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Encyclopedia > Adultery
Family law
Entering into marriage
Prenuptial agreement  · Marriage
Common-law marriage
Same-sex marriage
Legal states similar to marriage
Cohabitation  · Civil union
Domestic partnership
Registered partnership
Putative marriage
Dissolution of marriage
Annulment  · Divorce  · Alimony
Issues affecting children
Paternity  · Legitimacy  · Adoption
Legal guardian  · Ward
Emancipation of minors
Parental responsibility
Contact (including Visitation)
Residence in English law
Custody  · Child support
Areas of possible legal concern
Spousal abuse  · Child abuse
Child abduction
Adultery  · Bigamy  · Incest
Conflict of Laws Issues
Marriage  · Nullity  · Divorce

Adultery is voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and one who is not his or her spouse. Some legal jurisdictions have defined it as "crime against marriage",[1] opposed to infidelity. Adultery is the title of the next Dog Fashion Disco album, due for release on April 4th, 2006. ... Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... A prenuptial agreement or antenuptial agreement, commonly abbreviated to prenup or prenupt, is a contract entered into by two people prior to marriage or civil union. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Common-law marriage (or common law marriage), sometimes called informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute is, historically, a form of interpersonal status in which a man and a woman are legally married. ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term... This article is about a living arrangement. ... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      A domestic partnership is a legal or personal relationship between individuals who live... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide... A putative marriage is an apparently valid marriage, entered into in good faith on part of at least one of the partners, but is invalid because of an impediment, such as a currently valid marriage on part of one of them. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Alimony, maintenance or spousal support is an obligation established by law in many countries that is based on the premise that both spouses have an absolute obligation to support each other during the marriage (or civil union) unless they are legally separated. ... In law, Paternity is the legal acknowledgment of the parental relationship between a father and his child usually based on biological factors, but sometimes based on social factors. ... Freiheitsrechte Recht auf Leben, Freiheit, Eigentum, Sicherheit der Person Allgemeine, nur durch Gesetz beschränkbare Handlungsfreiheit Freiheit von willkürlichen Eingriffen in die Privatsphäre (Wohnung, Briefgeheimnis etc. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward. ... In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian. ... Emancipation of minors is a legal mechanism by which a person below the age of majority (adulthood) gains certain rights, generally identical to those of adults. ... In the states of the European Union and elsewhere, parental responsibility refers to the rights and privilieges which underpin the relationship between a child and either its parents or those adults who have a significant role in its life. ... In Family Law, contact (or in the United States, visitation) is one of the general terms which denotes the level of contact a parent or other significant person in a childs life can have with that child. ... In Family Law, residence is an Order of the Family court under s8 Children Act 1989 following the breakdown of a marriage and determining where the child(ren) are to live and with whom. ... Child custody and guardianship are legal terms which are sometimes used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and his or her child, such as the right of the parent to make decisions for the child, and the parents duty to care for the child. ... In many countries, child support or child maintenance is the ongoing obligation for a periodic payment made by a non-custodial parent to a custodial parent, caregiver or guardian, for the care and support of children of a relationship or marriage that has been terminated. ... Spousal abuse refers to a wide spectrum of abuse. ... Child abuse is the physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment or neglect of children by parents, guardians, or others. ... Child abduction is the abduction or kidnapping of a child (or baby) by an older person. ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... Incest is sexual activity between two persons related by close kinship. ... Private International Law, International Private Law, or Conflict of Laws is that branch of law regulating all lawsuits involving a foreign law element where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... In Conflict of Laws, the issue of marriage has assumed increasing public policy significance in a world of increasing multi-ethnic, multi-cultural community existence. ... In Conflict of Laws, the issue of nullity (known as annulment in the United States) in Family Law inspires a wide response among the laws of different states as to the circumstances in which a marriage will be valid, invalid or null. ... In modern society, the role of marriage and its termination through divorce have become political issues. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Look up infidelity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Definitions

Although the definition of "adultery" differs in nearly every legal system, the common theme is sexual relations outside of marriage, in one form or another. This article is about sexual practices (i. ...


For example, New York defines an adulterer as a person who "engages in sexual intercourse with another person at a time when he has a living spouse, or the other person has a living spouse."[2] While in North Carolina adultery is when any man and woman "lewdly and lasciviously associate, bed and cohabit together."[3] Minnesota defines adultery as: "when a married woman has sexual intercourse with a man other than her husband, whether married or not, both are guilty of adultery".[4] State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ...


Adultery was known in earlier times by the legalistic term "criminal conversation" (another term, alienation of affection, is used when one spouse deserts the other for a third person). The term originates not from adult, which is from Latin a-dolescere, to grow up, mature, a combination of a, "to", dolere, "work", and the processing combound sc), but from the Latin ad-ulterare (to commit adultery, adulterate/falsify, a combination of ad, "at", and ulter, "above", "beyond", "opposite", meaning "on the other side of the bond of marriage").[5] Alienation of affection is a common law concept in which a man could sue if his wife left him for another man. ... For the adult insect stage, see Imago. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


A marriage in which both spouses agree that it is acceptable for the husband or wife to have sexual relationships with other people other than their spouse is a form of nonmonogamy. The resulting sexual relationships the husband or wife has with other people, although could be considered to be adultery in some legal jurisdictions, are not treated as such by the spouses. Poly relationship (from polygamy, polyamory et al. ...

Close relationships

AffinityAttachmentBondingCasualCohabitationCompersion ConcubinageCourtshipDivorceDower/-ryFriendshipFamilyHusbandInfatuationIntimacyJealousyLimerenceLoveMarriageMonogamyNonmonogamyOffice romance PassionPartnerPederastyPolygamyPlatonic lovePsychology of monogamyRelationship abuseRomanceSexualitySeparationWeddingWidowhoodWife Image File history File links KarenWhimseyValentineMain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships. ... The term human bond -- or, more generally, human bonding -- refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... A casual relationship is a term used to describe the physical and emotional relationship between two people who may have a sexual relationship or a near-sexual relationship without necessarily demanding or expecting a more formal relationship as a goal. ... This article is about a living arrangement. ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Dower (Lat. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the family of the bride to the family of the groom at the time of their marriage. ... For other uses, see Friendship (disambiguation). ... a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ... For other uses, see Husband (disambiguation). ... Infatuation is the state of being completely carried away by unreasoning passion or love; addictive love. ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Jealousy typically refers to the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that occur when a person believes a valued relationship is being threatened by a rival. ... Limerence, as posited by psychologist Dorothy Tennov, is an involuntary cognitive and emotional state in which a person feels an intense romantic desire for another person (the limerent object). ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... An office romance, work romance, or corporate affair is a romance that occurs between two people who work together in the same office, work location, or business. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... In the past century, the term pederasty has seen a number of different uses. ... The term polygamy (many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships. ... Abuser redirects here. ... For other uses, see Romance. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ...

v  d  e

Some cultures have a distinguished interpretation of the term infidelity: in some legal systems, it might be tolerated as long as it does not fit the jurisdiction's legal definition of adultery. On the other hand, infidelity is not only a sexual term, but is the Latin word "unfaithful" (fides: faith). (Having no faith can also mean the religious belief.[6]) Look up infidelity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ...


Informal penalties

Apart from formal punishment, historically adulterers have suffered from society's disapproving attitudes toward them. The nature of these attitudes vary widely depending on local culture, religion and values, and how seriously the adulterer regards the opinions of others. Often adultery might be overlooked and tacitly accepted by others aware.


Legal penalties for adultery

Historically, adultery has been subject to severe sanctions, including the death penalty, and has been grounds for divorce under fault-based divorce laws. In some places, the method of punishment for adultery is stoning to death.[1] Sanctions are usually monetary fines, levied against a party to a legal action or his attorney, for violating rules of procedure, or for abusing the judicial process. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of capital punishment execution method carried out by an organized group throwing stones or rocks at the person they mean to execute. ...


In the original Napoleonic Code, a man could ask to be divorced from his wife if she committed adultery, but the philandery of the husband was not a sufficient motive for divorce unless he had kept his concubine in the family home. First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... A swampy marsh area ...


In some jurisdictions, including Korea, Taiwan and Mexico, adultery is illegal. In the United States, laws vary from state to state. For example, in Pennsylvania, adultery is technically punishable by 2 years of imprisonment or 18 months of treatment for insanity (for history, see Hamowy) (criminal statute repealed 1972), while in Michigan the Court of Appeals, the state's second-highest court, ruled that a little-known provision of state criminal law means that adultery carries a potential life sentence.[2] In Maryland, adultery is punishable by a fine of $10. That being said, such statutes are typically considered blue laws and are rarely, if ever, enforced. In the U.S. Military, adultery is a court-martialable offense only if it had been "to the prejudice of good order and discipline" or "of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces".[3] This law has been applied to cases where both partners were members of the military, particularly where one was in command of the other, or one partner and the other's spouse. The enforceability of criminal sanctions for adultery is questionable in light of Supreme Court decisions since 1965 relating to privacy and sexual intimacy, and particularly in light of Lawrence v. Texas, which protected the right of privacy for consenting adults. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... This article is about laws created to enforce moral standards. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Holding A Texas law prohibiting homosexual sodomy violated the privacy and liberty of adults, under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, to engage in private intimate conduct. ...


In Canadian law, adultery is defined under the Divorce Act. Though the written definition sets it as extramarital relations with someone of the opposite sex, the recent change in the definition of marriage gave grounds for a British Columbia judge to strike that definition down. In a 2005 case of a woman filing for divorce, her husband had cheated on her with another man, which the judge felt was equal reasoning to dissolve the union. Canadas Divorce Act (R.S., 1985, c. ... The Civil Marriage Act (full title: An Act respecting certain aspects of legal capacity for marriage for civil purposes) was introduced as Bill C-38 in the first session of the 38th Canadian Parliament on February 1, 2005. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735...


A majority of nations in the European Union, such as Austria, the Netherlands or Sweden do not persecute voluntary coitus between adult persons because of their status in marriage as adultery.


Adultery in selected cultural or religious traditions

Man and woman undergoing public exposure for adultery in Japan, around 1860
Man and woman undergoing public exposure for adultery in Japan, around 1860

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (941x592, 52 KB) Photo from Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs, by J. M. W. Silver, Illustrated by Native Drawings, Reproduced in Fac-simile by Means of Chromo-lithography, published in London in 1867 Source: Project Gutenberg: This eBook is for... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (941x592, 52 KB) Photo from Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs, by J. M. W. Silver, Illustrated by Native Drawings, Reproduced in Fac-simile by Means of Chromo-lithography, published in London in 1867 Source: Project Gutenberg: This eBook is for... Religious views on sexual intercourse vary widely by religion. ... Sexual morality varies greatly over time and between cultures. ...

Historical views

Historically, adultery was rigorously condemned and punished, usually only as a violation of the husband's rights. Among such peoples the wife was commonly reckoned as the property of her spouse, and adultery was therefore identified with theft. But it was theft of an aggravated kind, as the property which it would spoliate was more highly appraised than other chattels. It is not the seducer alone who suffers. Dire penalties are visited upon the offending wife by her wronged spouse, and in many instances she is made to endure a bodily mutilation which will, in the mind of the aggrieved husband, prevent her from ever being a temptation to other men again (Schoolcraft, Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States, I, 236; V, 683, 684, 686; also H.H. Bancroft, The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, I, 514). If, however, the wronged husband could visit swift and terrible retribution upon the adulterous wife, the latter was allowed no cause against the unfaithful husband; and this discrimination found in the practices of ancient peoples is moreover set forth in nearly all ancient codes of law. The Laws of Manu are striking on this point: in ancient India, "though destitute of virtue or seeking pleasure elsewhere, or devoid of good qualities, yet a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife"; on the other, hand, "if a wife, proud of the greatness of her relatives or [her own] excellence, violates the duty which she owes to her lord, the king shall cause her to be devoured by dogs in a place frequented by many" (Laws of Manu, V, 154; VIII, 371).


In the Greco-Roman world there were stringent laws against adultery, but this applied to those having sex with a married woman. A married man having sex with a slave or an un-married woman was not a crime. The lending of wives practiced among some peoples was, as Plutarch tells us, encouraged also by Lycurgus, though from a motive other than that which actuated the practice (Plutarch, Lycurgus, XXIX). The recognized license of the Greek husband may be seen in the following passage of the Oration against Neaera, the author of which is uncertain, though it has been attributed to Demosthenes: "We keep mistresses for our pleasures, concubines for constant attendance, and wives to bear us legitimate children and to be our faithful housekeepers. Yet, because of the wrong done to the husband only, the Athenian lawgiver Solon allowed any man to kill an adulterer whom he had taken in the act" (Plutarch, Solon). Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


In the early Roman Law the jus tori belonged to the husband. There was, therefore, no such thing as the crime of adultery on the part of a husband towards his wife. Moreover, this crime was not committed unless one of the parties was a married woman (Dig., XLVIII, ad leg. Jul.). It is well known that the Roman husband often took advantage of his legal immunity. Thus we are told by the historian Spartianus that Verus, the imperial colleague of Marcus Aurelius, did not hesitate to declare to his reproaching wife: "Uxor enim dignitatis nomen est, non voluptatis." (Verus, V). The Augustan History (Lat. ... Verus (died 219) was a Roman Senator and usurper. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180 . ...


Later in Roman history, as the late William E.H. Lecky has shown, the idea that the husband owed a fidelity similar to that demanded of the wife must have gained ground, at least in theory. This Lecky gathers from the legal maxim of Ulpian: "It seems most unfair for a man to require from a wife the chastity he does not himself practice" (Codex Justin., Digest, XLVIII, 5-13; Lecky, History of European Morals, II, 313). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Domitius Ulpianus, Anglicized as Ulpian, (died 228) was a Roman jurist of Tyrian ancestry. ...


Judaism

In Judaism, adultery was forbidden in the seventh commandment of the Ten Commandments, but this did not apply to a married man having relations with an unmarried woman. Only a married woman engaging in sexual intercourse with another man counted as adultery, in which case both the woman and the man were considered guilty [4]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about a list of ten religious commandments. ...


In the Mosaic Law, as in the old Roman Law, adultery meant only the carnal intercourse of a wife with a man who was not her lawful husband. The intercourse of a married man with a single woman was not accounted adultery, but fornication. The penal statute on the subject, in Leviticus, 20:10, makes this clear: "If any man commit adultery with the wife of another and defile his neighbor's wife, let them be put to death both the adulterer and the adulteress" (see also Deuteronomy 22:22). This was quite in keeping with the prevailing practice of polygamy among the Israelites. Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Fornication, or simple fornication, is a term which refers to sexual intercourse between consenting unmarried partners. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In halakha (Jewish Law) the penalty for adultery is stoning for both the man and the woman, but this is only enacted when there are two independent witnesses who warned the offenders prior to the crime being committed. Today, Jewish law forbids a man to continue living with a wife who cheated on him; he is obliged to give her a get or bill of divorce written by a sofer or scribe. Neither is the adulteress permitted to the adulterer, who must also give her a bill of divorce if he married her. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of capital punishment execution method carried out by an organized group throwing stones or rocks at the person they mean to execute. ... A get (גט, plural gittim or gittin) is the Hebrew word for a divorce document. ... Sofer can refer to: A scribe Moses Sofer Jekuthiel Sofer Rube John Sofer This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Christianity

Christianity arose out of Judaism, whose decrees regarding adultery are found in the Torah, the first five books of the Christian Old Testament. The Torah explicitly forbids adultery, describing it as an act punishable by death.[7] It is also forbidden by the Ten Commandments, which are considered to be the basis of all Jewish Law. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of God, traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about a list of ten religious commandments. ... Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ...


Jesus classed as adultery even a sexual relationship by someone who divorces their spouse, not mentioning such qualifications for someone whose spouse divorces them. The accounts of Mark 10:11-12 and Luke 16:18 state this absolutely. The account of Matthew 5:32 and 19:9 makes an exception for the break-up of a marriage because of πορνεία, a word that literally means "fornication", and that some interpret as referring to invalidity of the broken marriage, while others take it to mean "adultery", even if it is not the specific word for adultery (a word that, in its verbal form, appears in the same verses).


In Judaic culture of the time, "fornication" was applied as sleeping around during what Westerners would call "the engagement" or pre-marital time, and was regarded as grounds for not following through with the marriage proper. This involved the partners-to-be serving divorce papers on each other. Note that in Judaism, "putting away" (separation) was regarded as just the first step towards "divorce" and much text relating to marriage only makes sense when read with this in mind.


In Matthew 5:28, Jesus declared that adultery is committed in the heart by a man who looks with lust at a woman, and made no distinction about whether the woman was married or not. Saint Paul also put men and women on the same footing with regard to marital rights.[8] This contradicted the traditional notion that relations of a married man with an unmarried woman were not adultery. Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ...


This parity between husband and wife was insisted on by early Christian writers such as Lactantius, who declared: "For he is equally an adulterer in the sight of God and impure, who, having thrown off the yoke, wantons in strange pleasure either with a free woman or a slave. But as a woman is bound by the bonds of chastity not to desire any other man, so let the husband be bound by the same law, since God has joined together the husband and the wife in the union of one body."[9]


The same idea appears in the sixteenth-century Catechism of the Council of Trent, which gives the following definition and examples of adultery, expressly including the case of a married man having sexual intercourse with an unmarried woman: "To begin with the prohibitory part (of the Commandment), adultery is the defilement of the marriage bed, whether it be one's own or another's. If a married man have intercourse with an unmarried woman, he violates the integrity of his marriage bed; and if an unmarried man have intercourse with a married woman, he defiles the sanctity of the marriage bed of another."[10] The Catechism of the Council of Trent (or Roman Catechism) differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: it is primarily intended for priests having care of souls (ad parochos), and it enjoyed an authority within the Catholic Church equalled by no...


The modern Catechism of the Catholic Church expresses the idea more concisely: "Adultery refers to marital infidelity. When two partners, of whom at least one is married to another party, have sexual relations — even transient ones — they commit adultery."[11] It continues on to say that through adultery a person "does injury to the sign of the covenant which the marriage bond is, transgresses the rights of the other spouse, and undermines the institution of marriage by breaking the contract on which it is based." [12] While such an act can easily lead to the dissolution of the marriage, the possibility for healing under such conditions is still a possibility, so long as the couple commit to uncovering the underlying issues that led to the betrayal.[13] The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...


Islam

Main article: Zina (Arabic)

According to Islam, adultery is a violation of a marital contract and one of the major sins. In Islam; adultery includes both pre-marital and extramarital sex. Fornication and adultery are both included in the Arabic word 'Zina'. As they belong primarily to the same category of crimes, entail the same social implications and have the same effects on the spiritual personality of a human being, both, in principle, have been given the same status by the Qur'an.The Prophet Muhammad (s)had stated that the punishment of stoning to death is perscribed for a married person. Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Zina (زنا) is an Arabic term for extramarital or premarital sex. ...


"Do not go near to adultery. Surely it is a shameful deed and evil, opening roads (to other evils)" (Quran 17:32).


"Say, 'Verily, my Lord has prohibited the shameful deeds, be it open or secret, sins and trespasses against the truth and reason"' (Quran 7:33).


"Women impure are for men impure, and men impure are for women impure and women of purity are for men of purity, and men of purity are for women of purity." (Quran 24:26)


In Pakistan, adultery has been criminalized by a law called the Hudood Ordinance, which specifies a maximum penalty of death, although only imprisonment and corporal punishment have ever actually been used. It has been particularly controversial because a woman making an accusation of rape must provide extremely strong evidence to avoid being charged under it herself. The same kinds of laws have been in effect in some other Muslim countries, such as Saudi Arabia. However, in recent years high-profile rape cases in Pakistan have given the Hudood Ordinance more exposure than similar laws in other countries.[14] Conviction isn't possible without four witnesses though. The Hudood Ordinance is a law in Pakistan, which enforces punishments mentioned in the Quran and sunnah for crimes such as adultery, rape and theft. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Corporal punishment is forced pain intended to change a persons behaviour or to punish them. ...


Adultery is a capital offence, punishable by stoning, under Iran's Islamic law. Nowadays, Iranian officials are banning stoning because of social objections. Capital punishment, also called the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ...


Proving Adultery under Islam Law can be a very difficult task for Islamic law requires of the accuser to produce Four eye witnesses to the actual act of sexual intercourse and each of these four eye witnesses should have good reputation with truthfulness and honesty.


See also

Look up Adultery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The theme of adultery features in a wide range of literature through the ages. ... The incidence of monogamy refers to the frequency with which monogamy occurs. ... Fornication, or simple fornication, is a term which refers to sexual intercourse between consenting unmarried partners. ... Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of King Louis XV of France. ... An affair may refer to a form of nonmonogamy, to infidelity or to adultery. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Open marriage typically refers to a marriage in which the partners agree that each may engage in extramarital sexual relationships, without this being regarded as infidelity. ... Swinging, sometimes referred to as the swinging lifestyle, is non-monogamous sexual activity, treated much like any other social activity, that can be experienced as a couple. ... A cuckold is a married man whose wife has sex with other men. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Germany: § 1353 Abs. 1 S. 2 BGB
  2. ^ MinnesNew York section 255.17.
  3. ^ North Carolina Statute 14-184.
  4. ^ Minnesota Statute section 609.36.
  5. ^ Longman Dictionary of Latin, Berlin 1950
  6. ^ Merriam-Webster
  7. ^ Leviticus 20:10
  8. ^ 1 Corinthians 7:4
  9. ^ Epitome of the Divine Institutes, chapter 56
  10. ^ The Catechism of Trent
  11. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2380
  12. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2381
  13. ^ For your Marriage
  14. ^ [http://www.dawn.com/2005/07/13/nat2.htm Hudood laws open to change in Pakistan, July 2005

The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) was the civil code of the German Empire and continues to act as the central law for german civil law. ...

References

  • Best Practices: Progressive Family Laws in Muslim Countries (August 2005} [5]
  • Hamowy, Ronald. Medicine and the Crimination of Sin: "Self-Abuse" in 19th Century America. pp2/3 [6]
  • Moultrup, David J. (1990). Husbands, Wives & Lovers. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Glass, S. P., & Wright, T. L. (1992). Justifications for extramarital relationships: The association between attitudes, behaviors, and gender. Journal of Sex Research, 29, 361-387.
  • Jack Goody A Comparative Approach to Incest and Adultery The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 7, No. 4 (Dec., 1956), pp. 286-305 doi:10.2307/586694
  • Pittman, F. (1989). Private Lies. New York: W. W. Norton Co.
  • Rubin, A. M., & Adams, J. R. (1986). Outcomes of sexually open marriages. Journal of Sex Research, 22, 311-319.
  • Vaughan, P. (1989). The Monogamy Myth. New York: New Market Press.
  • Blow, Adrian J, Hartnett, Kelley. (Apr 2005). Infidelity in Committed Relationships I: A Methodological Review. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. [7]
  • Blow, Adrian J, Hartnett, Kelley. (Apr 2005). Infidelity in Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. [8]

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Adultery (2264 words)
adultery with the wife of another and defile his neighbor's wife let them be put to death both the adulterer and the adulteress." (See also Deuteronomy 22:22) This was quite in keeping with the prevailing practice of polygamy among the Israelites.
adultery of the husband, unlike that of the wife, was not sufficient ground for divorce.
adultery of a wife, besides the injury done the husband by her infidelity, a spurious child may be born which he may think himself bound to sustain, and which may perhaps become his heir.
Adultery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (776 words)
Adultery is generally defined as consensual sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than his or her lawful spouse.
In the original Napoleonic Code, a man could ask to be divorced from his wife if she committed adultery, but the adultery of the husband was not a sufficient motive unless he had kept his concubine in the family home.
Adultery is forbidden in the seventh commandment of the Ten Commandments.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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