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Encyclopedia > Adrenal gland
Adrenal gland
Endocrine system
Adrenal gland
Latin glandula suprarenalis
Gray's subject #277 1278
System Endocrine
Artery superior suprarenal artery, middle suprarenal artery, Inferior suprarenal artery
Vein suprarenal veins
Nerve celiac plexus, renal plexus
Lymph lumbar glands
MeSH Adrenal+Glands
Dorlands/Elsevier g_06/12392729

In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, "near" or "at" + -renes, "kidneys"). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines, including cortisol and adrenaline. Image File history File links Illu_endocrine_system. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... Image File history File links Illu_adrenal_gland. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... Each (left and right) superior suprarenal artery is a branch of the inferior phrenic artery on that side of the body. ... The middle suprarenal arteries (middle capsular arteries; suprarenal arteries) are two small vessels which arise, one from either side of the abdominal aorta, opposite the superior mesenteric artery. ... Each renal artery gives off some small inferior suprarenal branches to the suprarenal gland, the ureter, and the surrounding cellular tissue and muscles. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The Suprarenal Veins are two in number: the right ends in the inferior vena cava. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... The solar plexus, also known as the celiac plexus or plexus cœliacus, is an autonomous cluster of nerve cells (see Plexus) in the human body behind the stomach and below the diaphragm near the celiac artery in the abdominal cavity. ... The renal plexus is formed by filaments from the celiac plexus, the aorticorenal ganglion, and the aortic plexus . ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... The lumbar lymph nodes are a group of lymph nodes residing in the lumbar region. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ...

Contents

Anatomy and function

Anatomically, the adrenal glands are located in the thoracic abdomen situated atop the kidneys, specifically on their anterosuperior aspect. They are also surrounded by the adipose capsule and the renal fascia. In humans, the adrenal glands are found at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra and receive their blood supply from the adrenal arteries. The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The kidney and the adipose capsule are enclosed in a sheath of fibrous tissue continuous with the subperitoneal fascia, and named the renal fascia (also known as Gerotas fascia). ... A typical thoracic vertebra The thoracic vertebrae (vertebrae thoracales) compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. ... The adrenal arteries are arteries in the human abdomen that supply blood to the adrenal glands. ...


The adrenal gland is separated into two distinct structures, both of which receive regulatory input from the nervous system: The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ...

In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine Adrenal gland. ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... Norepinephrine, known as noradrenaline outside the USA, is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... The fight-or-flight response, also called hyperarousal or the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1915[1][2]. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... It has been suggested that HTPA be merged into this article or section. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Aldosterone, is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland, and acts on the kidney nephron to conserve sodium, secrete potassium,increase water retention, and increase blood pressure. ... redirect Template:Db-reason synaptophysin ... | Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Schematic depicting how the RAAS works. ...

Arteries and veins

Although variations of the blood supply to the adrenal glands (and indeed the kidneys themselves) are common, there are usually three arteries that supply each adrenal gland:

Venous drainage of the adrenal glands is achieved via the suprarenal veins: Each (left and right) superior suprarenal artery is a branch of the inferior phrenic artery on that side of the body. ... The inferior phrenic arteries are two small vessels, which supply the diaphragm but present much variety in their origin. ... The middle suprarenal arteries (middle capsular arteries; suprarenal arteries) are two small vessels which arise, one from either side of the abdominal aorta, opposite the superior mesenteric artery. ... AORTA can also mean always-on real-time access, referring to WAN computer networks. ... Each renal artery gives off some small inferior suprarenal branches to the suprarenal gland, the ureter, and the surrounding cellular tissue and muscles. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The renal arteries normally arise off the abdominal aorta and supply the kidneys with blood. ... In geology, a vein is a regularly shaped and lengthy occurrence of an ore; a lode. ... The Suprarenal Veins are two in number: the right ends in the inferior vena cava. ...

The suprarenal veins receive blood may form anastomoses with the inferior phrenic veins. The Suprarenal Veins are two in number: the right ends in the inferior vena cava. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... The Suprarenal Veins are two in number: the right ends in the inferior vena cava. ... The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney. ... The Inferior Phrenic Veins follow the course of the inferior phrenic arteries; the right ends in the inferior vena cava; the left is often represented by two branches, one of which ends in the left renal or suprarenal vein, while the other passes in front of the esophageal hiatus in... The Suprarenal Veins are two in number: the right ends in the inferior vena cava. ... Anastomoses any connection between two arteries providing collateral (redundant) circulation of blood to a tissue. ... The Inferior Phrenic Veins follow the course of the inferior phrenic arteries; the right ends in the inferior vena cava; the left is often represented by two branches, one of which ends in the left renal or suprarenal vein, while the other passes in front of the esophageal hiatus in...


The adrenal glands and the thyroid gland are the organs that have the greatest blood supply per gram of tissue. Up to 60 arterioles may enter each adrenal gland.[1] The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ...


See also

The fight-or-flight response, also called hyperarousal or the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1915[1][2]. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Geoffrey Howard Bourne (17 November 1909 – 19 July 1988) was an Australian-U.S. anatomist and primatologist. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ JE Skandalakis. Surgical Anatomy: The Embryologic And Anatomic Basis Of Modern Surgery (2004).

General references

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPTA) is a way of referring to the combined effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... The corpus luteum (Latin for yellow body) is a small, temporary endocrine structure in animals. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... A porcine islet of Langerhans. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chromophil. ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... The zona reticularis (inner region of the adrenal cortex) secretes and synthesize small amounts of weak androgens, steroids that have masculinizing effects. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Adrenal Gland : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., natural options for adrenal fatigue (1628 words)
The pituitary gland, in turn, produces corticotropin hormones, which stimulate the adrenal glands to produce corticosteroid or steroid hormones.
Adrenal crisis represents an endocrine emergency, and thus the rapid recognition and prompt therapy for adrenal crisis are critical for survival even before the diagnosis is made.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an adrenal disease that affects adrenal gland function, resulting in abnormal steroidogenesis caused by a deficiency or complete lack of the enzyme 21-hydroxylase (accounting for 90% of CAH cases).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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