in effect for broadcasts originating within the country, it has been weakened by the European Court of Justice, which had found that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign programming, including those from neighboring countries or via satellite. Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ...


In Europe and elsewhere, there is a vigorous debate on whether (or how much) advertising to children should be regulated. This debate was exacerbated by a report released by the Kaiser Family Foundation in February 2004 which suggested that food advertising targeting children was an important factor in the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States of America. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), or just Kaiser Family Foundation, is a U.S.-based non-profit philanthropic private operating foundation headquartered in Menlo Park, California. ...


In many countries - namely New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and many European countries - the advertising industry operates a system of self-regulation. Advertisers, advertising agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards that they attempt to uphold. The general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal, decent, honest and truthful'. Some self-regulatory organizations are funded by the industry, but remain independent, with the intent of upholding the standards or codes (like the Advertising Standards Authority in the UK). The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) is the independent British self regulatory organisation (SRO) of the advertising industry. ...


In the UK most forms of outdoor advertising such as the display of billboards is regulated by the UK Town and County Planning system. Currently the display of an advertisement without consent from the Planning Authority is a criminal offense liable to a fine of £2500 per offence. All of the major outdoor billboard companies in the UK have convictions of this nature.


Naturally, many advertisers view governmental regulation or even self-regulation as intrusion of their freedom of speech or a necessary evil. Therefore, they employ a wide-variety of linguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e.g. printing English words in bold and French translations in fine print to deal with the Article 12 of the 1994 Toubon Law limiting the use of English in French advertising); see Bhatia and Ritchie 2006:542. The advertisement of controversial products such as cigarettes and condoms is subject to government regulation in many countries. For instance, the tobacco industry is required by law in most countries to display warnings cautioning consumers about the health hazards of their products. Linguistic variation is often used by advertisers as a creative device to reduce the impact of such requirements. The Toubon Law (full name: law 94-665 of 4 August 1994 relating to usage of the French language), is a law of the French government mandating the use of the French language in official government publications, advertisements, and some other contexts. ...


Future

Global advertising

Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic, export, international, multi-national, and global. For global advertisers, there are four, potentially competing, business objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide advertising: building a brand while speaking with one voice, developing economies of scale in the creative process, maximising local effectiveness of ads, and increasing the company’s speed of implementation. Born from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three primary and fundamentally different approaches to the development of global advertising executions: exporting executions, producing local executions, and importing ideas that travel. (Global marketing Management, 2004, pg 13-18) // The Oxford University Press defines global marketing as “marketing on a worldwide scale reconciling or taking commercial advantage of global operational differences, similarities and opportunities in order to meet global objectives. ...


Advertising research is key to determining the success of an ad in any country or region. The ability to identify which elements and/or moments of an ad that contributes to its success is how economies of scale are maximised. Once one knows what works in an ad, that idea or ideas can be imported by any other market. Market research measures, such as Flow of Attention, Flow of Emotion and branding moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any country or region because the measures are based on the visual, not verbal, elements of the ad. (Young, p.131) // Advertising research is a specialized form of marketing research conducted to improve the efficacy of advertising. ... Market research is the process of systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data about customers, competitors and the market. ...


Trends

With the dawn of the Internet came many new advertising opportunities. Popup, Flash, banner, advergaming, and email advertisements (the last often being a form of spam) are now commonplace. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Dozens of pop-up ads cover a desktop. ... Adobe Flash, or simply Flash, refers to both the Adobe Flash Player, and to the Adobe Flash Professional multimedia authoring program. ... A banner is a flag or other piece of cloth bearing a symbol, logo, slogan or other message. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The ability to record shows on DVRs (such as TiVo) allow users to record the programs for later viewing, enabling them to fast forward through commercials. Additionally, as more seasons of pre-recorded “Boxed Sets” are offered for sale of Television show series; fewer people watch the shows on TV. However, the fact that these sets are sold, means the company will receive additional profits from the sales of these sets. To counter this effect, many advertisers have opted for product placement on TV shows like Survivor. TiVo (pronounced tee-voh, IPA: ) is a popular brand of digital video recorder (DVR) in the United States (and coming to Canada in December 7, 2007) and is a consumer video device which allows users to capture television programming to internal hard disk storage for later viewing (time shifting), provides... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Product placement advertisements are promotional ads placed by marketers using real commercial products and services in media, where the presence of a particular brand is the result of an economic exchange. ... This article is about general format of the international television show. ...


Particularly since the rise of "entertaining" advertising, some people may like an advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend. In general, the advertising community has not yet made this easy, although some have used the Internet to widely distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them.


Another significant trend regarding future of advertising is the growing importance of niche or targeted ads. Also brought about by the Internet and the theory of The Long Tail, advertisers will have an increasing ability to reach specific audiences. In the past, the most efficient way to deliver a message was to blanket the largest mass market audience possible. However, usage tracking, customer profiles and the growing popularity of niche content brought about by everything from blogs to social networking sites, provide advertisers with audiences that are smaller but much better defined, leading to ads that are more relevant to viewers and more effective for companies' marketing products. Among others, Comcast Spotlight is one such advertiser employing this method in their video on demand menus. These advertisements are targeted to a specific group and can be viewed by anyone wishing to find out more about a particular business or practice at any time, right from their home. This causes the viewer to become proactive and actually choose what advertisements they want to view.[15] The phrase The Long Tail (as a proper noun with capitalized letters) was first coined by Chris Anderson in an October 2004 Wired magazine article[1] to describe certain business and economic models such as Amazon. ... Comcast Spotlight Logo Comcast Spotlight is the advertising sales division of Comcast Cable. ... Video on demand (VOD) systems allow users to select and watch video and clip content over a network as part of an interactive television system. ...


In freelance advertising, companies hold public competitions to create ads for their product, the best one of which is chosen for widespread distribution with a prize given to the winner(s). During the 2007 Super Bowl, Pepsico held such a contest for the creation of a 30-second television ad for the Doritos brand of chips, offering a cash prize to the winner. Chevrolet held a similar competition for their Tahoe line of SUVs. This type of advertising, however, is still in its infancy. It may ultimately decrease the importance of advertising agencies by creating a niche for independent freelancers.[citation needed] Freelance 800F - The compact solution ABBs Freelance 800F control system combines easy engineering with an open, modern system architecture. ... PepsiCo, Incorporated (NYSE: PEP) is a global American beverage and snack company. ... Nacho Cheese Doritos Mexican Nacho Flavored Doritos, Israel (old style) Cool American Flavored Doritos found in Amsterdam. ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (colloquially Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


Embedded advertising or in-film ad placements are happening on a larger scale now than ever before. Films like Krrish had over a dozen placements including Lay’s, Bournvita, Samsung, Faber Castell and Hero Honda. “Embedded Advertising is not about recall. ... Krrish is a Bollywood science fiction superhero film directed by Rakesh Roshan, which released on June 23, 2006. ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Advertising

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... According to Decision Analyst, “Once commercials go ‘on air,’ the only way to know if the advertising is working is tracking research. ... Adbusters is a political magazine, founded by Kalle Lasn and Bill Schmalz that is published in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada by the Media Foundation. ... Advertising Adstock is a term coined by Simon Broadbent [1] to describe the prolonged or lagged effect of advertising on consumer purchase behavior. ... An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). ... // Advertising research is a specialized form of marketing research conducted to improve the efficacy of advertising. ... The Advertising Hall of Fame is a list of notable advertising leaders in America as chosen by the American Advertising Federation. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Branded Content is essentially a supercharged version of product placement inside entertainment produced and paid for by the advertiser. ... Conquesting as used in the Advertising industry, is a means to deploy an advertisement for ones products or services adjacent to editorial content relating to the competitor or the competitors products. ... // A specialized field of marketing research, copy testing is the study of television commercials prior to airing them. ... Coolhunting is a term coined in the early 1990s referring to a new breed of marketing professionals, called coolhunters. ... Communication design is a sub-discipline of design (sometimes referred to as Graphic Design) which is concerned with how media intermission such as, print and digital pieces of work communicate with people in a visual way. ... Copywriting is the process of writing the words that promote a person, business, opinion, or idea. ... // The Oxford University Press defines global marketing as “marketing on a worldwide scale reconciling or taking commercial advantage of global operational differences, similarities and opportunities in order to meet global objectives. ... Graphics are often utilitarian and anonymous,[1] as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate. ... A human directional A human directional/ Sign twirler is a person who can provide businesses with maxium exposure. ... Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC), according to The American Marketing Association, is “a planning process designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a customer or prospect for a product, service, or organization are relevant to that person and consistent over time. ... Interactive Advertising is the use of interactive media to promote and/or influence the buying decisions of the consumer in an online and offline environment. ... Market overhang is a term derived from the physical world meaning things that stick out or hang over another thing. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... Mobile Marketing can refer to one of two categories of marketing. ... Music in advertising is the use of songs and incidental music in advertising campaigns, particularly television commercials. ... Online advertising is a form of advertising utilizing the Internet and World Wide Web in order to deliver marketing messages and attract customers. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... // Dictionary. ... Reality Marketing is a form of Permission marketing that blends many types of interactive advertising techniques into a Reality television show format. ... Social marketing is the systematic application of marketing alongside other concepts and techniques to achieve specific behavioural goals for a social good. ... A video news release (VNR) is a video segment created by a PR firm, advertising agency, marketing firm, corporation, or government agency and provided to television news stations for the purpose of informing, shaping public opinion, or to promote and publicize individuals, commercial products and services, or other interests. ... Video commerce is transacting from a video using Internet (IP) communications. ... Visual communication is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon. ... Web analytics is the study of the behaviour of website visitors. ...

References

  1. ^ TNS Media Intelligence
  2. ^ Global Entertainment and Media Outlook: 2006-2010
  3. ^ Slashdot | ISP Operator Barry Shein Answers Spam Questions
  4. ^ Commercial Alert — Protecting communities from commercialism
  5. ^ How Marketers Target Kids
  6. ^ Bhatia (2000). Advertising in Rural India: Language, Marketing Communication, and Consumerism, 62+68
  7. ^ McChesney, Robert, Educators and the Battle for Control of U.S. Broadcasting, 1928-35, Rich Media, Poor Democracy, ISBN 0-252-02448-6 (1999)
  8. ^ McChesney, Robert, Educators and the Battle for Control of U.S. Broadcasting, 1928-35, Rich Media, Poor Democracy, ISBN 0-252-02448-6 (1999)
  9. ^ Public Interest, Convenience and Necessity
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ [2]
  12. ^ [3]
  13. ^ [4]
  14. ^ [5]
  15. ^ "Interactive - VOD" Comcast Spotlight website, retrieved October 5, 2006

Robert McChesney is a media critic, academic, and activist. ... Robert McChesney is a media critic, academic, and activist. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Anthony,A,Abdo AU (2007) professor, history and geography
  • Bhatia, Tej K. 2000. Advertising in Rural India: Language, Marketing Communication, and Consumerism. Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. Tokyo Press: Japan. ISBN 4-87297-782-3
  • Clark, Eric, "The Want Makers", Viking, 1988. ISBN 0340320281
  • Cook, Guy (2001 2nd edition) "The Discourse of Advertising", London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-23455-7
  • Graydon, Shari (2003) "Made You Look - How Advertising Works and Why You Should Know", Toronto: Annick Press, ISBN 1-55037-814-7
  • Johnson, J. Douglas, "Advertising Today", Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1978. ISBN 0-574-19355-3
  • Klein, Naomi (2000) No Logo . Harper-Collins, ISBN 0-00-653040-0
  • Kleppner, Otto, "Advertising Procedure", Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1966.
  • Kotabe, Masaki and Kristiaan Helsen, Global Marketing Management, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sopns, Inc, publishers, Copyright 2004, ISBN 0-471-23062-6
  • Lears, Jackson, Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America, Basic Books, 1995, ISBN 0465090753
  • Leon, Jose Luis (1996) "Los efectos de la publicidad". Barcelona: Ariel, ISBN 84-344-1266-7
  • Leon, Jose Luis (2001) "Mitoanálisis de la publicidad". Barcelona. Ariel, ISBN 84-344-1285-3
  • Mulvihill, Donald F., "Marketing Research for the Small Company", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 2, Oct., 1951, pp. 179-183.
  • Young, Charles E., The Advertising Handbook, Ideas in Flight, Seattle, WA April 2005, ISBN 0-9765574-0-1
  • Wernick, Andrew (1991) "Promotional Culture: Advertising, Ideology and Symbolic Expression (Theory, Culture & Society S.)", London: Sage Publications Ltd, ISBN 0-8039-8390-5
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Advertising
Look up advertising in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Marketing

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ...

External links

  • On-Line exhibits at William F. Eisner Museum of Advertising and Design
  • The British Library - finding information on the advertising industry
  • aef.com online advertising exhibits and resources not found elsewhere
  • Bibliography on Web Advertising

Vintage archives

  • Ad*Access, Duke University Library
  • Archive Advertisements from Old Theatre Programmes
  • Retro Cars Advertisements - 19 Posters from the 19th International Motor Exhibition, 1925.
  • American print advertising archive 1930 - 1969

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Within advertising and public relations, the account management department links the agency and the client—it represents the agency to the client, as well as the client to the agency.
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