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Encyclopedia > Adrenal cortex
Adrenal cortex
Layers of cortex.
Latin cortex glandulae suprarenalis
Gray's subject #277 1278
Dorlands/Elsevier c_57/12261690
Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer).

Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, including aldosterone and cortisol respectively. It is also a secondary site of androgen synthesis. Image File history File links Gray1185. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Elseviers logo. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ...

Contents

Layers

The cortex can be divided into three distinct layers of tissue based on their organization. Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ...

Layer Name Primary product
Most superficial cortical layer zona glomerulosa mineralocorticoids (eg, aldosterone)
Middle cortical layer zona fasciculata glucocorticoids (eg, cortisol)
Deepest cortical layer zona reticularis weak androgens (eg, dehydroepiandrosterone)

In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... The zona reticularis (inner region of the adrenal cortex) secretes and synthesize small amounts of weak androgens, steroids that have masculinizing effects. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ...

Steps of hormone synthesis

  • All adrenocortical hormones are synthesised from cholesterol.

The steps up to this point occur in many steroid-producing tissues. Subsequent steps, however, only occur in the adrenal cortex: Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Mitochondria structure: (1) inner membrane, (2) outer membrane, (3)cristae, (4) matrix The mitochondrial inner membrane forms internal compartments known as cristae, which allow greater space for the proteins such as cytochromes to function properly and efficiently. ... The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, commonly referred to as StAR, is a transport protein that regulates cholesterol transfer within the mitochondria, a rate limiting step in the production of steroid hormones. ... Pregnenolone is a steroid hormone involved in the steroidogenesis of progesterone, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Pregnenolone is a steroid hormone involved in the steroidogenesis of progesterone, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. ... Pregnenolone is a steroid hormone involved in the steroidogenesis of progesterone, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. ... We dont have an article called Dehydrogenated Start this article Search for Dehydrogenated in. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Hydroxylation is any chemical process that introduces one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) into a compound (or radical) thereby oxidising it. ... 17-Hydroxypregnenolone (also 17-OH-pregnenolone and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone), is a C21 steroid that is obtained by hydroxylation of pregnenolone at the C17α position. ... Steroid skeleton of lanosterol. ...

Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Deoxycorticosterone Deoxycorticosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland that posses mineralocorticoid activity and acts as a precursor to aldosterone. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... 17-Hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH progesterone or 17OHP) is a C-21 steroid hormone produced in the synthesis of glucocorticoids and sex steroids. ... Deoxycortisol can refer to: 11-Deoxycortisol 17-Deoxycortisol Category: ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ...

Production

The adrenal cortex produces a number of different corticosteroid hormones: In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ...

Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular means outside the cell. It is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular means outside the cell. It is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... ... The name glucocorticoid derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Lipolysis is the breakdown of fat stored in fat cells. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... It has been suggested that Subcutaneous fat be merged into this article or section. ... Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found within the heart. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates. ... The zona reticularis (inner region of the adrenal cortex) secretes and synthesize small amounts of weak androgens, steroids that have masculinizing effects. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... A peacock displays his long, colored feathers, an example of his secondary sexual characteristics. ... For other uses, see DHT (disambiguation). ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Androstenedione (also known as 4-androstenedione) is a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step in the biochemical pathway that produces the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are a part of a female organism that produces eggs. ... Androstenedione (also known as 4-androstenedione) is a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step in the biochemical pathway that produces the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Estrone (also oestrone) is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovary. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Estriol. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ...

Mnemonics

The layers of the cortex can be remembered with the mnemonic GFR: G - glomerulosa, F - fasciculata, R - reticularis. Not to be confused with pneumonic. ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule per unit time. ...


Another mnemonic that is used is Go Find Rex, Make Good Sex: G - glomerulosa, F - fasciculata, R - reticularis, M - mineralcorticoids, G - glucocorticoids, S - sex hormones. (This mnemonic simplifies the relationship between the locations of production of glucocorticoids and sex hormones.)


Another mnemonic is "Salt, Sugar, Sex: The deeper you go, the sweeter it gets." As one moves layers into the adrenal cortex, compounds that control salt (mineralcorticoids), sugar (glucocorticoids), and sex (weak androgens) are produced.


Pathology

In medicine, adrenal insufficiency (or hypocortisolism) is the inability of the adrenal gland to produce adequate amounts of cortisol in response to stress. ... Addisons disease (also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces insufficient amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from defects in steps of the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands. ... Conns syndrome is overproduction of the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands. ...

See also

In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Adrenal Insufficiency (0 words)
He wrote that salt is a diuretic and that hypoadrenocortics (patients with low adrenal cortex function) retain fluid because the body is trying to hold onto the salt.
The adrenal cortex produces about 25% of the estrogenic hormones in women and 65% of the androgenic hormones in the man. The inability of the adrenals to produce the additional sex hormones may result in the flat chested female or the sparse chest-haired male.
But if you remove them, and then inject extract of cattle adrenals (cortex), stress resistance will vary in direct proportion to the amount of the injection, and even be put back to normal." Likewise a person's stress resistance will vary with the competence of his adrenals, but continually stressing the adrenals finally depletes them.
Endotext.com - Adrenal Physiology And Diseases, Adrenal Insufficiency (2740 words)
Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by diseases affecting the adrenal cortex (primary), the pituitary gland and the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (secondary), or the hypothalamus and the secretion of corticotropic-releasing hormone (CRH) (tertiary).
Adrenal Crisis: Adrenal crisis or acute adrenal insufficiency may complicate the course of chronic primary adrenal insufficiency, and may be precipitated by a serious infection, acute stress, bilateral adrenal infarction or hemorrhage.
Adrenal crisis can occur in patients receiving appropriate doses of glucocorticoid if their mineralocorticoid requirements are not met (22), whereas patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency and normal aldosterone secretion rarely present in adrenal crisis.
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