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Encyclopedia > Adolf von Baeyer
Adolf von Baeyer

Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer in 1905
Born October 31, 1835
Berlin, Germany
Died August 20, 1917
Starnberg, Germany
Residence Germany
Nationality German
Field Chemist
Institution University of Berlin

Gewerbe-Akademie, Berlin
University of Strassburg
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 357 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (385 × 647 pixel, file size: 17 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: http://clendening. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Starnberg is a Bavarian town, located south west of the city of Munich in Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der... The Central Institute for Modern Languages at the Technical University The Technical University of Berlin (TUB, TU Berlin, German: Technische Universität Berlin) is located in Berlin in Germany. ...

University of Munich
Alma mater University of Berlin
Academic advisor Robert Wilhelm Bunsen
Friedrich August Kekulé
Notable students Emil Fischer
Known for Synthesis of indigo
Notable prizes Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1905)

Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (October 31, 1835 - August 20, 1917) was a German chemist who synthesized indigo, and was the 1905 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry [1]. Born in Berlin, he initially studied mathematics and physics at Berlin University before moving to Heidelberg to study chemistry with Robert Bunsen. There he worked primarily in August Kekulé's laboratory, earning his doctorate (from Berlin) in 1858. He became a lecturer at the Berlin Trade Academy in 1860, and a Professor at the University of Strassburg in 1871. In 1875 he succeeded Justus von Liebig as Chemistry Professor at the University of Munich. With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der... Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (31st March, 1811 – 16th August, 1899) was a German chemist. ... Kekulé von Stradonitz Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz (September 7, 1829 – July 13, 1896) was a German organic chemist. ... Hermann Emil Fischer (October 9, 1852 - July 15, 1919) was a German chemist and recipient of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1902. ... Indigo (or spectral indigo) is the color on the spectrum between 440 and 420 nanometres in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet. ... Image File history File links Nobel. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... Indigo dye indigo molecule Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the fundamental laws of the universe and their precise formulation in a mathematical framework. ... Alternative meaning: Humboldt State University, located in Arcata, California German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is the successor to Berlins oldest university, the Friedrich Wilhelm University (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität), founded in 1810 by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly... A view of the city from the castle (Schloss) A view of stone bridge from the castle (Schloss) The castle (Schloss) above the town Shopping district Heidelberg and the other cities of the Neckar valley View from the so called alley of philosophers (Philosophenweg) towards the Old Town, with Heidelberg... Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (born 31 March 1811 in Göttingen, died 16 August 1899 in Heidelberg) was a German chemist. ... Kekulé von Stradonitz Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz (September 7, 1829 – July 13, 1896) was a German organic chemist. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany – April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ...


Baeyer's chief achievements include the synthesis and description of the plant dye indigo, the discovery of the phthalein dyes, and the investigation of polyacetylenes, oxonium salts, nitroso compounds (1869) and uric acid derivatives (1860 and onwards) (including the discovery of barbituric acid (1864), the parent compound of the barbiturates). He was the first to propose the correct formula for indole in 1869, after publishing the first synthesis three years earlier. His contributions to theoretical chemistry include the 'strain' (Spannung) theory of triple bonds and strain theory in small carbon rings. Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Indigo dye indigo molecule Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). ... Phenolphthalein is a sensitive chemical with the formula C20H14O4 (often written as HIn in shorthand notation). ... Polyacetylene (PA) is conducting polymer of the rigid-rod polymer host family. ... Nitroso refers to a functional group in organic chemistry which has the general formula R-NO. Nitroso compounds can be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds or by the oxidation of hydroxylamines. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Barbituric acid or malonylurea or 4-hydroxyuracyl is an organic compound based on a pyrimidine heterocyclic skeleton. ... Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Theoretical chemistry is the use of reasoning to explain or predict chemical phenomena. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... Baeyer strain theory or strain theory explains specific behaviour of chemical compounds in terms of bond angle strain. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ...


In 1872 he experimented with phenol and formaldehyde, almost preempting Leo Baekeland's later discovery of Bakelite. Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ... Leo Hendrik Baekeland (1863-1944) Leo Hendrik Baekeland (November 14, 1863 - February 23, 1944) was a Belgian-American chemist who invented Velox photographic paper (1893) and Bakelite (1907), an inexpensive, nonflammable, versatile, and popular plastic. ... Bakelite is a brand named material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride developed in 1907–1909 by Dr. Leo Baekeland. ...


In 1881 the Royal Society of London awarded Baeyer the Davy Medal for his work with indigo. In 1905 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds". Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... ... The Davy Medal is a bronze medal that has been awarded annually by the Royal Society in London since 1887. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...


External links

  • Speech given by Professor A. Lindstedt, President of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, on December 10, 1905, upon Baeyer's receiving the Nobel Prize
  • Biography by the Nobel Foundation
  • von Baeyer biography

Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer was born on October 31, 1835, in Berlin, as the son of Johann Jakob Baeyer and Eugenie née Hitzig. He came from a family distinguished both in literature and the natural sciences. His father, a lieutenant-general, was the originator of the European system of geodetic measurement. Even as a child Baeyer was interested in chemical experiments and at the age of twelve found a new double salt of copper.


Baeyer devoted his first two years as a student at the University of Berlin (1853-1855) chiefly to physics and mathematics. By 1856, however, his old love for chemistry re-awakened and drew him to Bunsen's laboratory in Heidelberg. His studies here on methyl chloride resulted in his first published work which came out in 1857. During the next year he worked in Kekulé's private laboratory in Heidelberg and was associated with his ingenious structure theory. Baeyer's life work was soon to bring this indeed most brilliant of chemical theories much resounding success. In 1858, in Berlin, he received his doctorate for his work on cacodyl compounds which had been done in Kekulé's laboratory.


For the next year or two Baeyer was again working with Kekulé who had meanwhile become Professor at Ghent. A study of uric acid, which also led him to the discovery of barbituric acid, provided the thesis by which he qualified as a university teacher in 1860. In the same year he became a lecturer in organic chemistry at the "Gewerbe-Akademie" (Trade Academy) in Berlin. He received little money but was given a spacious laboratory. In 1866 the University of Berlin, at the suggestion of A.W. Hofmann, conferred on him a senior lectureship, which, however, was unpaid.


It was during the Berlin period that Baeyer began most of the work that was to bring him fame later. In 1865 he started his work on indigo - the blue dye had fascinated him since his youth-and this soon led to the discovery of indole and to the partial synthesis of indigotin. His pupils Graebe and Liebermann, with the help of the zinc-dust distillation developed by Baeyer, clarified the structure of alizarin and worked out the synthesis used industrially. Studies were initiated on condensation reactions which, after Baeyer had gone to Strassburg as Professor in the newly established University (1871) brought to light that important category of dyestuffs - the phthaleins. Baeyer's theory of carbon-dioxide assimilation in formaldehyde also belongs to this period.


On the death of Justus von Liebig in 1873, Baeyer was called to his Chair in the University of Munich and there, over many years, built up an excellent new chemical laboratory. With his tenure at Munich came elegant total syntheses of indigo, as well as work on acetylene and polyacetylene, and from this derived the famous Baeyer strain theory of the carbon rings; there were studies of the constitution of benzene as well as comprehensive investigations into cyclic terpene. In this connexion the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones by means of per-acids was discovered. Especial interest was aroused theoretically by his work on organic peroxides and oxonium compounds and on the connexion between constitution and colour.


Von Baeyer's work was at once pioneering and many-sided. With admirable penetration and extraordinary experimental skill he combined dogged perseverance and, even at 70 years old, a youthful buoyancy in his work. He was careful never to overestimate the value of a theory. While Kekulé sometimes approached Nature with preconceived opinions, von Baeyer would say: "I have never set up an experiment to see whether I was right, but to see how the materials behave". Even in old age his views did not become fixed, and his mind remained open to new developments in chemical science.


Like Berzelius and Liebig, von Baeyer distinguished himself by forming a school which alone nurtured fifty future university teachers. Honours were heaped upon him, including the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1905. On his fiftieth birthday he was raised to the hereditary nobility.


Adolf von Baeyer married Adelheid (Lida) Bendemann in 1868. They had one daughter, who became the wife of the chemist Oskar Piloty, and two sons, both university lecturers, Hans in medicine at Munich, and Otto in physics at Berlin. He was still young in spirit when he succumbed to a seizure at his country house at Starnberger See on August 20, 1917


References

  •   Adolf von Baeyer: Winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1905 Armin de Meijere Angewandte Chemie International Edition Volume 44, Issue 48 , Pages 7836 - 7840 2005 Abstract
  • I. Asimov, Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (2nd Ed.), Doubleday, 1982, p. 472
  • J. R. Partington, A History of Chemistry, Macmillan, 1964, vol. 4, pp. 775-788
  • A Biographical Dictionary of Scientists, Williams, T. I., Ed., Wiley, 1969, pp. 27-28
  • Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970-1990, vol. 1, pp. 389-391
  • Great Chemists Farber, E., Ed., Interscience, 1961, pp. 733-747
  • Nature 1917, 100, pp. 188-190
  • J. Chem. Soc. Trans. 1923, 123, pp. 1520-1546
  • Nature 1935, 136, pp. 669-670
  • Mem. Lect. Chem. Soc. 1914-1932, 3, pp. 47-73
  • J. Am. Chem. Soc. Proc., 1923, 45, pp. 51-54
  • J. Chem. Ed. 1930, 7, pp. 1231-1248
  • Chem. Ber. 1935, 68, pp. 175A-180A.
  • Naturwiss. 1915, 3, pp. 559-582.
  • Neue Deutsche Biographie, Duncker & Humblot, 1953-1990, vol. 1, pp. 534-537
  • A. Baeyer, W. von Gesammelte, F. Vieweg & Sohn, 1905, pp. vii-xx
  • Das Buch der Grossen Chemiker, Bugge, G., Ed., Verlag Chemie, 1930, vol. 2, pp. 321-335.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Adolf von Baeyer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (323 words)
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (October 31, 1835 - August 20, 1917) was a German chemist who synthesized indigo, and was the 1905 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
In 1875 he succeeded Justus von Liebig as Chemistry Professor at the University of Munich.
Baeyer's chief achievements include the synthesis and description of the plant dye indigo, the discovery of the phthalein dyes, and the investigation of polyacetylenes, oxonium salts, and uric acid derivatives (including the discovery of barbituric acid, the parent compound of the barbiturates).
von Baeyer (725 words)
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer was born on October 31, 1835, in Berlin, as the son of Johann Jakob Baeyer and Eugenie née Hitzig.
Even as a child Baeyer was interested in chemical experiments and at the age of twelve found a new double salt of copper.
Adolf von Baeyer married Adelheid (Lida) Bendemann in 1868.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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