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Encyclopedia > Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huсkleberry Finn

On the Raft
Author Mark Twain
Illustrator E. W. Kemble
Cover artist Mark Twain
Country United States
Language English
Genre(s) Adventure
Humour
Publisher Charles L. Webster And Company.
Publication date 1884
Media type Print (Hardcover)
Pages 366 pp
ISBN NA
Preceded by The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
Followed by Tom Sawyer Abroad
Mark Twain
Mark Twain

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. It was also one of the first major American novels ever written using Local Color Realism or the vernacular, or common speech, being told in the first person by the eponymous Huckleberry "Huck" Finn, best friend of Tom Sawyer (hero of three other Mark Twain books). The book was first published in 1884. Image File history File links Huckleberry Finn and Jim, on their raft, from the 1884 edition. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Edward Winsor Kemble (January 18, 1861–September 19, 1933) was an American cartoonist and illustrator. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The adventure novel is a literary genre of novels that has adventure, an exciting undertaking involving risk and physical danger, as its main theme. ... For other uses, see Humour (disambiguation). ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... See also: 1883 in literature, other events of 1884, 1885 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... ISBN redirects here. ... The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain, is a popular 1876 novel about a young boy growing up in the Antebellum South on the Mississippi River in St. ... Tom Sawyer Abroad is a novel by Mark Twain published in 1894. ... mark twain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... See also: 1883 in literature, other events of 1884, 1885 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... The Great American Novel is the concept of a novel that perfectly represents the spirit of life in the United States at the time of its publication. ... An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ... Mark Twains series of books featuring the fictional character Tom Sawyer include: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) Tom Sawyer Abroad (1894) Tom Sawyer, Detective (1896) Tom Sawyer also appears in at least three unfinished Twain works, Huck and Tom Among the Indians, Schoolhouse... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of characters in the Tom Sawyer series#Thomas Sawyer. ...


The book is noted for its innocent young protagonist, its colorful description of people and places along the Mississippi River, and its sober and often scathing look at entrenched attitudes, particularly racism, of the time. The drifting journey of Huckleberry Finn and his friend Jim, a runaway slave, down the Mississippi River on their raft may be one of the most enduring images of escape and freedom in all of American literature. For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Slave redirects here. ... Look up escape in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ...


The book has been popular with young readers since its publication, and taken as a sequel to the comparatively innocuous The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (which had no particular social message), it has also been the continued object of study by serious literary critics. Although the Southern society it satirized was already a quarter-century in the past by the time of publication, the book immediately became controversial, and has remained so to this day (see "Controversy" below). The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain, is a popular 1876 novel about a young boy growing up in the Antebellum South on the Mississippi River in St. ... Historic Southern United States. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ...

Contents

Explanation of the novel's title

Twain initially conceived of the work as a companion to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer that would follow Huck Finn through adulthood. Beginning with a chapter he had deleted from the earlier novel, Twain began work on a manuscript he originally titled Huckleberry Finn's Autobiography. Twain worked on the manuscript off and on for the next several years, ultimately abandoning his original plan of following Huck's development into adulthood. He appeared to have lost interest in the manuscript while it was in progress, and set it aside for several years. After making a trip down the Mississippi, Twain returned to his work on the novel. Upon completion, the novel's title closely paralleled its predecessor's: "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer's Comrade)".[1] The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain, is a popular 1876 novel about a young boy growing up in the Antebellum South on the Mississippi River in St. ...


Unlike The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn does not have the definite article "the" as a part of its proper title. Writer Philip Young has hypothesized that this absence represents the fundamentally uncompleted nature of Huck's adventures — while Tom's adventures were completed (at least at the time) at the end of his novel, Huck's narrative ends with his stated intention to head West.[2]


Plot summary

Persons attempting to find a motive in this narrative will be prosecuted; persons attempting to find a moral in it will be banished; persons attempting to find a plot in it will be shot.

Mark Twain, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, "Notice", p. 1 Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ...

Life in St. Petersburg

The story begins in St. Petersburg, Missouri. Tom and Huckleberry have each come into a considerable sum of money as a result of their previous adventures, and Huck has been placed under the guardianship of the Widow Douglas, who, together with her sister, Miss Watson, is attempting to "sivilize" him. Huck appreciates their efforts, but finds civilized life confining.


Huck's life is changed by the appearance of his shiftless father, Pap Finn. Although Huck is successful in preventing his father from acquiring his fortune, his father gains custody of Huck and the two move to the back woods. Equally unsatisfied with uncivilized life, Huck escapes from his father's cabin, fakes his own death, and sets off down the Mississippi River.


The journey begins

While in hiding on an island, Huck meets Jim, Miss Watson's slave. Partly overhearing an argument between Widow Douglas and Miss Watson about whether to sell him or not (Miss Watson wanted to, but Widow Douglas didn't), Jim has run away rather than risk being further separated from his family. Huck visits St. Petersburg, disguised as a girl and learns that the townspeople believe him dead and are hunting for his father and Jim, both of whom are suspects in his death. In order to prevent Jim's recapture and sale, Huck and Jim decide to flee downriver on a raft to Cairo, Illinois, where they will be able to take a steamboat north into the free states. Jim may refer to: A nickname for James Jim (Medal of Honor), American Indian scout who received a Medal of Honor for his actions in the Indian Wars Jim (comics), a comic book series by Jim Woodring The Jim Interpreter, an implementation of the Tcl programming language JIM TV, a... Cairo is a city in Alexander County, Illinois in the United States. ...


During their journey South, Huck and Jim are briefly separated in a fog. After Huck paddles his canoe back to the raft, he plays a trick on Jim, convincing Jim that Huck had never left the raft and that Jim only dreamed their separation. Jim's disappointment upon learning of the trick, and Huck's resulting shame, represents a turning point in their relationship, as Huck begins to think of Jim as a person and friend, rather than as a slave. Thereafter, Huck periodically reflects on the conflict between his "conscience," which tells him that by assisting a slave in escaping, he is stealing Miss Watson's property, and his "heart," which tells him that Jim deserves to be free. In each case, Huck's loyalty to Jim wins out.


Unfortunately, Huck and Jim overshoot Cairo, which places their raft firmly in slave country and heading further south. At that point, they have a series of adventures that satirize the Southern culture of the time and further underscore the distinction between the idyllic family structure of Jim and Huck on the raft compared to the various families they encounter on shore.


The Grangerfords and the Shepherdsons

Shortly after missing Cairo, Huck and Jim's raft is swamped by a passing steamship, separating the two. Huck is given shelter by the Grangerfords, a prosperous local family. He becomes friends with Buck Grangerford, a boy about his age, and learns that the Grangerfords are engaged in a long-running 30-year blood feud against another family, the Shepherdsons.


The vendetta finally comes to a head when Buck's sister, Sophia Grangerford, elopes with Harney Shepherdson. In the resulting conflict, all of the remaining Grangerford men are killed, and upon seeing Buck's corpse, Huck "cried a little". Huck narrowly escapes, reuniting with Jim and the raft and fleeing further south on the Mississippi River. As they are fleeing south, they run into two characters.


The Duke and the Dolphin

Further down the river, Jim and Huck rescue two grifters, both of whom join the two fugitives on the raft. The younger of the two, a man of about thirty, introduces himself as a son of an English Duke and is thereafter known as "the Duke." The older con man, about seventy, then trumps the Duke's claim by alleging that he is actually the "Lost Dolphin", the son of Louis XVI and rightful King of France. The Duke and the Dolphin then force Jim and Huck to allow them to travel on the raft, committing a series of confidence schemes on their way south. Confidence Man redirects here. ... This article is about the nobility title. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ...


During the course of these schemes, Huck sees the attempted lynching of a southern gentleman, Colonel Sherburn, after Sherburn kills a harmless town drunk. Sherburn faces down the lynch mob with a loaded rifle and forces them to back down after an extended speech regarding what he believes to be the essential cowardice of "Southern justice" — i.e., the lynch mob. (This vignette, which stands out as essentially disconnected from the remaining plot, is thought to represent Twain's own contradictory and misanthropic impulses — Huck, the outcast, essentially flees from Southern society, while Sherburn, the gentleman, confronts it, albeit in a brutal and destructive fashion.[3]) Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


One of the most detailed schemes is the "Nonesuch." After the Duke, who fancies himself a Shakespearean actor, is unable to interest the townspeople in a pastiche of various poorly remembered Shakespearean plays, he then creates a combination play/confidence scheme called the "Royal Nonesuch." After advertising for a spectacular performance, the con men actually put on a short, albeit slightly funny, show. Still, the townspeople aren't happy that the show was so short, but because they are upset at the possibility of losing face, the first night's crowd reports to their friends that the show was fantastic, resulting in an even larger crowd the second night. On the third night, the Nonesuch draws its largest crowd yet, as most of the previous two nights' attendees return, armed with vegetables and other items to throw at the performers in revenge. After selling tickets to the third night's crowd, the Duke and Dolphin flee, considerably enriched.


The Duke and the Dolphin's schemes reach their apotheosis when the two grifters impersonate the brothers of Peter Wilks, a recently deceased man of property. Using an absurd English accent, the Dolphin manages to convince most of the townspeople that he and the Duke are Wilks' brothers recently arrived from England, and proceeds to liquidate Wilks' estate. Huck is quite upset at the men's plan to steal the inheritance from Wilks' daughters and true brothers, as well as their actions in selling Wilks' slaves and separating their families. In order to prevent their plans, Huck steals the money the two have acquired and hides it in Wilks' coffin. Shortly thereafter, the two con men are discovered when two other men claiming to be the Wilks' true brothers arrive. However, when the money is found in Wilks' coffin, the Duke and Dolphin are able to escape in the confusion, rejoining Huck and Jim on the raft.


Jim's escape

After the four fugitives flee further South on their raft, the Dauphin "captures" Jim and sells his interest in any reward. Outraged by this betrayal, Huck finally rejects the advice of his "conscience," which continues to tell him that by helping Jim escape to freedom, he is stealing Miss Watson's property. Telling himself "All right, then, I'll go to hell!", Huck resolves to free Jim.


Arriving at the home where Jim is being held, Huck discovers, improbably, that the Dauphin has for forty dollars sold his supposed interest in the slave Jim to Silas Phelps, Tom Sawyer's uncle. In a parallel to the con men's earlier scheme with the Wilks family, Silas's wife, Aunt Sally, mistakes Huck for Tom himself, and Huck plays along, hoping to find a way to free Jim. Shortly thereafter, Tom himself arrives for a visit, and agrees to join Huck's scheme, pretending to be his own brother, Sid Sawyer.


Either out of a desire to revenge himself on the grifters or out of charity for the townspeople, Jim reveals the secret of the Royal Nonesuch before the two rogues are able to set their confidence game into motion. That night, Tom and Huck see the Duke and Dauphin, who have been captured by the townspeople, tarred and feathered, being run out of town on a rail. Tarring and feathering is a physical punishment, at least as old as the Crusades, used to enforce formal justice in feudal Europe and informal justice in Europe and its colonies in the early modern period, as well as the early American frontier, mostly as a type of mob vengeance (compare... Riding the rail was a punishment of Colonial America in which a man was made to straddle a fence rail held on the shoulders of two men, with other men on either side to keep him upright on the rail. ...


Rather than simply sneaking Jim out of the shed where he is being held, Tom develops an elaborate plan to free him, involving secret messages, hidden tunnels, a rope ladder sent in Jim's food, and other elements from romantic novels, including a note to the Phelps warning them of an Indian tribe stealing their runaway slave. Huck and Jim go along with the plan, but Tom is shot in the leg during the resulting chase. Rather than complete his escape, Jim insists that Huck return to town and find a doctor to treat Tom. Jim and Tom are then captured.


Conclusion

After Jim's recapture, events quickly resolve themselves. Tom's Aunt Polly arrives, and reveals Huck and Tom's true identities. Tom announces that Jim is and has been free for months—although Miss Watson died two months earlier and freed Jim in her will, Tom chose not to reveal Jim's freedom in order to go ahead with his scheme to break Jim from captivity. Similarly, Jim tells Huck that Huck's father, the frightening drunkard, Pap, has been dead for some time and that Huck may therefore now return safely to St. Petersburg (Jim discovered this when he and Huck were on Jackson Island and came upon part of a house drifting down stream. The dead body in the house, which Jim did not let Huck see, thinking it was bad luck for children to see dead bodies, was Huck's father). In the final narrative, Huck announces that he is quite glad to be done writing his story, and that although Tom's Aunt Sally plans to adopt and "sivilize" him, Huck himself intends to flee West. This article or section should be merged with intoxication Drunkenness, in its most common usage, is the state of being intoxicated with alcohol (i. ...


Major themes

Family is one of the most important themes in the book. The attempt by Huck's father to gain custody of him in order to steal the money that Huck and Tom had found in the previous book precipitates his flight, Huck stages his own murder to get away. One of the major plot devices in the book is Jim's hiding the death of Huck's father from him. As they travel the river, Huck is frequently involved with families who attempt to adopt him.


Another theme is the life on the Mississippi River, alternately idyllic and threatening. In true picaresque fashion, Huck and Jim encounter all the varieties of humanity as they travel: murderers, thieves, confidence men, good people and hypocrites. For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The picaresque novel (Spanish: picaresco, from pícaro, for rogue or rascal) is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a... Confidence Man redirects here. ... Hypocrisy is the act of condemning or calling for the condemnation of another person when the critic is guilty of the act for which he demands that the accused be condemned. ...


In the middle of the story, Mark Twain comments on the irrationality of pride and honor, as Huck sees brutal, cold-blooded murders committed by two feuding families. Later on, a Southern aristocrat coldly kills a drunken man who has been yelling empty threats at him, and the village turns the incident into a sort of circus, ignoring the dead man's daughter while trying to start a lynch mob, which quickly disintegrates after being mocked by the murderer himself. The "Dauphin" and the "Duke", two seemingly-innocuous (in some ways) confidence men are infamous characters of the novel who attempt to con three orphaned girls out of their late father's life savings. Towards the end of the book, they are tarred and feathered, and carried out of town on a rail, symbolizing how equally or more evil a village of people can be, given the magnitude of the response relative to that of the suspected crime. Aristocrat redirects here. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Tarring and feathering is a physical punishment, at least as old as the Crusades, used to enforce formal justice in feudal Europe and informal justice in Europe and its colonies in the early modern period, as well as the early American frontier, mostly as a type of mob vengeance (compare...


Most critics say much of the section detailing the feud between the Grangerfords and the Shepherdsons can be interpreted as an attack on exaggerated or melodramatic romanticism. Some critics note that there is a tight symmetry between this section of the book and Shakespeare's Play "Romeo and Juliet". The poem "Ode to Stephen Dowling Bots" by Emmeline Grangerford, two-thirds of which details what Stephen Dowling Bots did not die of, is an example. The whole Grangerford parlor was filled with kitsch. Also, Emmeline Grangerford's paintings, which had titles that all ended in "Alas", were also a parody of this. Emmeline Grangerford was modeled after Julia A. Moore, a notoriously bad poet known as "The Sweet Singer of Michigan". This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Kitsch is a term of German origin that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior copy of an existing style. ... Literary is a work very difficult to do — Julia A. Moore Julia Ann Moore, the Sweet Singer of Michigan, born Julia Ann Davis in Plainfield Township, Kent County, Michigan (December 1, 1847–June 5, 1920), was an American poet, or more precisely, poetaster. ...


It is commonly said that the beginning and ending of the book, the parts in which Tom Sawyer appears as a character, detract from its overall impact. Others feel Tom serves to start the story off and to bring it to a conclusion, and that Tom's ridiculous schemes have the paradoxical effect of providing a framework of 'reality' around the mythical river voyage. Much of the boyhood innocence and romantic depictions of nature occur in the first sixteen chapters and the last five, while the middle of the story shows the harsh realities of antebellum society. Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before war(ante means before and bellum is war). ...


Another theme is Huck's gradual acceptance of Jim as a man, strong, brave, generous, and wise (though realistically portrayed as imperfect).


Its themes on religion are almost as strong as its race theme. Huck himself comes across as religious but having trouble believing in God: although he tries to pray, he finds it to be a waste of time. Later in the book, he encounters the dilemma of whether or not to steal Jim out of slavery; he is forced to reckon with the fact that, according to his society, helping a slave escape will condemn him to Hell. His famous quote "All right, then, I'll GO to hell", is a direct attack by Twain on the religious support of slavery in the U.S. Huck comes across as one of the most unbiased, open-minded characters of popular literature as he continually questions his own motivation and life in general throughout the book. While he may not be pious, he does have a strong sense of right and wrong and often acts out of moral conviction. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ...


In another amusing commentary on 19th century society, Twain includes the "Dauphin" character, a deluded, unemployed drunkard who insists upon being addressed as "Your Majesty" and claims to be the "Lost Dauphin", the long-lost son of Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette, who were both executed by French republicans in 1793. Their son, Louis XVII, actually died in a republican jail in 1795, but many pretenders appeared all over the world claiming to have been the young boy-king of France. By the middle of the century their claims were becoming increasingly absurd and unbelievable. Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ... Marie Antoinette Maria Antonia Josefa Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen (November 2, 1755 – October 16, 1793), known to history as Marie Antoinette (pronounced ), was born an Archduchess of Austria, and later became Queen of France. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 - June 8, 1795) also known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy (1785-1789), Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois (1789-1791), and Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France (1791-1793), was the son of King Louis XVI of France and Marie Antoinette, who never...


Another theme is belonging. Huck does not feel as though he belongs. This is shown at both the beginning of the book and at the end. One of the reasons that Huck initially runs away, is because he feels that he doesn't belong in civilized society. We also see this play into the end of the book when Huck says that he doesn't want Aunt Sally to "sivilize" him.


Controversy

Huckleberry Finn. Drawing by EW Kemble from the original 1884 edition of the book.
Huckleberry Finn. Drawing by EW Kemble from the original 1884 edition of the book.

Although the Concord, Massachusetts library banned the book as a result of Louisa May Alcott immediately after its publication because of its "tawdry subject matter" and "the coarse, ignorant language in which it was narrated", the San Francisco Chronicle came quickly to its defense on March 29, 1884: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x941, 145 KB)Drawing of Huckleberry finn with a rabbit and a gun, from the original 1884 edition of the book. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x941, 145 KB)Drawing of Huckleberry finn with a rabbit and a gun, from the original 1884 edition of the book. ... Edward Winsor Kemble (January 18, 1861–September 19, 1933) was an American cartoonist and illustrator. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1635 Incorporated 1635 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Total 25. ... Louisa May Alcott (November 29, 1832 – March 6, 1888) was an American novelist. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Running all through the book is the sharpest satire on the ante-bellum estimate of the slave. Huckleberry Finn, the son of a worthless, drunken, poor white man, is troubled with many qualms of conscience because of the part he is taking in helping the negro to gain his freedom. This has been called exaggerated by some critics, but there is nothing truer in the book. 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before the war. In United States history and historiography Antebellum is sometimes used instead of the term pre_Civil War, especially in the South. ...

There have been countless attempts to "clean up" the language in the book — all dismal failures. CBS Television went so far as to produce a made-for-TV version of Huck Finn that included no black cast members, no mention of slavery, and without the critical character Jim.[citation needed]


In the United States, occasional efforts have been made to restrict the reading of the book. In addition to its Concord ban, it has, at various times, also been:

  • excluded from the juvenile sections of the Brooklyn Public library and other libraries
  • removed from reading lists due to alleged racism (e.g., in March of 1995 it was removed from the reading list of 10th grade English classes at National Cathedral School in Washington, DC, according to the Washington Post; and a New Haven, Connecticut correspondent to Banned Books Online reports it has been removed from a public school program there as well)
  • removed from school programs at the behest of groups maintaining that its frequent use of the word nigger (212 times overall) implies that the book as a whole is racist, despite what defenders maintain is the overwhelmingly anti-racist[4] plot of the book, its satirical nature, and the anachronism of applying current definitions of polite speech to past times.
  • removed from public and school libraries because of its "racist" plot.

The epithetic phrase "Nigger Jim" does not appear in the novel but was used by Albert Bigelow Paine in his monumental 1912 Twain biography and by later U.S. critics including Leslie Fiedler, Norman Mailer [5], and Russell Baker, who famously wrote: This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... ... New Haven redirects here. ... The word nigger is a highly controversial term used in many English-speaking countries, including the United States, Canada, Britain, and Australia to refer to individuals with dark skin, especially those of African descent who previously were racially classified by the now outdated term Negro. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... Look up epithet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Leslie Aaron Fiedler (March 8, 1917–January 29, 2003) was an American literary critic, known for his interest in mythography and his championing of genre fiction. ... Russell Wayne Baker (born August 14, 1925) is an American Pulitzer Prize-winning writer known for his satirical commentary and self-critical prose. ...

The people whom Huck and Jim encounter on the Mississippi are drunkards, murderers, bullies, swindlers, lynches, thieves, liars, frauds, child abusers, numbskulls, hypocrites, windbags and traders in human flesh. All are white. The one man of honor in this phantasmagoria is 'Nigger Jim,' as Twain called him to emphasize the irony of a society in which the only true gentleman was held beneath contempt.[6]

Ralph Ellison was impressed with how clearly Twain allowed Jim's "dignity and human capacity" to emerge in the novel. According to Ellison, Ralph Ellison (March 1, 1913[1] – April 16, 1994) was a scholar and writer. ...

Huckleberry Finn knew, as Mark Twain, that Jim was not only a slave but a human being [and] a symbol of humanity . . . and in freeing Jim, Huck makes a bid to free himself of the conventionalized evil [i.e., slavery] taken for civilization by the town.[7]

The American Library Association ranked Huckleberry Finn the fifth most frequently challenged (in the sense of attempting to ban) book in the United States during the 1990s.[8] ALA Logo The American Library Association (ALA) is a group based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. ...


Film adaptations

This article is about motion pictures. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... Actor Mickey Rooney speaks at the Pentagon in 2000 during a ceremony honoring the USO. Mickey Rooney (born Joseph Yule, Jr. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was an Academy Award-winning Hungarian-American film director. ... Eddie Hodges (born 5 March 1947) is a former child actor and recording artist who left show business as an adult. ... The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was a half-hour live-action/animated series produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions on NBC primetime in 1968, based on the famous Mark Twain characters. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... Hopelessly Lost was a 1972 Soviet film based on Mark Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. ... Huckleberry Finn is a musical film version of the Mark Twain boyhood adventure story, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. ... The musical film is a film genre in which several songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative. ... This article is about the American broadcast network. ... Ronald William Howard (born March 1, 1954 in Duncan, Oklahoma) is an American actor, and an Academy Award winning film director, and producer, known for his roles on sitcoms, movies and television. ... The musical film is a film genre in which several songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative. ... Animé redirects here. ... Huckleberry Finn and His Friends was a 1970s TV series documenting the exploits of Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer, based on books by American writer Mark Twain. ... Ian Tracey (born 26 June 1964 in Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) is a Canadian Leo and Gemini Award -winning actor. ... “Telefilm” redirects here. ... The Adventures of Huck Finn is a 1993 Disney film starring Elijah Wood and Courtney B. Vance; it is based on Mark Twains novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. ... Elijah Jordan Wood (born January 28, 1981) is an American actor. ... Courtney Vance Vance with wife Angela Bassett Courtney B. Vance (born March 12, 1960) is an American actor. ... Tom & Huck is a 1995 Disney film starring Jonathan Taylor Thomas, Brad Renfro, Joey Stinson, and Rachel Leigh Cook; it is based on Mark Twains novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. ...

Stage adaptations

Big River: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a musical based on Mark Twains novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, with music and lyrics by Roger Miller and book by William Hauptman. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... A section of the album jacket for Golden Hits Roger Dean Miller (January 2, 1936 – October 25, 1992) was an American singer, songwriter, and musician. ...

Literature

  • Finn: A Novel (2007), a novel about Huck's father, Pap Finn, by Jon Clinch.
  • My Jim (2005), a novel narrated largely by Sadie, Jim's enslaved wife by Nancy Rawles.

Jon Clinch is an American writer, teacher and advertising agent. ...

References

  1. ^ Twain, Mark (2001-10-01). "Introduction", The Annotated Huckleberry Finn, introduction and annotations by Michael Patrick Hearn, W. W. Norton & Company, xiv–xvii, xxix. ISBN 0-393-02039-8. 
  2. ^ Young, Philip (1966-12-01). Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration. Penn State Press, 212. ISBN 0-271-02092-X. 
  3. ^ Jehlen, Myra (1995-05-26). "Banned in Concord: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Classic American Literature", in Forrest G. Robinson (ed.): The Cambridge Companion to Mark Twain. Cambridge University Press, 107–109. ISBN 0-521-44593-0. 
  4. ^ Expelling 'Huck Finn' by Nat Hentoff
  5. ^ Huckleberry Finn, Alive at 100 by Norman Mailer Retrieved 03 July 2007
  6. ^ Expelling Huck Finn. jewishworldreview.com. Retrieved on Jan 8, 2006.
  7. ^ Is Huck Finn a Racist Book?. salwen.com. Retrieved on Jan 8, 2006.
  8. ^ http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/bannedbooksweek/bbwlinks/100mostfrequently.htm
  1. ^ Twain, Mark (2001-10-01). "Introduction", The Annotated Huckleberry Finn, introduction and annotations by Michael Patrick Hearn, W. W. Norton & Company, xiv–xvii, xxix. ISBN 0-393-02039-8. 
  2. ^ Young, Philip (1966-12-01). Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration. Penn State Press, 212. ISBN 0-271-02092-X. 
  3. ^ Jehlen, Myra (1995-05-26). "Banned in Concord: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Classic American Literature", in Forrest G. Robinson (ed.): The Cambridge Companion to Mark Twain. Cambridge University Press, 107–109. ISBN 0-521-44593-0. 
  4. ^ Expelling 'Huck Finn' by Nat Hentoff
  5. ^ Huckleberry Finn, Alive at 100 by Norman Mailer Retrieved 03 July 2007
  6. ^ Expelling Huck Finn. jewishworldreview.com. Retrieved on Jan 8, 2006.
  7. ^ Is Huck Finn a Racist Book?. salwen.com. Retrieved on Jan 8, 2006.
  8. ^ http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/bannedbooksweek/bbwlinks/100mostfrequently.htm

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Michael Patrick Hearn is an American literary scholar and one of Americas leading men of letters specializing in childrens literature and its illustration. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Michael Patrick Hearn is an American literary scholar and one of Americas leading men of letters specializing in childrens literature and its illustration. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Chronological order of publication (oldest first)


External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The - Literature Guide - MSN Encarta (2896 words)
Huckleberry Finn, one of the central works of American literature and a worldwide bestseller, traces the moral education of a young boy whose better impulses overcome both self-interest and the negative forces of his culture.
Huckleberry Finn tells this story from his own point of view and in his own language.
The Huckleberry Finn character is first introduced in Tom Sawyer, where he plays a secondary role but is established as a homeless orphan with a reputation as a troublemaker.
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn - Article about Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (3044 words)
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) by Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels.
The novel chronicles the adventures of and relationship between Huckleberry Finn and the runaway slave Jim, as they flee south on the Mississippi River.
Huckleberry Finn, the son of a worthless, drunken, poor white man, is troubled with many of conscience because of the part he is taking in helping the negro to gain his freedom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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