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Encyclopedia > Adolf Hitler
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Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler

Chancellor of Germany
Reichskanzler
In office
30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945
Preceded by Kurt von Schleicher
Succeeded by Joseph Goebbels

Head of State
Führer und Reichskanzler
In office
2 August 1934 – April 30, 1945
Preceded by Paul von Hindenburg
(as President)
Succeeded by Karl Dönitz
(as President)

Born April 20, 1889
Braunau am Inn, Austria
Died April 30, 1945
Berlin, Germany
Political party National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP)
Spouse Eva Braun
(married on 29 April 1945)

Adolf Hitler  (April 20, 1889April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933, and "Führer" (leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. He was leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), better known as the Nazi Party. Image File history File links Padlock. ... There have been several persons named Hitler: Adolf Hitler (1889–1945), Führer (Leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party and dictator of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (290x740, 154 KB) Description: Adolf Hitler on an reviewing stand during a official visit to occupied Yugoslavia Source: USHMM Photograph #89908 Date: 1941 - 1943 Author: Muzej Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije Permission: USHMM, courtesy of Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije, Public Domain Other versions of... The head of government of Germany has been known as the Chancellor (German: Kanzler) ever since the creation of the post. ... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Kurt von Schleicher (4 April 1882–30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of Germany. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as President of Germany after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Braunau am Inn is a city in the Innviertel (River Inn area) of Upper Austria (Ober sterreich), the north-western province of Austria. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ... The (German: Nazional- socialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) [National Socialist German Workers Party]); generally known in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Image File history File links De-Adolf_Hitler. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The head of government of Germany has been known as the Chancellor (German: Kanzler) ever since the creation of the post. ... (Fuehrer in English when umlauts are not used) is a proper noun meaning leader or guide in the German language. ... The (German: Nazional- socialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) [National Socialist German Workers Party]); generally known in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


Hitler gained power in a Germany facing crisis after World War I, using charismatic oratory and propaganda, appealing to economic need of the lower and middle classes, nationalism, anti-Semitism and anti-communism to establish a totalitarian or fascist dictatorship. With a restructured economy and rearmed military, Hitler pursued an aggressive foreign policy with the intention of expanding German Lebensraum ("living space"), which triggered World War II when Germany invaded Poland. At the height of its power, Nazi Germany occupied most of Europe, but it and the Axis Powers were eventually defeated by the Allies. Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest   Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler... Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... Jesus is considered by historians such as Weber to be an example of a charismatic religious leader; The sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviour of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ... The Eternal Jew (German:Der ewige Jude): 1937 German poster advertising an antisemitic Nazi exhibition. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Fascism is a radical political ideology that combines elements of corporatism, authoritarianism, nationalism, militarism, anti-anarchism, anti-communism and anti-liberalism. ... Lebensraum is the German term for habitat; used both in ecological and sociological contexts, it literally means living room. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Polish Defensive War of 1939 Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign or Defensive War of 1939 (Polish: Wojna obronna 1939 roku) was the conquest of Poland by the armies of Nazi Germany, the Soviet... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ...


By then, Hitler's racial policies had culminated in a genocide of approximately eleven million people, including about six million Jews, in what is now known as the Holocaust. The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, and including measures aimed primarily against Jews. ... Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Selection procedure of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz camp on 26 May 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ...


In the final days of the war, Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin with his newlywed wife, Eva Braun. The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Early years

Childhood and heritage

Adolf Hitler as an infant.
Enlarge
Adolf Hitler as an infant.

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 at Braunau am Inn, Austria, a small town in Upper Austria, on the border with Germany. He was the third son and the fourth of six children of Alois Hitler (born Schicklgruber) (1837–1903), a minor customs official, and Klara Pölzl (1860–1907), his second cousin, and third wife. Because of the close kinship of the two, a papal dispensation had to be obtained for the marriage. Of Alois and Klara's six children, only Adolf and his younger sister Paula reached adulthood. Alois Hitler also had a son (Alois Junior) and a daughter (Angela) by his second wife. Download high resolution version (652x807, 55 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (652x807, 55 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Braunau am Inn is a city in the Innviertel (River Inn area) of Upper Austria (Ober sterreich), the north-western province of Austria. ... Upper Austria (Ober sterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesl nder of Austria. ... Alois Hitler Alois Hitler, born Aloys Schicklgruber (June 7, 1837 – January 3, 1903) was the father of Adolf Hitler. ... A customs duty is a tariff or tax on the import or export of goods. ... Klara Hitler Her son Adolf as both a baby and an adult Klara Hitler born Klara Pölzl (August 12, 1860 - December 21, 1907), was the mother of Adolf Hitler. ... Paula Hitler. ... Alois Hitler, Jr. ... Adolf Hitler with his halfsister Angela Angela Raubal Hamitsch, born Angela Hitler (July 28, 1883 - October 30, 1949), was the elder half-sister of Adolf Hitler. ...


Alois was born illegitimate and for the first thirty-nine years of his life bore his mother's name, Schicklgruber. In 1876, Alois began using the name of his stepfather, Johann Georg Hiedler, after visiting a priest responsible for birth registries and declaring that Georg was his father (Alois gave the impression that Georg was still alive but he was long dead). The name was variously spelled Hiedler, Huetler, Huettler and Hitler and probably changed to "Hitler" by a clerk. About the origin of the name there are two theories: A stepfamily is the family one acquires when a parent marries someone new. ... In German history, Johann Georg Hiedler (28 September 1792, – 1857) was born to Martin Hiedler (17 November 1762 - 10 January 1829) and Anna Maria Goschl (August 23, 1760 - 7 December 1854). ... In most countries, births, deaths, and marriages are recorded at a government controlled Births, deaths and marriages registry office (eg. ...

  1. From German Hittler and similar, "one who lives in a hut", "shepherd".
  2. From Slavic Hidlar and Hidlarcek.

Later, Adolf Hitler was accused by his political enemies of not rightfully being a Hitler, but a Schicklgruber. This was also exploited in Allied propaganda during World War II when pamphlets bearing the phrase "Heil Schicklgruber" were airdropped over German cities.[citation needed] Adolf was legally born a Hitler, however, and was also closely related to Hiedler through his maternal grandmother, Johanna Hiedler.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviour of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... Polish soldiers reading a German leaflet during the Warsaw Uprising A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ... A C-130 Hercules airdropping a light tank. ... Johanna Pölzl born Hiedler (January 19, 1830 − February 8, 1906), was the maternal grandmother of Adolf Hitler. ...


Hitler's given name, "Adolf", comes from the Old High German for "noble wolf" ("Adel"="nobility" + "wolf").[1] Hence, not surprisingly, one of Hitler's self-given nicknames was Wolf or Herr Wolf — he began using this nickname in the early 1920s and was addressed by it only by intimates (as "Uncle Wolf" by the Wagners) up until the fall of the Third Reich.[2] The names of his various headquarters scattered throughout continental Europe (Wolfsschanze in East Prussia, Wolfsschlucht in France, Werwolf in Ukraine, etc.) seem to reflect this. The term Old High German (OHG, German: Althochdeutsch) refers to the earliest stage of the German language and it conventionally covers the period from around 500 to 1050. ... Headquarters (HQ) denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are concentrated. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... One of the larger bunkers in Wolfsschanze complex. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


Hitler was not sure who his paternal grandfather was, but it was probably either Johann Georg Hiedler or his brother Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. There have been rumours that Hitler was one-quarter Jewish [1] and that his paternal grandmother, Maria Schicklgruber, had become pregnant after working as a servant in a Jewish household in Graz. During the 1920s, the implications of these rumours along with his known family history were politically explosive, especially for the proponent of a racist ideology. Opponents tried to prove that Hitler, the leader of the anti-Semitic Nazi Party, had Jewish or Czech ancestors. Although these rumours were never confirmed, for Hitler they were reason enough to conceal his origins. Soviet propaganda insisted Hitler was a Jew, though more modern research tends to diminish the probability that he had Jewish ancestors. According to Robert G. L. Waite in The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler, Hitler made it illegal for German women to work in Jewish households, and after the "Anschluss" (annexation) of Austria, Hitler had his father's hometown obliterated by turning it into an artillery practice area. Hitler seemed to fear that he was Jewish, and as Waite points out, this fact is more important than whether he actually was. Johann von Nepomuk Hiedler, also known as Johann von Nepomuk Hüttler (March 19, 1807 - September 17, 1888), was a maternal great-grandfather and possibly also the paternal grandfather of Adolf Hitler. ... This article describes some ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity; for a consideration of the Jewish religion, refer to the article Judaism. ... Maria Anna Schicklgruber (April 15, 1795 – January 7, 1847) was Adolf Hitlers paternal grandmother. ... Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec), with a population of 305,000 (council census 2000) is the second-largest city in Austria and the capital of the province of Styria (Steiermark in German). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party ( German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared 30... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ...


Because of Alois Hitler's profession, his family moved frequently, from Braunau to Passau, Lambach, Leonding, and Linz. As a young child, Hitler was reportedly a good student at the various elementary schools he attended; however, in sixth grade (1900–1), his first year of high school (Realschule) in Linz, he failed completely and had to repeat the grade. His teachers reported that he had "no desire to work." Braunau am Inn is a city in the Innviertel (River Inn area) of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich), the north-western province of Austria. ... Old Town of Passau Passau (Latin: Batavia) is a town in Niederbayern, Eastern Bavaria, Germany, known also as Dreiflüssestadt (the City of three rivers), because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, and the Ilz River coming out of the Bavarian Forest to... Leonding is a town situated to the southwest of Linz, Austria in the state of Upper Austria. ... Map of Austria, locating Linz Linz is a city and Statutarstadt in northeast Austria, on the Danube river. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Sixth grade is a year of education in the United States and other countries six years after kindergarten (usually 11-12 years old. ... High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Hitler later explained this educational slump as a kind of rebellion against his father Alois, who wanted the boy to follow him in a career as a customs official, although Adolf wanted to become a painter. This explanation is further supported by Hitler's later description of himself as a misunderstood artist. However, after Alois died on January 3, 1903, when Adolf was 13, Hitler's schoolwork did not improve. At the age of 16, Hitler left school with no qualifications. Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... A professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation often called simply certification or qualification is a designation earned by a person to certify that he is qualified to perform a job. ...


Early adulthood in Vienna and Munich

From 1905 onward, Hitler was able to live the life of a Bohemian on a fatherless child's pension and support from his mother. He was rejected twice by the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna (1907 – 1908) due to "unfitness for painting", and was told his abilities lay rather in the field of architecture. His own memoirs reflect a fascination with the subject: Though a Bohemian is a native of the Czech province of Bohemia, a secondary meaning for bohemian emerged in 19th century France. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Academy of Fine Arts Vienna (German Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien) is an institution of higher education in Vienna, the capital of Austria. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ...

"The purpose of my trip was to study the picture gallery in the Court Museum, but I had eyes for scarcely anything but the Museum itself. From morning until late at night, I ran from one object of interest to another, but it was always the buildings which held my primary interest." (Mein Kampf, Chapter II, paragraph 3).

Following the school rector's recommendation, he too became convinced this was the path to pursue, yet he lacked the proper academic preparation for architecture school: The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ...

"In a few days I myself knew that I should some day become an architect. To be sure, it was an incredibly hard road; for the studies I had neglected out of spite at the Realschule were sorely needed. One could not attend the Academy's architectural school without having attended the building school at the Technic, and the latter required a high-school degree. I had none of all this. The fulfillment of my artistic dream seemed physically impossible.''"(Mein Kampf, Chapter II, paragraph 5 & 6).

On December 21, 1907, his mother Klara died a painful death from breast cancer at the age of 47. Hitler gave his share of the orphans' benefits to his younger sister Paula, but when he was 21 he inherited some money from an aunt. He worked as a struggling painter in Vienna, copying scenes from postcards and selling his paintings to merchants and tourists (there is evidence he produced over 2000 paintings and drawings before World War I). Several biographers have noted that a Jewish resident of the house named Hanisch helped him sell his postcards.[citation needed] December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Orphans, by Thomas Kennington An orphan (from the Greek ορφανός) is a person (or animal), who has lost one or both parents often through death. ... Paula Hitler. ... A sample of various postcards. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ...

A watercolour by Adolf Hitler depicting Laon, France.
A watercolour by Adolf Hitler depicting Laon, France.

After the second refusal from the Academy of Arts, Hitler gradually ran out of money. By 1909, he sought refuge in a homeless shelter, and by the beginning of 1910 had settled permanently into a house for poor working men. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (448x604, 103 KB) Summary How could one have known that such an evil person was capable of such exqusite art. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (448x604, 103 KB) Summary How could one have known that such an evil person was capable of such exqusite art. ... Laon is a city and commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Aisne département. ... Homeless shelters are residences for people, the homeless, in urban neighborhoods to stay temporarily when they otherwise would have to sleep on the street, similar to emergency shelters. ...


Hitler first became an active anti-Semite in Vienna, which had a large Jewish community, including many Orthodox Jews from Eastern Europe and where traditional religious prejudice mixed with recent racist theories. Hitler was influenced over time by the writings of the race ideologist and anti-Semite Lanz von Liebenfels and polemics from politicians such as Karl Lueger, founder of the Christian Social Party and mayor of Vienna, one of the most outrageous demagogues in history, and Georg Ritter von Schönerer, leader of the pan-Germanic Away from Rome! movement. He later wrote in his book Mein Kampf that his transition from opposing anti-Semitism on religious grounds to supporting it on racial grounds came from having seen an Orthodox Jew: Orthodox Judaism is one of the three major branches of Judaism. ... Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe variably defined. ... Lanz von Liebenfels Adolf Josef Lanz (aka Jörg Lanz), who called himself Lanz von Liebenfels (July 19, 1874 - April 22, 1954) was a former monk and the founder of the right-wing magazine Ostara, in which he published anti-semitic and folkish theories. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Polemic is the art or practice of inciting disputation or causing controversy, for example in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Karl Lueger Karl Lueger (IPA ) (October 24, 1844-March 10, 1910) was an Austrian politician and mayor of Vienna, known for his overtly anti-semitic and racist policies, as well as his skills as an administrator. ... The Christian Social Party (CS) was an Austrian political party from 1893 to 1933 and a predecessor of the contemporary Austrian Peoples Party. ... The following people were mayors of Vienna: Habsburg Monarchy Konrad Poll 1282 Heinrich Hansgraf 1285 Konrad von Eslarn 1287 Konrad Poll 1288-1305 Heinrich Chrannest 1305-07 Dietrich von Kahlenberg 1307 Heinrich von d. ... Georg Ritter von Schönerer Georg Ritter von Schönerer (July 17, 1842-August 14, 1921) was an Austrian politician active in the late 1800s and early 1900s. ... Cover of Mein Kampf (First Edition) Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law). Various Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim expounded upon these same Talmudic texts. ...

"There were very few Jews in Linz. In the course of centuries the Jews who lived there had become Europeanized in external appearance and were so much like other human beings that I even looked upon them as Germans. The reason why I did not then perceive the absurdity of such an illusion was that the only external mark which I recognized as distinguishing them from us was the practice of their strange religion. As I thought that they were persecuted on account of their faith my aversion to hearing remarks against them grew almost into a feeling of abhorrence. I did not in the least suspect that there could be such a thing as a systematic anti-Semitism. Europeanisation (or Europeanization) refers to a number of related phenomena and patterns of change. ...

Once, when passing through the inner City, I suddenly encountered a phenomenon in a long caftan and wearing black side-locks. My first thought was: Is this a Jew? They certainly did not have this appearance in Linz. I carefully watched the man stealthily and cautiously but the longer I gazed at the strange countenance and examined it feature by feature, the more the question shaped itself in my brain: Is this a German?"
(Mein Kampf, vol. 1, chap. 2: "Years of study and suffering in Vienna")

Hitler began to claim the Jews were natural enemies of what he called the Aryan race. He held them responsible for Austria's crisis. He also identified certain forms of Socialism and especially Bolshevism, which had many Jews among its leaders, as Jewish movements, merging his anti-Semitism with anti-Marxism. Blaming Germany's military defeat on the 1917 Revolutions[citation needed], he considered Jews the culprit of Imperial Germany's military defeat and subsequent economic problems as well. The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Socialism is a class of ideologies favouring a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Generalising from tumultuous scenes in the parliament of the multi-national Austria Monarchy, he developed a firm belief in the inferiority of the democratic parliamentary system, which formed the basis of his political views. However, according to August Kubizek, his close friend and roommate at the time, he was more interested in the operas of Richard Wagner than in politics. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... August Kubizek was a childhood friend and one time room mate of Adolf Hitler. ... A roommate is a person with whom one shares a room or rooms. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ...

Enlarge
A landscape painted by Adolf Hitler.

Hitler received the final part of his father's estate in May 1913 and moved to Munich. He later wrote in Mein Kampf that he had always longed to live in a "real" German city. In Munich, he became more interested in architecture and the writings of Houston Stewart Chamberlain. Moving to Munich also helped him escape military service in Austria for a time, but the Austrian army later arrested him. After a physical exam (during which his height was measured at 173 cm, or 5 ft 8 in) and a contrite plea, he was deemed unfit for service and allowed to return to Munich. However, when Germany entered World War I in August 1914, he immediately petitioned King Ludwig III of Bavaria for permission to serve in a Bavarian regiment, this request was granted, and Adolf Hitler enlisted in the Bavarian army.[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (954x642, 110 KB) Summary http://hitler. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (954x642, 110 KB) Summary http://hitler. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München, (pronounced listen) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern). ... Cover of Mein Kampf (First Edition) Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... Houston Stewart Chamberlain Houston Stewart Chamberlain (September 9, 1855 - January 9, 1927) was a British author noted for his works concerning the Aryan race. ... Conscript redirects here, but may also refer to artificial script. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...


World War I

Hitler saw active service in France and Belgium as a messenger for the regimental headquarters of the 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment (also called Regiment List after its first commander), which exposed him to enemy fire. Unlike his fellow soldiers, Hitler reportedly never complained about the food or hard conditions, preferring to talk about art or history. He also drew some cartoons and instructional drawings for the army newspaper. His behaviour as a soldier was considered somewhat sloppy, but his regular duties required taking dispatches to and from fighting areas and he was twice decorated for his performance of these duties. He received the Iron Cross, Second Class in December 1914 and the Iron Cross, First Class in August 1918, an honour rarely given to a Gefreiter. However, because of the perception of "a lack of leadership skills" on the part of some of the regimental staff, as well as (according to Kershaw) Hitler's unwillingness to leave regimental headquarters (which would have been likely in event of promotion), he was never promoted to Unteroffizier. Other historians, however, say that the reason he was not promoted is that he did not have German citizenship. His duty station at regimental headquarters, while often dangerous, gave Hitler time to pursue his artwork. During October 1916 in northern France, Hitler was wounded in the leg, but returned to the front in March 1917. He received the Wound Badge later that year, as his injury was the direct result of hostile fire. Sebastian Haffner, referring to Hitler's experience at the front, suggests he did have at least some understanding of the military. A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a group of battalions, usually four and commanded by a colonel. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1891-1892). ... A cartoon is any of several forms of art, with varied meanings that evolved from one to another. ... An instruction is a form of communicated information that is both command and explanation for how an action, behavior, method, or task is to be begun, completed, conducted, or executed. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the German Armed Forces The Iron Cross (German: Eisernes Kreuz) is a military decoration of the Kingdom of Prussia, and later of Germany, which was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813. ... Modern German Gefreiter insignia Gefreiter today is the German equivalent for Private. ... Unteroffizier insignia Unteroffizier is a military rank (non-commissioned officer) of the German Bundeswehr that has existed since the 19th century. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... A black version of the Badge A silver version A gold version Wound Badge (Das Verwundetenabzeichen) is a German military award for wounded or frost-bitten soldiers of Wehrmacht, SS and the auxiliary service organisations (after March 1943 due to the increasing number of allied bombings — also for civilians). ... Sebastian Haffner (December 27, 1907, Berlin – January 2, 1999, pseudonym for Raimund Pretzel) was a German journalist and author. ...


On October 15, 1918, shortly before the end of the war, Hitler was admitted to a field hospital, temporarily blinded by a poison gas attack. The English psychologist David Lewis[4] and Bernhard Horstmann indicate the blindness may have been the result of a hysteria. Hitler later said it was during this experience that he became convinced the purpose of his life was to "save Germany". Some scholars, notably Lucy Dawidowicz,[5] argue that an intention to mass murder Europe's Jews was fully formed in Hitler's mind at this time, though he probably hadn't thought through how it could be done. October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Field hospital of the Radom-Kielce Home Army area, during the Operation Tempest of 1944 A field hospital is a large mobile medical unit that takes care of the casualties outside the hospital buildings. ... Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or psychological factors. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... David Lewis is an English psychologist with a doctorate from the University of Sussex. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Two passages in Mein Kampf mention the use of poison gas: Cover of Mein Kampf (First Edition) Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ...

At the beginning of the Great War, or even during the War, if twelve or fifteen thousand of these Jews who were corrupting the nation had been forced to submit to poison-gas . . . then the millions of sacrifices made at the front would not have been in vain. (Volume 2, Chapter 15 "The Right to Self-Defence").
These tactics are based on an accurate estimation of human weakness and must lead to success, with almost mathematical certainty, unless the other side also learns how to fight poison gas with poison gas. The weaker natures must be told that here it is a case of to be or not to be. (Volume 1, Chapter 2 "Years of Study and Suffering in Vienna")

Hitler had long admired Germany, and during the war he had become a passionate German patriot, although he did not become a German citizen until 1932. He was shocked by Germany's capitulation in November 1918 even while the German army still held enemy territory. Like many other German nationalists, Hitler believed in the Dolchstoßlegende ("dagger-stab legend") which claimed that the army, "undefeated in the field", had been "stabbed in the back" by civilian leaders and Marxists back on the home front. These politicians were later dubbed the November Criminals. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Surrender is when soldiers give up fighting and become prisoners of war, either as individuals or when ordered to by their officers. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ... Home front is the informal term commonly used to describe the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of its military. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend On November 11, 1918, the civilian representatives of the newly formed Weimar Republic of Germany signed an armistice with the Allies which would end World War I. The war itself had killed 1,770,000 German...


The Treaty of Versailles deprived Germany of various territories, demilitarized the Rhineland and imposed other economically damaging sanctions. The treaty also declared Germany the culprit for all the horrors of the Great War, as a basis for later imposing not yet specified reparations on Germany (the amount was repeatedly revised under the Dawes Plan, Young Plan and the Hoover Moratorium). Germans, however, perceived the treaty and especially the paragraph on the German guilt as a humiliation, not least as it was damaging in the extreme to their pride. For example, there was nearly a full demilitarisation of the armed forces, allowing Germany only 6 battleships, no submarines, no air force, an army of 100,000 without conscription and no armoured vehicles. The treaty was an important factor in both the social and political conditions encountered by Hitler and his National Socialist Party as they sought power. Hitler and his party used the signing of the treaty by the "November Criminals" as a reason to build up Germany so that it could never happen again. He also used the 'November Criminals' as scapegoats, although at the Paris peace conference, these politicians had very little choice in the matter. The Treaty of Versailless (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and the German Empire. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more groups, where military activity is not permitted, usually by treaty or other agreement. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany, although some consider the lands to the east of the river culturally distinct, jovially referring to them as Schäl Sick; the bad or wrong side... At the conclusion of World War I the Allies imposed in the Treaty of Versailles a plan for reparations to be paid by Germany. ... The Young Plan was a program for settlement of German reparations debts after World War I. It was presented by the committee headed (1929-30) by Owen D. Young. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


The early years of the Nazi Party

A copy of Adolf Hitler's forged DAP membership card. His actual membership number was 555 (the 55th member of the party - the 500 was added to make the group appear larger) but later the number was reduced to create the impression that Hitler was one of the founding members (Ian Kershaw Hubris). Hitler had wanted to create his own party, but was ordered by his superiors in the Reichswehr to infiltrate an existing one instead.
A copy of Adolf Hitler's forged DAP membership card. His actual membership number was 555 (the 55th member of the party - the 500 was added to make the group appear larger) but later the number was reduced to create the impression that Hitler was one of the founding members (Ian Kershaw Hubris). Hitler had wanted to create his own party, but was ordered by his superiors in the Reichswehr to infiltrate an existing one instead.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The German Workers Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, short DAP) was a briefly existing progenitor of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party). ...

Hitler's entry into politics

After World War I, Hitler remained in the army and returned to Munich, where he - in contrast to his later declarations - participated in the funeral march for the murdered Bavarian prime minister Kurt Eisner.[6] After the suppression of the Munich Soviet Republic, took part in "national thinking" courses organized by the Education and Propaganda Department (Dept Ib/P) of the Bavarian Reichswehr Group, Headquarters 4 under Captain Karl Mayr. A key purpose of this group was to create a scapegoat[citation needed] for the outbreak of the war and Germany's defeat. The scapegoats were found in "international Jewry", communists, and politicians across the party spectrum, especially the parties of the Weimar Coalition, who were deemed "November Criminals"[citation needed]. Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... Kurt Eisner (14 May 1867–21 February 1919) was a Bavarian politician. ... Münchner Räterepublik, known as the Munich Soviet Republic or Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayerische Räterepublik), was a short-lived communist country, organized in Bavaria in the year 1919. ... Captain Karl Mayr (18?? – 1945) General Staff officer and Hitlers immediate superior in an Army Intelligence Division in the Reichswehr, 1919-1920. ... The scapegoat was a goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, in Judaism during the times of the Temple in Jerusalem. ... The Weimar Coalition is the name given to the coalition of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the German Democratic Party (DDP), and the Catholic Centre Party, who together had a large majority of the delegates to the Constituent Assembly which met at Weimar in 1919, and were the... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend On November 11, 1918, the civilian representatives of the newly formed Weimar Republic of Germany signed an armistice with the Allies which would end World War I. The war itself had killed 1,770,000 German...


In July 1919, Hitler was appointed a Verbindungsmann (police spy) of an Aufklärungskommando (Intelligence Commando) of the Reichswehr, for the purpose of influencing other soldiers toward similar ideas and was assigned to infiltrate a small party, the German Workers' Party (DAP), which was thought of to be a possibly socialist party (See: Adolf Hitler's inspection of the German Workers' Party). During his inspection of the party, Hitler was impressed with Drexler's anti-Semitic, nationalist, anti-capitalist and anti-Marxist ideas, which favoured a strong active government, a "non-Jewish" version of socialism and mutual solidarity of all members of society. The Reichswehr (help· info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Force). ... See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ... The German Workers Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, short DAP) was a briefly existing progenitor of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party). ... Socialism is a class of ideologies favouring a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Corporal Adolf Hitler was ordered in September, 1919 to investigate a small group in Munich known as the German Workers Party. ... Corporal Adolf Hitler was ordered in September, 1919 to investigate a small group in Munich known as the German Workers Party. ... Anton Drexler (June 13, 1884 - February 24, 1942) was a German Nazi political leader of 1920s. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ... An anti-capitalist poster printed by the Industrial Workers of the World in 1911. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ...


Here Hitler also met Dietrich Eckart, one of the early founders of the party and member of the occult Thule Society.[7] Eckart became Hitler's mentor, exchanging ideas with him, teaching him how to dress and speak, and introducing him to a wide range of people. Hitler in return thanked Eckart by paying tribute to him in the second volume of Mein Kampf. Dietrich Eckart Dietrich Eckart (March 23, 1868 - December 26, 1923) was one of the early key members of the National-Socialist German Workers Party and one of the participants in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Hitler was discharged from the army in March 1920 and with his former superiors' continued encouragement began participating full time in the party's activities. By early 1921, Adolf Hitler was becoming highly effective at speaking in front of even larger crowds. In February, Hitler spoke before a crowd of nearly six thousand in Munich. To publicize the meeting, he sent out two truckloads of Party supporters to drive around with swastikas, cause a commotion and throw out leaflets, their first use of this tactic. Hitler gained notoriety outside of the Party for his rowdy, polemic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians (including monarchists, nationalists and other non-internationalist socialists) and especially against Marxists and Jews. Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München, (pronounced listen) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern). ... The swastika (from Sanskrit , from su well, and asti being, thus good fortune or well-being) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles in either left-facing () or right-facing () direction. ... A leaflet in botany is a part of a compound leaf. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Polemic is the art or practice of inciting disputation or causing controversy, for example in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ... The Treaty of Versailless (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and the German Empire. ...


The DAP was centered in Munich which had become a hotbed of German nationalists who included Army officers determined to crush Marxism and undermine or even overthrow the young German republic. Gradually they noticed Adolf Hitler and his growing movement as a vehicle to hitch themselves to. Hitler traveled to Berlin to visit nationalist groups during the summer of 1921 and in his absence there was an unexpected revolt among the DAP leadership in Munich. This article is about revolution in the sense of a drastic change. ...


The Party was run by an executive committee whose original members considered Hitler to be overbearing and even dictatorial. To weaken Hitler's position they formed an alliance with a group of socialists from Augsburg. Hitler rushed back to Munich and countered them by tendering his resignation from the Party on July 11, 1921. When they realized the loss of Hitler would effectively mean the end of the Party, he seized the moment and announced he would return on the condition that he was made chairman and given dictatorial powers. Infuriated committee members (including founder Anton Drexler) held out at first. Meanwhile an anonymous pamphlet appeared entitled Adolf Hitler: Is he a traitor?, attacking Hitler's lust for power and criticizing the violence-prone men around him. Hitler responded to its publication in a Munich newspaper by suing for libel and later won a small settlement. A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ... ]] originally limited to a term -commonly of six months or the duration of a military conflict- and lacked power over the public finances. ... Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... A resignation is the formal act of giving up ones office or position. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Anton Drexler (June 13, 1884 - February 24, 1942) was a German Nazi political leader of 1920s. ... ... Polish soldiers reading a German leaflet during the Warsaw Uprising A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in which the party commencing the action, the plaintiff, seeks a legal remedy. ... Libel redirects here. ...


The executive committee of the DAP eventually backed down and Hitler's demands were put to a vote of party members. Hitler received 543 votes for and only one against. At the next gathering on July 29, 1921, Adolf Hitler was introduced as Führer of the National Socialist Party, marking the first time this title was publicly used. Hitler changed the name of the party to the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP). July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... (Fuehrer in English when umlauts are not used) is a proper noun meaning leader or guide in the German language. ... The (German: Nazional- socialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) [National Socialist German Workers Party]); generally known in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ...


Hitler's beer hall oratory, attacking Jews, social democrats, liberals, reactionary monarchists, capitalists and communists, began attracting adherents. Early followers included Rudolf Hess, the former air force pilot Hermann Göring, and the army captain Ernst Röhm, who became head of the Nazis' paramilitary organization, the SA, which protected meetings and attacked political opponents. Hitler also assimilated independent groups, such as the Nuremberg-based Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft, led by Julius Streicher, who now became Gauleiter of Franconia. Hitler also attracted the attention of local business interests, was accepted into influential circles of Munich society and became associated with wartime General Erich Ludendorff during this time. Oratory is the art of eloquent speech. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ... Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately owned, and capital is invested in the production, distribution and other trade of goods and services, for profit in a competitive free market. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Rudolf Hess Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Hermann Göring. ... This article concerns the rank and title of Captain. ... A photographic portrait of Ernst Röhm. ... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... The seal of SA The   (SA, German for Storm Division, usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ... Julius Streicher at the Nuremberg Trials. ... A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ... The Franconian Rake is originally is a heraldic symbol of the bishops of Würzburg, who - though nominally Dukes of Franconia - only ruled in parts of Franconia. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. // Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now PoznaÅ„, Poland). ...


The Beer Hall Putsch

Main article: Beer Hall Putsch

Encouraged by this early support, Hitler decided to use Ludendorff as a front in an attempt to seize power later known as the Beer Hall Putsch (and sometimes as the Hitler Putsch or Munich Putsch). The Nazi Party had copied the Italian Fascists in appearance and also had adopted some programmatical points and now, in the turbulent year 1923, Hitler wanted to emulate Mussolini's "March on Rome" by staging his own "Campaign in Berlin". Hitler and Ludendorff obtained the clandestine support of Gustav von Kahr, Bavaria's de facto ruler along with leading figures in the Reichswehr and the police. As political posters show, Ludendorff, Hitler and the heads of the Bavarian police and military planned on forming a new government. The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the... Fascism is a radical political ideology that combines elements of corporatism, authoritarianism, nationalism, militarism, anti-anarchism, anti-communism and anti-liberalism. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the Prime-Minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until his overthrow in 1943. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Reichswehr (help· info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Force). ...


However on November 8, 1923 Kahr and the military withdrew their support during a meeting in the Bürgerbräukeller, a large beer hall outside of Munich. A surprised Hitler had them arrested and proceeded with the coup. Unknown to him, Kahr and the other detainees had been released on Ludendorff's orders after he obtained their word not to interfere. That night they prepared resistance measures against the coup and in the morning, when Hitler and his followers marched from the beer hall to the Bavarian War Ministry to overthrow the Bavarian government as a start to their "March on Berlin", the army quickly dispersed them (Ludendorff was wounded and a few other Nazis were killed). November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Hitler fled to the home of friends and contemplated suicide. He was soon arrested for high treason and appointed Alfred Rosenberg as temporary leader of the party but found himself in an environment somewhat receptive to his beliefs. During Hitler's trial, sympathetic magistrates allowed Hitler to turn his debacle into a propaganda stunt. He was given almost unlimited amounts of time to present his arguments to the court, and his popularity soared when he voiced basic nationalistic sentiments shared by some of the public. On April 1, 1924 Hitler was sentenced to five years' imprisonment at Landsberg prison for the crime of conspiracy to commit treason. Hitler received favoured treatment from the guards and had much fan mail from admirers. Hitler was released on December 20, 1924 after the authorities decided that he was not a danger to the public. Including remand, he had served just over one year of his five-year sentence. Ernst Franz Sedgwick Hanfstaengl (Munich, February 2, 1887 - November 6, 1975) was the only person known to have worked directly for both Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler. ... Under English, and later British law, high treason is the crime of disloyalty to the Sovereign. ... Alfred Rosenberg Alfred Rosenberg (January 12, 1893, Reval (Tallinn) Estonia, then part of the Russian Empire–October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviour of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Entrance of the Landsberg Prison Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about 30 miles (45 km) west of Munich. ... Fans of Janet Jackson, at Much Music in Toronto The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


"Mein Kampf"

Main article: Mein Kampf

While at Landsberg he dictated his political book Mein Kampf (My Struggle) to his deputy Rudolf Hess. The book, dedicated to Thule Society member Dietrich Eckart, was both an autobiography and an exposition of his political ideology. It was published in two volumes in 1925 and 1926 respectively, selling about 240,000 copies between 1925 and 1934 alone. By the end of the war, about 10 million copies had been sold or distributed (every newly-wed couple, as well as front soldiers, received free copies). Cover of Mein Kampf (First Edition) Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... Cover of Mein Kampf (First Edition) Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... Rudolf Hess Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dietrich Eckart Dietrich Eckart (March 23, 1868 - December 26, 1923) was one of the early key members of the National-Socialist German Workers Party and one of the participants in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. ...


Hitler spent years dodging taxes on the royalties of his book, and had accumulated a tax debt of about 405,500 Reichsmarks (6m euros in today's money) by the time he became chancellor (at which time his debt was waived).[8][9] A 100 Reichsmark banknote from Germany of 1935 (http://www. ...


The rebuilding of the party

At the time of Hitler's release, the political situation in Germany had calmed down, and the economy had improved, which hampered Hitler's opportunities for agitation. Though the Hitler Putsch had given Hitler some national prominence, his party's mainstay was still Munich.

Joseph Goebbels with Adolf Hitler at the Obersalzberg, possibly early 1944.
Joseph Goebbels with Adolf Hitler at the Obersalzberg, possibly early 1944.

As Hitler was still banned from public speeches, he appointed Gregor Strasser, who in 1924 had been elected to the Reichstag, as Reichsorganisationsleiter, authorizing him to organise the party in northern Germany. Gregor, joined by his younger brother Otto and Joseph Goebbels, steered an increasingly independent course, emphasizing the socialist element in the party's programme. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Gauleiter Nord-West became an internal opposition, threatening Hitler's authority, but this faction was defeated at the Bamberg Conference (1926), during which Goebbels joined Hitler. Image File history File links Goebbels_mit_Hitler. ... Image File history File links Goebbels_mit_Hitler. ... [[smoddy]] 12:41, 29 July 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (variant German spelling Straßer) (May 31, 1892, Geisenfeld, Germany - June 30, 1934, Berlin) was a politician of the German Nazi Party (NSDAP). ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... The Bamberg Conference (1926) was held during the wilderness years of the Nazi party. ...


After this encounter, Hitler centralized the party even more and asserted the Führerprinzip as the basic principle of party organization. Leaders were not elected by their group but were rather appointed by their superior and were answerable to them while demanding unquestioning obedience from their inferiors. Consistent with Hitler's disdain for democracy, all power and authority devolved from the top down. Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ... In politics, authority (Latin auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to potestas and imperium) is often used interchangeably with the term power. However, their meanings differ. ...


A key element of Hitler's appeal was his ability to convey a sense of offended national pride caused by the Treaty of Versailles imposed on the defeated German Empire by the Western Allies. Germany had lost economically important territory in Europe along with its colonies and in admitting to sole responsibility for the war had agreed to pay a huge reparations bill totaling 132 billion marks. Most Germans bitterly resented these terms but early Nazi attempts to gain support by blaming these humiliations on "international Jewry" were not particularly successful with the electorate. The party learned quickly and soon a more subtle propaganda emerged, combining anti-Semitism with an attack on the failures of the "Weimar system" and the parties supporting it. The Treaty of Versailless (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and the German Empire. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... It has been suggested that Colonisation be merged into this article or section. ... Reparations refers to two distinct ideas: Reparations for slavery of groups or individuals War reparations: Payments from one country to another as compensation for starting a war under a peace treaty, such as those made by Germany to France under the Treaty of Versailles. ... German 20 Mark banknote from 1914 (www. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Having failed in overthrowing the Republic by a coup, Hitler now pursued the "strategy of legality": this meant formally adhering to the rules of the Weimar Republic until he had legally gained power and then transforming liberal democracy into a Nazi dictatorship. Some party members, especially in the paramilitary SA, opposed this strategy and Ernst Röhm ridiculed Hitler as "Adolphe Legalité". Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest   Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler... The seal of SA The   (SA, German for Storm Division, usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ... A photographic portrait of Ernst Röhm. ...


The road to power

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

The Brüning administration

The political turning point for Hitler came when the Great Depression hit Germany in 1930. The Weimar Republic had never been firmly rooted and was openly opposed by right-wing conservatives (including monarchists), Communists and the Nazis. As the parties loyal to the democratic, parliamentary republic found themselves unable to agree on counter-measures, their Grand Coalition broke up and was replaced by a minority cabinet. The new Chancellor Heinrich Brüning of the Roman Catholic Centre Party, lacking a majority in parliament, had to implement his measures through the President's emergency decrees. Tolerated by the majority of parties, the exception soon became the rule and paved the way for authoritarian forms of government. The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn which started in 1929 (although its effects were not fully felt until late 1930) and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest   Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler... A grand coalition is a coalition government in a parliamentary system where political parties representing a vast majority of the parliament unite in a coalition. ... Dr. Heinrich Brüning (November 26, 1885–March 30, 1970) was a German politician and Chancellor of Germany. ... Centre Party is the designation of several parties and might refer to: Estonian Centre Party (Eesti Keskerakond) Centre Party (Faroe Islands) (Miðflokkurin) Centre Party (Finland) (Suomen Keskusta) Centre Party (Germany) (Deutsche Zentrumspartei, or merely Zentrum) Centre Party (Hungary) (Centrumpárt) National Centre Party (Ireland) Centre Party (Israel) (Mifleget Hamerkaz...


The Reichstag's initial opposition to Brüning's measures led to premature elections in September 1930. The republican parties lost their majority and their ability to resume the Grand Coalition, while the Nazis suddenly rose from relative obscurity to win 18.3% of the vote along with 107 seats in the Reichstag, becoming the second largest party in Germany. The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...

Hitler emerges from the Brown House in Munich (headquarters of the Nazi party during the last days of the Weimar Republic) after a post-election meeting in 1930.
Hitler emerges from the Brown House in Munich (headquarters of the Nazi party during the last days of the Weimar Republic) after a post-election meeting in 1930.

Brüning's measure of budget consolidation and financial austerity brought little economic improvement and was extremely unpopular. Under these circumstances, Hitler appealed to the bulk of German farmers, war veterans and the middle-class who had been hard-hit by both the inflation of the 1920s and the unemployment of the Depression. Hitler received little response from the urban working classes and traditionally Catholic regions. Download high resolution version (460x620, 48 KB)Image of Adolf Hitler emerging from the Brown House (headquarters of the Nazi party during the last days of the Republic) after a post-election meeting in 1930. ... Download high resolution version (460x620, 48 KB)Image of Adolf Hitler emerging from the Brown House (headquarters of the Nazi party during the last days of the Republic) after a post-election meeting in 1930. ... Austerity is a term from economics that describes a policy where nations reduce living standards, curtail development projects, and generally shift the revenue stream out of the physical economy, in order to satisfy the demands of creditors. ... Farmer spreading grasshopper bait in his alfalfa field. ... War Veteran is a science fiction short story by Philip K. Dick. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An urban area is a term used to define an area where there is an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


Meanwhile, on September 18, 1931, Hitler's niece Geli Raubal was found dead in her bedroom in his Munich apartment (his half-sister Angela and her daughter Geli had been with him in Munich since 1929), an apparent suicide. Geli was 19 years younger than he was and had used his gun, drawing rumours of a relationship between the two. The event is viewed as having caused lasting turmoil for him. September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... This article is about the domestic group. ... Geli Raubal Angela Geli Raubal (June 4, 1908 – September 18, 1931). ... Adolf Hitler with his halfsister Angela Angela Raubal Hamitsch, born Angela Hitler (July 28, 1883 - October 30, 1949), was the elder half-sister of Adolf Hitler. ...


In 1932, Hitler intended to run against the aging President Paul von Hindenburg in the scheduled presidential elections. Though Hitler had left Austria in 1913, he still had not acquired German citizenship and hence could not run for public office. In February, however, the state government of Brunswick, in which the Nazi Party participated, appointed Hitler to some minor administrative post and also gave him citizenship. The new German citizen ran against Hindenburg, who was supported by a broad range of reactionary nationalist, monarchist, Catholic, Republican and even social democratic parties, and against the Communist presidential candidate. His campaign was called "Hitler über Deutschland" (Hitler over Germany). The name had a double meaning. The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ... The presidential election (Reichspräsidentenwahl) of 1932 was the second and final direct election to the office of President (Reichspräsident), Germanys head of state during the 1919-1934 Weimar Republic. ... Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...

Hitler over Germany. Political campaign by aircraft.
Hitler over Germany. Political campaign by aircraft.

Besides an obvious reference to Hitler's dictatorial intentions, it also referred to the fact that Hitler was campaigning by aircraft. This was a brand new political tactic that allowed Hitler to speak in two cities in one day, which was practically unheard of at the time. Hitler came in second on both rounds, attaining more than 35% of the vote during the second one in April. Although he lost to Hindenburg, the election established Hitler as a realistic and fresh alternative in German politics. Image File history File links Hitler_ueber_Deutschland_1932. ... Image File history File links Hitler_ueber_Deutschland_1932. ...

The cabinets of Papen and Schleicher

President Hindenburg, influenced by the Camarilla, became increasingly estranged from Brüning and pushed his Chancellor to move the government in a decidedly authoritarian and right-wing direction. This culminated, in May 1932, with the resignation of the Brüning cabinet. A Camarilla is a group of courtiers or favorites, that surround a king or ruler. ...


Hindenburg appointed the nobleman Franz von Papen as chancellor, heading a "Cabinet of Barons". Papen was bent on authoritarian rule and, since in the Reichstag only the conservative DNVP supported his administration, he immediately called for new elections in July. In these elections, the Nazis achieved their biggest success yet and won 230 seats. Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German Catholic politician and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... 1924 electoral poster, using the Admiral Tirpitz as a figurehead The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ...


The Nazis had become the largest party in the Reichstag without which no stable government could be formed. Papen tried to convince Hitler to become Vice-Chancellor and enter a new government with a parliamentary basis. Hitler however rejected this offer and put further pressure on Papen by entertaining parallel negotiations with the Centre Party, Papen's former party, which was bent on bringing down the renegade Papen. In both negotiations, Hitler demanded that he, as leader of the strongest party, must be Chancellor, but President Hindenburg consistently refused to appoint the "Bohemian private" to the Chancellorship. The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ...


After a vote of no-confidence in the Papen government, supported by 84% of the deputies, the new Reichstag was dissolved and new elections were called in November. This time, the Nazis lost some votes but still remained the largest party in the Reichstag. A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


After Papen failed to secure a majority, he proposed to dissolve the parliament again along with an indefinite postponement of elections. Hindenburg at first accepted this, but after General Kurt von Schleicher and the military withdrew their support, Hindenburg instead dismissed Papen and appointed Schleicher, who promised he could secure a majority government by negotiations with both the Social Democrats, the trade unions, and dissidents from the Nazi party under Gregor Strasser. In January 1933, however, Schleicher had to admit failure in these efforts and asked Hindenburg for emergency powers along with the same postponement of elections that he had opposed earlier, to which the President reacted by dismissing Schleicher. Kurt von Schleicher (4 April 1882–30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (variant German spelling Straßer) (May 31, 1892, Geisenfeld, Germany - June 30, 1934, Berlin) was a politician of the German Nazi Party (NSDAP). ...


Hitler's appointment as Chancellor

Meanwhile Papen, resentful because of his dismissal, tried to get his revenge on Schleicher by working toward the General's downfall, through forming an intrigue with the camarilla and Alfred Hugenberg, media mogul and chairman of the DNVP. Also involved were Hjalmar Schacht, Fritz Thyssen and other leading German businessmen. They financially supported the Nazi Party, which had been brought to the brink of bankruptcy by the cost of heavy campaigning. The businessmen also wrote letters to Hindenburg, urging him to appoint Hitler as leader of a government "independent from parliamentary parties" which could turn into a movement that would "enrapture millions of people."[10] A Camarilla is a group of courtiers or favorites, that surround a king or ruler. ... Alfred Hugenberg (June 19, 1865 - March 12, 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician. ... 1924 electoral poster, using the Admiral Tirpitz as a figurehead The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (22 January 1877 – 3 June 1970) was a German financial expert and Minister of Economics from 1935 until 1937. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Finally, the President reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler Chancellor of a coalition government formed by the NSDAP and DNVP. Hitler and two other Nazi ministers (Frick, Göring) were to be contained by a framework of conservative cabinet ministers, most notably by Papen as Vice-Chancellor and by Hugenberg as Minister of Economics. Papen wanted to use Hitler as a figure-head, but the Nazis had gained key positions, most notably the Ministry of the Interior. On the morning of January 30, 1933, in Hindenburg's office, Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor during what some observers later described as a brief and simple ceremony. The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... 1924 electoral poster, using the Admiral Tirpitz as a figurehead The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... Wilhelm Frick (March 12, 1877 â€“ October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official. ... Hermann Göring. ... The Vice-Chancellor of Germany (Vizekanzler) in Germany is the second highest position in the government, and is usually held by the leader of the governments principal coalition partner. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other articles with similar names, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ...


Reichstag Fire and the March elections

Having become Chancellor, Hitler foiled all attempts to gain a majority in parliament and on that basis convinced President Hindenburg to dissolve the Reichstag again. Elections were scheduled for early March, but on February 27, 1933, the Reichstag building was set on fire. Since a Dutch independent communist was found in the building, the fire was blamed on a Communist plot to which the government reacted with the Reichstag Fire Decree of February 28, which suspended basic rights, including habeas corpus. Under the provisions of this decree, the German Communist Party and other groups were suppressed, and Communist functionaries and deputies were arrested, put to flight, or murdered. In the same month Hitler banned pornography, homosexual bars and bath-houses and groups which promoted "gay rights".[11] February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... Mugshot of van der Lubbe Marinus van der Lubbe (January 13, 1909 – January 10, 1934) was a Dutch council communist accused of and executed for setting fire to the German Reichstag building on February 27, 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire. ... A German newspapers final issue, announcing its own prohibition (Verbot) by the police authorities on the basis of the Reichstag fire decree The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung in German) is the common name of the decree issued by German president Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... In common law countries, habeas corpus (/heɪbiəs kɔɹpəs/), Latin for you [should] have the body, is the name of a legal instrument or writ by means of which detainees can seek release from unlawful imprisonment. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ...

Day of Potsdam
Day of Potsdam

Campaigning continued, with the Nazis making use of paramilitary violence, anti-Communist hysteria, and the government's resources for propaganda. On election day, March 6, the NSDAP increased its result to 43.9% of the vote, remaining the largest party, but its victory was marred by its failure to secure an absolute majority. Hitler had to maintain his coalition with the DNVP, as the coalition had a slim majority. Image File history File links Hindenburg_ernennt_Hitler. ... Image File history File links Hindenburg_ernennt_Hitler. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... 1924 electoral poster, using the Admiral Tirpitz as a figurehead The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ...


The "Day of Potsdam" and the Enabling Act

On 21 March, the new Reichstag was constituted itself with an impressive opening ceremony held at Potsdam's garrison church. This "Day of Potsdam" was staged to demonstrate reconciliation and union between the revolutionary Nazi movement and "Old Prussia" with its elites and virtues. Hitler himself appeared, not in Nazi uniform, but in a tail coat, and humbly greeted the aged President Hindenburg. March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ...


Because of the Nazis' failure to obtain a majority on their own, Hitler's government confronted the newly elected Reichstag with the Enabling Act that would have vested the cabinet with legislative powers for a period of four years. Though such a bill was not unprecedented, this act was different since it allowed for deviations from the constitution. As the bill required a two-thirds majority in order to pass, the government needed the support of other parties. The position of the Catholic Centre Party, at this point the third largest party in the Reichstag, turned out to be decisive: under the leadership of Ludwig Kaas, the party decided to vote for the Enabling Act. It did so in return for the government's oral guarantees regarding the Church's liberty, the concordats signed by German states and the continued existence of the Centre Party itself. The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Monsignor Ludwig Kaas (23 May 1881-15 April 1952) was a Roman Catholic priest, and a prominent German politician during the Weimar Republic. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology, below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and maintained through...


On 23 March, the Reichstag assembled in a replacement building under extremely turbulent circumstances. Some SA men served as guards within while large groups outside the building shouted slogans and threats toward the arriving deputies. Kaas announced that the Centre would support the bill amid "concerns put aside.", while Social Democrat Otto Wels denounced the Act in his speech. At the end of the day, all parties except the Social Democrats voted in favour of the bill. The Enabling Act was dutifully renewed by the Reichstag every four years, even through World War II. March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... The seal of SA The   (SA, German for Storm Division, usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ... Otto Wels (September 15, 1873 - September 16, 1939) was the chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1919 and a member of parliament from 1920 to 1930. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ...


Removal of remaining limits

With this combination of legislative and executive power, Hitler's government further suppressed the remaining political opposition. The KPD and the SPD were banned, while all other political parties dissolved themselves. Labour unions were merged with employers' federations into an organisation under Nazi control and the autonomy of German state governments was abolished. This politics-related article is a stub. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... SPD redirects here. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

Adolf Hitler in Triumph of the Will.
Enlarge
Adolf Hitler in Triumph of the Will.

Hitler also used the SA paramilitary to push Hugenberg into resigning and proceeded to politically isolate Vice Chancellor Papen. As the SA's demands for political and military power caused much anxiety among the populace in general and especially among the military, Hitler used allegations of a plot by the SA leader Ernst Röhm to purge the paramilitary force's leadership during the Night of the Long Knives. Opponents unconnected with the SA were also murdered, notably Gregor Strasser and former Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher. Image File history File links Hitler-triumph. ... Image File history File links Hitler-triumph. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a documentary and propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl that chronicles the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg. ... The seal of SA The   (SA, German for Storm Division, usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ... A photographic portrait of Ernst Röhm. ... The Night of the Long Knives (June 30 and Sunday July 1, 1934) (German, Nacht der langen Messer), also known as Reichsmordwoche, Operation Hummingbird or the Blood Purge, was a lethal purge of Adolf Hitlers potential political rivals in the Sturmabteilung (SA; also known as storm troopers or brownshirts). ... The seal of SA The   (SA, German for Storm Division, usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ... Gregor Strasser Gregor Strasser (variant German spelling Straßer) (May 31, 1892, Geisenfeld, Germany - June 30, 1934, Berlin) was a politician of the German Nazi Party (NSDAP). ... Kurt von Schleicher (4 April 1882–30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ...


Soon after, president Paul von Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934. Rather than holding new presidential elections, Hitler's cabinet passed a law proclaiming the presidency dormant and transferred the role and powers of the head of state to Hitler as Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor). Thereby Hitler also became supreme commander of the military, which then swore their military oath not to the state or the constitution but to Hitler personally. In a mid-August plebiscite, these acts found the approval of 90% of the electorate. Combining the highest offices in state, military and party in his hand, Hitler had attained supreme rule that could no longer be legally challenged. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... An oath (from Old Saxon eoth) is either a promise or a statement of fact calling upon something or someone that the oath maker considers sacred, usually a god, as a witness to the binding nature of the promise or the truth of the statement of fact. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


The Third Reich

Main article: Nazi Germany
Photographs like the one on the cover of Heinrich Hoffmann's book of photography were used to promote Hitler's populist-nationalist (Völkisch) image.
Photographs like the one on the cover of Heinrich Hoffmann's book of photography were used to promote Hitler's populist-nationalist (Völkisch) image.

Having secured supreme political power, Hitler went on to gain their support by persuading most Germans he was their saviour from the Depression, the Communists, the Versailles Treaty, and the Jews along with other "undesirable" minorities. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x806, 102 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x806, 102 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Youth and Hitler, a Hoffmann picture book Heinrich Hoffmann (October 12, 1885 in Fürth - December 11, 1957 in Munich) was a German photographer, who is best known for his numerous pictures of Adolf Hitler. ... Scale model of a Wheaties cereal box at a pep rally Promotion is one of the four aspects of marketing. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Persuasion is a form of influence. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ... A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a given society. ...


Economics and culture

Hitler oversaw one of the greatest expansions of industrial production and civil improvement Germany had ever seen, mostly based on debt flotation and expansion of the military. Nazi policies toward women strongly encouraged them to stay at home to bear children and keep house. In a September 1934 speech to the National Socialist Women's Organization, Adolf Hitler argued that for the German woman her “world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home,” a policy which was reinforced by the bestowing of the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babies. The unemployment rate was cut substantially, mostly through arms production and sending women home so that men could take their jobs. Given this, claims that the German economy achieved near full employment are at least partly artifacts of propaganda from the era. Much of the financing for Hitler's reconstruction and rearmament came from currency manipulation by Hjalmar Schacht, including the clouded credits through the Mefo bills. The negative effects of this inflation were offset in later years by the acquisition of foreign gold from the treasuries of conquered nations. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Germany is one of the worlds most highly developed market economies. ... In economics, full employment has more than one meaning. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviour of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (22 January 1877 – 3 June 1970) was a German financial expert and Minister of Economics from 1935 until 1937. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ...

Another popular photo theme was Hitler and his dog Blondi, here seen at the terrace of the Berghof.
Another popular photo theme was Hitler and his dog Blondi, here seen at the terrace of the Berghof.

Hitler also oversaw one of the largest infrastructure improvement campaigns in German history, with the construction of dozens of dams, autobahns, railroads and other civil works. Hitler's policies emphasised the importance of family life: men were the "breadwinners", while women's priorities were to lie in bringing up children and in household work. This revitalising of industry and infrastructure came at the expense of the overall standard of living, at least for those not affected by the chronic unemployment of the later Weimar Republic, since wages were slightly reduced in pre-World War II years, despite a 25% increase in the cost of living (Shirer 1959). Image File history File links Hitler_Blondi_Berghof. ... Image File history File links Hitler_Blondi_Berghof. ... Hitler and his dog Blondi on the terrace of the Berghof. ... The Berghof was Adolf Hitlers home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Germany. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into freeway. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... A policy is a plan of action to guide decisions and actions. ... Book cover The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by journalist William L. Shirer was the first definitive history of Nazi Germany in English. ...


Hitler's government sponsored architecture on an immense scale, with Albert Speer becoming famous as the first architect of the Reich. While important as an Architect in implementing Hitler's classicist reinterpretation of German culture, Speer would prove much more effective as armaments minister during the last years of World War II. In 1936, Berlin hosted the summer Olympic games, which were opened by Hitler and choreographed to demonstrate Aryan superiority over all other races, achieved mixed results. Olympia, the movie about the games and documentary propaganda films for the German Nazi Party were directed by Hitler's personal filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. Sponsorship can refer to several concepts: A sponsors support of an event, activity, person, or organization. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Albert Speer, c. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... Choreography (literally dance-writing, also known as dance composition), is the art of making structures in which movement occurs, the term composition may also refer to the navigation or connection of these movement structures. ... // Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Iranian and Sanskrit terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. Beyond its use as the ethnic self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Iranians, the meaning noble/spiritual has been attached to it in Persian and Sanskrit. ... Olympia is a 1938 film by Leni Riefenstahl documenting the 1936 Summer Olympics. ... Riefenstahl, 1931 Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German dancer, actor, and film director widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ...


Although Hitler made plans for a Breitspurbahn (broad gauge railroad network), they were pre-empted by World War II. Had the railroad been built, its gauge would have been three metres, even wider than the old Great Western Railway of Britain. The Breitspurbahn was a wide-track railroad planned by Adolf Hitler during his rulership of Germany. ... Great Western Railway broad gauge steam locomotives awaiting scrapping in 1892 after the conversion to standard gauge. ... The original Bristol Temple Meads station, first terminus of the GWR, is the building to the left of this picture The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company, linking South West England, the West Country and South Wales with London. ...


Hitler contributed to the design of the car that later became the Volkswagen Beetle, and charged Ferdinand Porsche with its construction.[12] Production was also deferred due the war. The Volkswagen Type 1, more commonly known as the Beetle, Vocho, Bug or Käfer (German), is a compact car, produced by Volkswagen from 1938 until 2003. ... Ferdinand Porsche Prof. ...


Rearmament and new alliances

Main articles: Axis Powers and Tripartite Treaty
Axis Powers signing with Saburo Kurusu (Japan's Ambassador to Germany), Galeazzo Ciano (Italy's Foreign Minister) and Adolf Hitler.
Axis Powers signing with Saburo Kurusu (Japan's Ambassador to Germany), Galeazzo Ciano (Italy's Foreign Minister) and Adolf Hitler.

In March 1935, Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles by reintroducing conscription in Germany, building a massive military machine, including a new Navy (Kriegsmarine) and an Air Force (Luftwaffe). The enlistment of vast numbers of men and women in the new military seemed to solve unemployment problems, but seriously distorted the economy. For the first time in 20 years, Germany's armed forces were as strong as France's. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ... Image File history File links JapanItalyGermanyPact. ... Image File history File links JapanItalyGermanyPact. ... Saburo Kurusu, (1886-1954), Japanese career diplomat. ... Galeazzo Ciano. ... The Treaty of Versailless (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and the German Empire. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


In March 1936, Hitler again violated the Treaty by reoccupying the demilitarized zone in the Rhineland. When Britain and France did nothing, he grew bolder. In July 1936, the Spanish Civil War began when the military, led by General Francisco Franco, rebelled against the elected Popular Front government. Hitler sent troops to support Franco and Spain served as a testing ground for Germany's new forces and their methods, including the bombing of undefended towns such as Guernica in April 1937, prompting Pablo Picasso's famous eponymous Guernica painting. The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March, 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more military powers (or alliances), where military activity is not permitted, usually by peace treaty, armistice or other bilateral or multilateral agreement. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany, although some consider the lands to the east of the river culturally distinct, jovially referring to them as Schäl Sick; the bad or wrong side... Combatants Spanish Republic CNT-FAI UGT POUM Soviet Union International Brigades Spanish State Falangists Carlists Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Salazars Portugal Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Casualties Civilians killed/wounded = hundreds of thousands The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from July 17... Francisco El Caudillo Franco. ... The Popular Front (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ... The Gernika oak. ... Young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, which has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery or other item. ... Guernica is a painting by Pablo Picasso, inspired by Picassos horror at the Nazi German bombing of Guernica, Spain on April 26, 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. ...


An Axis was declared between Germany and Italy by Galeazzo Ciano, foreign minister of Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini on October 25, 1936. Tripartite Treaty was then signed by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany and Galeazzo Ciano of Fascist Italy in September 27, 1940 and was later expanded to include Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. They were collectively known as the Axis Powers. Then on November 5, 1937, at the Reich Chancellory, Adolf Hitler held a secret meeting and stated his plans for acquiring "living space" (Lebensraum) for the German people. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Galeazzo Ciano. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister who helps form the governmental foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... ]] originally limited to a term -commonly of six months or the duration of a military conflict- and lacked power over the public finances. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the Prime-Minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until his overthrow in 1943. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. ... Saburo Kurusu, (1886-1954), Japanese career diplomat. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Exterior view of the entrance of the New Reich Chancellery. ... Lebensraum is the German term for habitat; used both in ecological and sociological contexts, it literally means living room. ...


The Holocaust

Main article: Holocaust

One of the foundations of Hitler's and the NSDAP's social policies was the concept of racial hygiene. This was applied with varying degrees of rigourousness to different groups of society, but constituted in essence the same application of the brutal and crude concept of social Darwinism to all the different kinds of victims. Between 1939 and 1945, the SS, assisted by collaborationist governments and recruits from occupied countries, systematically killed about 11 million people, including about 6 million Jews[13], in concentration camps, ghettos and mass executions, or through less systematic methods elsewhere. Besides being gassed to death, many also died of starvation and disease while working as slave labourers (sometimes benefiting private German companies in the process, because of the low cost of such labour). Along with Jews, non-Jewish Poles (over 3 million of whom died), alleged communists or political opposition, members of resistance groups, resisting Roman Catholics and Protestants, homosexuals, Roma, the physically handicapped and mentally retarded, Soviet prisoners of war, Jehovah's Witnesses, anti-Nazi clergy, trade unionists, and psychiatric patients were killed. This industrial-scale genocide in Europe is referred to as the Holocaust (the term is also used by some authors in a narrower sense, to refer specifically to the unprecedented destruction of European Jewry). One of the biggest and most important concentration camps is Auschwitz. Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Racial hygiene (often labeled a form of scientific racism) is the selection, by a government, of the most physical, intellectual and moral persons to raise the next generation (selective breeding) and a close alignment of public health with eugenics. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more other people. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ... A disease or medical condition is an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is one of three main groups currently within Christianity. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual and romantic attraction between two individuals of the same sex. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mental retardation (abbreviated as MR), is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal intellectual capacity as an adult. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared 30... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... A patient is any person who receives medical attention, care, or treatment [1]. A patient is often ill or injured and is being treated by, or in need of treatment by, a physician or other medical professional. ... Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Selection procedure of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz camp on 26 May 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... An author is the person who creates a written work, such as a book, story, article or the like. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ...


The massacres that led to the coining of the word "genocide" (the Endlösung der jüdischen Frage or "Final Solution of the Jewish Question") were planned and ordered by leading Nazis, with Himmler playing a key role. While no specific order from Hitler authorizing the mass killing of the Jews has surfaced, there is documentation showing that he approved the Einsatzgruppen and the evidence also suggests that in the fall of 1941 Himmler and Hitler agreed in principle on mass extermination by gassing. During interrogations by Soviet intelligence officers declassified over fifty years later, Hitler's valet Heinz Linge and his military aide Otto Gunsche said Hitler had "pored over the first blueprints of gas chambers." Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In a February 26, 1942 letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ...   (October 7, 1900 – May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to execute a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... See Intelligence Officers ... A valet or gentlemans gentleman is a mans male servant. ... Heinz Linge (1913-1980) was one of Adolf Hitlers servants at his headquarters. ... Aide may refer to: A person who assists another. ... Modern blueprint of the French galleon La Belle. ... // The gas chamber once used at San Quentin State Prison in California for the purpose of capital punishment. ...


To make for smoother cooperation in the implementation of this "Final Solution", the Wannsee conference was held near Berlin on January 20, 1942, with fifteen senior officials participating, led by Reinhard Heydrich and Adolf Eichmann. The records of this meeting provide the clearest evidence of planning for the Holocaust. On February 22, Hitler was recorded saying to his associates, "we shall regain our health only by eliminating the Jews". Co-operation refers to the practice of people or greater entities working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods, instead of working separately in competition. ... The Wannsee Villa, location of the Wannsee Conference, is now a Holocaust museum. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Reinhard Heydrich as SS-Gruppenführer Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (March 7, 1904 – June 4, 1942, Prague) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (which included the Gestapo, security agency and criminal police) and Reich governor of Bohemia and Moravia. ... Adolf Eichmann, Germany 1940. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


World War II

Main article: World War II

Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...

Opening moves

Hitler with Romanian leader Ion Antonescu (far left).
Hitler with Romanian leader Ion Antonescu (far left).

On March 12, 1938, Hitler pressured his native Austria into unification with Germany (the Anschluss) and made a triumphal entry into Vienna. Next, he intensified a crisis over the German-speaking Sudetenland districts of Czechoslovakia. This led to the Munich Agreement of September 1938, which authorized the annexation and immediate military occupation of these districts by Germany. As a result of the summit, Hitler was TIME magazine's Man of the Year for 1938.[14] British prime minister Neville Chamberlain hailed this agreement as "Peace in our time", but by giving way to Hitler's military demands Britain and France also left Czechoslovakia to Hitler's mercy. meeting between dictators :- This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... meeting between dictators :- This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth PiteÅŸti, Romania Date of death June 1... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in leap years). ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... In mathematical logic, in particular as applied to computer science, a unification of two terms is a join (in the lattice sense) with respect to a specialisation order. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 UN complex in Vienna, with the non-affiliated Austria Center Vienna in front - picture taken from Danube Tower in nearby Danube Park. ... Map of the Sudetenland Gau. ... Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of U.S. newsmagazine TIME that features a profile ostensibly on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that for better or worse, has most influenced events in the preceding year. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a Conservative British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ...


Hitler ordered Germany's army to enter Prague on March 10, 1939 and from Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate. After that, Hitler was claiming territories ceded to Poland under the Versailles Treaty. Britain had not been able to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for an alliance against Germany, and, on August 23, 1939, Hitler concluded a secret non-aggression pact (the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) with Stalin on which it was likely agreed that the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany would partition Poland. On September 1, Germany invaded the western portion of Poland. Britain and France, who had guaranteed assistance to Poland, declared war on Germany. Not long after this, on September 17, Soviet forces invaded eastern Poland. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Prague Castle at night. ... Flag of the Protectorate The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (in German: Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren, in Czech: Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was the ethnic-Czech protectorate (in fact a puppet state) of the German Reich established in the central parts of Bohemia and Moravia. ... The Treaty of Versailless (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and the German Empire. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them even if they find themselves fighting third countries, or even if one is fighting allies of the other. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Stalin redirects here. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ...


After capturing western Poland by the end of September, Hitler built up his forces much further during the so-called Phony War. In April 1940, he ordered German forces to march into Denmark and Norway. In May 1940, Hitler ordered his forces to attack France, conquering the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium in the process. France surrendered on June 22, 1940. This series of victories convinced his main ally, Benito Mussolini of Italy, to join the war on Hitler's side in May 1940. British Ministry of Home Security Poster The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland. ... Look up surrender in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the Prime-Minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until his overthrow in 1943. ...


Britain, whose defeated forces had evacuated France from the coastal town of Dunkirk, continued to fight alongside Canadian forces in the Battle of the Atlantic. After having his overtures for peace systematically rejected by the defiant British Government, now led by Winston Churchill, Hitler ordered bombing raids on the British Isles, leading to the Battle of Britain, a prelude of the planned German invasion. The attacks began by pounding the RAF airbases and the radar stations protecting South-East England. However, the Luftwaffe failed to defeat the RAF by the end of October 1940. Air superiority for the invasion, code-named Operation Sealion, could not be assured and Hitler ordered bombing raids to be carried out on British cities, including London and Coventry, mostly at night. Location within France For the battleship, see Dunkerque Dunkirk (French: Dunkerque; Dutch: Duinkerke; German: Dünkirchen) is a harbour city and a commune in the northernmost part of France, in the département of Nord, 10 km from the Belgian border. ... Battle of the Atlantic can refer to either of two naval campaigns, depending on context: World War I - First Battle of the Atlantic World War II - Second Battle of the Atlantic A Third Battle of the Atlantic was envisioned to be be part of any Third World War that arose... This article is becoming very long. ... Strategic bombing is a military strategem used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength 700+ Grew to nearly 1000 during end of the Battle. ... A Prelude is something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows after it. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This long range RADAR antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll[1]. RADAR is a system that uses radio waves to detect, determine the direction and distance and/or speed... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Operation Sealion (Unternehmen (Undertaking) Seelöwe in German) was a World War II German plan to invade the United Kingdom. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre. ...


Path to defeat

Hitler with Großadmiral Erich Raeder.
Hitler with Großadmiral Erich Raeder.

On June 22, 1941, Hitler gave the signal for three million German troops to attack the Soviet Union, breaking the non-aggression pact he had concluded with Stalin less than two years earlier. This invasion, code-named Operation Barbarossa, seized huge amounts of territory, including the Baltic states, Belarus, and Ukraine, along with the encirclement and destruction of many Soviet forces. German forces, however, were stopped short of Moscow in December 1941 by the Russian winter and fierce Soviet resistance (see Battle of Moscow), and the invasion failed to achieve the quick triumph over the Soviet Union which Hitler had anticipated. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x882, 129 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x882, 129 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Erich Raeder. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them even if they find themselves fighting third countries, or even if one is fighting allies of the other. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Joseph Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... General Winter is a nickname given to the cold Russian winter, which contributed to the defeat of the invasions of Napoleon in 1812 and Nazi Germany in 1941. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January...


Hitler's declaration of war against the United States on December 11, 1941 four days after the Empire of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, USA set him against a coalition that included the world's largest empire (the British Empire), the world's greatest industrial and financial power (the USA), and the world's largest army (the Soviet Union). December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... now. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


In May 1942, Reinhard Heydrich, one of the highest SS officers and one of Hitler's favorite subordinates, was assassinated by British-trained Czech operatives in Prague. Hitler reacted by ordering brutal reprisals, including the massacre of Lidice. Reinhard Heydrich as SS-Gruppenführer Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (March 7, 1904 – June 4, 1942, Prague) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (which included the Gestapo, security agency and criminal police) and Reich governor of Bohemia and Moravia. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Reinhard Heydrich, the target of Operation Anthropoid. ... Lidice (Liditz in German) is a village in former Czechoslovakia (now in the Czech Republic) which was completely destroyed by the Nazis during World War II. About 340 men, women and children from the village were murdered by the Nazis. ...


In late 1942, German forces under Feldmarschall Erwin Rommel were defeated in the second battle of El Alamein, thwarting Hitler's plans to seize the Suez Canal and the Middle East. In February 1943, the lengthy Battle of Stalingrad ended with the complete encirclement and destruction of the German 6th Army. Both defeats were turning points in the war, although the latter is more commonly considered primary. From this point on, the quality of Hitler's military judgment became increasingly erratic and Germany's military and economic position deteriorated. Hitler's health was deteriorating too. His left hand started shaking uncontrollably. The biographer Ian Kershaw believes he suffered from Parkinson's disease. Other conditions that are suspected by some to have caused some (at least) of his symptoms are methamphetamine addiction and syphilis. Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... Combatants British 8th Army German Panzer Army Africa Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 250,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 90,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 13,500 dead and wounded 13,000 dead 46,000 wounded or captured The Second Battle... Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: ‎, translit: , French: ), west of the Sinai Peninsula, is a 163-km-long (101 miles) and, at its narrowest point, 300-m-wide (984 ft) maritime canal in Egypt between Port Said (BÅ«r SaÄ«d) on the Mediterranean Sea... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants Germany Italy Romania Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Georgiy Zhukov Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis... The 6. ... An erratic is a fragment of glacial till carried by ice, sometimes for hundreds of miles, and deposited on rocks of a different geologic composition. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Methamphetamine (sometimes referred to as methylamphetamine or desoxyephedrine) is a psychostimulant drug used primarily for recreational purposes, but is sometimes prescribed for ADHD and narcolepsy under the brand name Desoxyn. ... Addiction is a chronic disorder proposed to be precipitated by a combination of genetic, biological/pharmacological and social factors. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ...


Italians overthrew Hitler's ally, Benito Mussolini, in 1943 after Operation Husky, an American and British invasion of Sicily. Throughout 1943 and 1944, the Soviet Union steadily forced Hitler's armies into retreat along the eastern front. On June 6, 1944, the Western allied armies landed in northern France in what was the largest amphibious operation ever conducted, Operation Overlord. Realists in the German army knew defeat was inevitable and some officers plotted to remove Hitler from power. In July 1944 one of them, Claus von Stauffenberg, planted a bomb at Hitler's military headquarters in Rastenburg (the so-called July 20 Plot), but Hitler narrowly escaped death. He ordered savage reprisals, resulting in the executions of more than 4,900 people[15] (sometimes by starvation in solitary confinement followed by slow strangulation). The main resistance movement was destroyed although smaller isolated groups such as Die Rote Kapelle continued to operate. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the Prime-Minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until his overthrow in 1943. ... Husky was also the codename of Australian military support to Sierra Leone ending in February 2003. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 km² and 5 million inhabitants. ... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Claus von Stauffenberg Claus Philipp Maria Graf Schenk von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German aristocrat and army colonel during World War II. He was one of the leading figures of the July 20 Plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ... The Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb, also known as Mother Of All Bombs, produced in the United States. ... Kętrzyn is a town in north-eastern Poland with 30,300 inhabitants (1995). ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was a failed coup détat and attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ... Die Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) was the name created by the Gestapo for what they alleged to be two Communist resistance rings in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II. The Gestapo used the name Red Orchestra to refer to the Schulze-Boysen / Harnack group, an anti-Hitler resistance movement...


Defeat and death

Main article: Hitler's death
Cover of US newspaper The Stars and Stripes, May 1945.

By the end of 1944, the Red Army had driven the last German troops from Soviet territory and began charging into Central Europe. The western allies were also rapidly advancing into Germany. The Germans had lost the war from a military perspective, but Hitler allowed no negotiation with the Allied forces, and as a consequence the German military forces continued to fight. Hitler's stubbornness and defiance of military realities also allowed the continued mass killing of Jews and others to continue. He even issued the Nero Decree on March 19, 1945, ordering the destruction of what remained of German industry, communications and transport. However, Albert Speer, who was in charge of that plan, did not carry it out. (The Morgenthau Plan for postwar Germany, promulgated by the Allies, aimed at a similar deindustrialization.) The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... Image File history File links Stars_&_Stripes_&_Hitler_Dead2. ... Image File history File links Stars_&_Stripes_&_Hitler_Dead2. ... National flag and ensign. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States, (from 1941), Italy... By March 1945, Allied forces had penetrated deep within Germany and were poised to launch their final assault on the Third Reich. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Albert Speer, c. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ...


In April 1945, Soviet forces were at the gates of Berlin. Hitler's closest lieutenants urged him to flee to Bavaria or Austria to make a last stand in the mountains, but he seemed determined to either live or die in the capital. SS leader Heinrich Himmler tried on his own to inform the Allies (through the Swedish diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte) that Germany was prepared to discuss surrender terms. Meanwhile Hermann Göring sent a telegram from Bavaria in which he argued that since Hitler was cut off in Berlin, as Hitler's designated successor he should assume leadership of Germany. Hitler angrily reacted by dismissing both Himmler and Göring from all their offices and the party and declared them traitors. Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Weidling Helmuth Reymann Wilhelm Mohnke Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Koniev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Strength 1,000,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 3,300 aircraft 2,500,000 men, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery Casualties 150,000–173... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The infamous double-sig rune SS insignia. ...   (October 7, 1900 – May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg (January 2, 1895 - September 17, 1948), or simply Count Bernadotte, was a Swedish diplomat noted for his negotiation of the release of 15,000 mostly Scandinavian prisoners [1] from the German concentration camps in World War II and for his assassination by members of a... Hermann Göring. ...


After intense street-to-street combat, when Soviet troops were spotted within a block or two of the Reich Chancellory in the city centre, Hitler committed suicide in the Führerbunker on April 30, 1945 by means of a self-delivered shot to the head (it is likely he simultaneously bit into a cyanide ampoule). Hitler's body and that of Eva Braun (his long-term mistress whom he had married the day before) were put in a bomb crater, partially burned with gasoline by Führerbunker aides and hastily buried in the Chancellory garden as Russian shells poured down and Red Army infantry continued to advance only two or three hundred metres away. He also had his dog Blondi poisoned around the same time. US Marines fight in the city of Fallujah during Operation Al Fajr (New Dawn) in November 2004. ... Exterior view of the entrance of the New Reich Chancellery. ... This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the cyano group -C≡N, with the carbon atom triple-bonded to the nitrogen atom. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gasoline, also called petrol, is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzenes to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Hitler and his dog Blondi on the terrace of the Berghof. ...


When Russian forces reached the Chancellory, they found his body and an autopsy was performed using dental records (and German dental assistants who were familiar with them) to confirm the identification. To avoid any possibility of creating a potential shrine, the remains of Hitler and Braun were repeatedly moved, then secretly buried by SMERSH at their new headquarters in Magdeburg. In April 1970, when the facility was about to be turned over to the East German government, the remains were reportedly exhumed, thoroughly cremated, and the ashes finally dumped unceremoniously into the Elbe. According to the Russian Federal Security Service, a fragment of human skull stored in its archives and displayed to the public in a 2000 exhibition came from the remains of Hitler's body uncovered by the Red Army in Berlin, and is all that remains of Hitler; however, the authenticity of the skull has been challenged by many historians and researchers. SMERSH (short for SMERt SHpionam (СМЕРть Шпионам), or Death to Spies) was the name of counterintelligence departments in the Soviet Union formed during the Great Patriotic War, to secure the rear of the active Red Army, on the front to arrest traitors, deserters, spies, and criminal elements. // History The organization was created... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... The River Elbe (Czech Labe , Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of Central Europe. ...


Legacy

Outside the building in Braunau am Inn where Adolf Hitler was born is a memorial stone warning of the horrors of World War II.
Outside the building in Braunau am Inn where Adolf Hitler was born is a memorial stone warning of the horrors of World War II.

At the time of Hitler's death, most of Germany's infrastructure and major cities were in ruins and he had left explicit orders to complete the destruction. Millions of Germans were dead with millions more wounded or homeless. In his will, he dismissed other Nazi leaders and appointed Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz as Reichspräsident (President of Germany) and Goebbels as Reichskanzler (Chancellor of Germany). However, Goebbels and his wife Magda committed suicide on 1 May 1945. On 7 May 1945, in Reims, France, the German armed forces surrendered unconditionally to the Western Allies and on 8 May 1945, in Berlin to the Soviet Union thus ending the war in Europe and with the creation of the Allied Control Council on 5 June 1945, the Four Powers assumed "supreme authority with respect to Germany." Adolf Hitler's proclaimed Thousand Year Reich had lasted 12 years. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 508 KB) Beschreibung |Description = Mahnstein gegen Krieg und Faschismus in Braunau am Inn liegt vor dem Geburtshaus Adolf Hitlers |Source = selbst gemacht |Date = created 2. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 508 KB) Beschreibung |Description = Mahnstein gegen Krieg und Faschismus in Braunau am Inn liegt vor dem Geburtshaus Adolf Hitlers |Source = selbst gemacht |Date = created 2. ... Braunau am Inn is a city in the Innviertel (River Inn area) of Upper Austria (Ober sterreich), the north-western province of Austria. ... The memorial stone, with Mayor Gerhard Skiba, Andreas Maislinger (founder of the Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service) and young members of the Austrian Association for Service Abroad standing in front of the house where Hitler was born. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as President of Germany after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of Germany. ... Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) is a city of north-eastern France, 98 miles east-northeast of Paris. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States, (from 1941), Italy... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II and the German surrender took place in late April and early May 1945. ... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Since the defeat of Germany in World War II, Hitler, the Nazi Party and the results of Nazism have been regarded in most of the world as synonymous with evil. Historical and cultural portrayals of Hitler in the west are, by virtually universal consensus, condemnatory. German Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities and peoples before, during and after World War II and the Holocaust. ... In religion and ethics, Evil refers to the bad aspects of the behaviour and reasoning of human beings —those which are deliberately void of conscience, and show a wanton penchant for destruction. ... Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889–30 April 1945) was the Führer of the National Socialist German Workers Party and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


The copyright of Hitler's book Mein Kampf in Europe is claimed by the Free State of Bavaria and will expire in 2015. Reproductions in Germany are generally authorized only for scholarly purposes and in heavily commented form. The situation is however unclear; Werner Maser (whom Theodor Heuss proposed to publish "Mein Kampf" as a weapon against Nazi Ideology) comments that intellectual property cannot be confiscated and so, it still would lie in the hands of Hitler's nephew, who, however, does not want to have anything to do with Hitler's legacy. This situation leads to contested trials, eg., in Poland and Sweden. "Mein Kampf" is still published in the USA, as well as in other countries such as Turkey or Israel, by publishers with various political positions. Cover of Mein Kampf (First Edition) Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...


The display of swastikas or other Nazi symbols is prohibited in Germany and political extremists are generally under surveillance by the Verfassungsschutz, one of the federal or state-based offices for the protection of the constitution. The swastika (from Sanskrit , from su well, and asti being, thus good fortune or well-being) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles in either left-facing () or right-facing () direction. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with fascist symbolism. ... Verfassungsschutz (Constitution Protection) is the short name for any of Germanys federal and state-based secret services for the interior. ...


There have been instances of public figures referring to Hitler's legacy in neutral or favourable terms, particularly in South America, the Islamic World and parts of Asia. Future Egyptian President Anwar Sadat wrote favourably of Hitler in 1953.[16] Bal Thackeray, leader of the right-wing Shiv Sena party in the Indian state of the Maharashtra, declared in 1995 that he was an admirer of Hitler.[17] Much of the positive or neutral attitude towards Hitler may partly be due to the fact that many of these countries were colonies of Allied Powers who were fighting Hitler-led Germany. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... SS election symbol Shiv Sena or शिव सेना (meaning Army of Shiva, referring to Shiva) is a political party in India founded on June 19, 1966 by Bal Thackeray, who is the president of the party. ... Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र mahārāṣṭra, literally: Great Nation; IPA: )( ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ...

Further information: Consequences of German Nazism and Neo-Nazism

German Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities and peoples before, during and after World War II and the Holocaust. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...

Hitler's religious beliefs

Adolf Hitler was brought up in his family's religion by his Roman Catholic parents, but as a school boy he began to reject the Church and Catholicism. After he had left home, he never attended Mass or received the Sacraments. Adolf Hitler was brought up as a Roman Catholic by his Roman Catholic parents. ... A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy [[Mystery The root meaning of the Latin word sacramentum is making sacred. One example of its use was as the term for the oath of dedication taken by Roman soldiers; but the ecclesiastical use of the word is...


In later life, Hitler's religious beliefs present a discrepant picture: In public statements, he frequently spoke positively about the Christian heritage of German culture and belief in Christ. Hitler’s private statements, reported by his intimates, are more mixed, showing Hitler as a religious but also anti-Christian man. However, in contrast to other Nazi leaders, Hitler did not adhere to esoteric ideas, occultism, or neo-paganism, and ridiculed such beliefs in his book Mein Kampf. Rather, Hitler advocated a "Positive Christianity", a belief system purged from what he objected to in traditional Christianity, and reinvented Jesus as a fighter against the Jews.[citation needed] Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... Cover of Mein Kampf (First Edition) Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... A Sun cross, adopted as the sign of the German Faith Movement because it resembles both a cross and a swastika Positive Christianity is a term used in Nazi ideology to refer to a form of Christianity consistent with Nazism. ...


Hitler believed in a Social Darwinist struggle for survival between the different races, among which the "Aryan race" was supposed to be the torchbearers of civilization and the Jews as enemies of all civilization. Whether his anti-semitism was influenced by older Christian ideas remains disputed. Hitler also strongly believed that "Providence" was guiding him in this fight. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Among Christian denominations, Hitler favoured Protestantism, which was more open to such reinterpretations, but at the same time imitated some elements of Catholic church organization, liturgy and phraseology in his politics.


Medical health and sexuality

Hitler's alleged health problems in his later years have long been the subject of debate, and he has variously been suggested to have suffered from irritable bowel syndrome, skin lesions, irregular heartbeat, tremors on the left side of his body, syphilis, Parkinson's disease and a strongly suggested addiction to methamphetamines. Adolf Hitlers medical health has long been a subject of popular controversy. ... Skin Lesions can include moles, cysts, warts or skin tags. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ... Methamphetamine is a synthetic stimulant drug which induces a strong feeling of euphoria and is highly addictive. ...


Most of Hitler's biographers have characterized him as a vegetarian who abstained from eating meat, beginning in the early 1930s until his death (although his actual dietary habits appear inconsistant and are sometimes hotly disputed). There are reports of him disgusting his guests by giving them graphic accounts of the slaughter of animals in an effort to make them shun meat. A fear of cancer (which his mother died from) is the most widely cited reason, though many authors also assert Hitler had a profound and deep love of animals. He did consume dairy products and eggs, however. Martin Bormann constructed a large greenhouse close to the Berghof (near Berchtesgaden) in order to ensure a steady supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for Hitler throughout the war. Personal photographs of Bormann's children tending the greenhouse survive and, by 2005, its foundations were among the only ruins visible in the area which were directly associated with Nazi leaders. For more information on this topic, see Vegetarianism of Adolf Hitler. For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... now. ... The Berghof was Adolf Hitlers home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Germany. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... Martin Bormanns children are seen (around 1940) inside the greenhouse he built for Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden, from colour movie film shot by Eva Braun, now in the U.S. National Archives. ...


Hitler was also a fervent non-smoker and promoted aggressive anti-smoking campaigns throughout Germany. He reportedly promised a gold watch to any of his close associates who quit (and actually gave a few away). Several witness accounts relate that, immediately after his suicide was confirmed, many officers, aides, and secretaries in the Führerbunker lit cigarettes.[18][19]


Contrary to popular accounts, there seems to be some evidence Hitler did not abstain entirely from alcohol. After the war, an interrogation in the USSR of his valet Heinz Linge could indicate that Hitler drank champagne now and then with Eva Braun.[citation needed] Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Heinz Linge (1913-1980) was one of Adolf Hitlers servants at his headquarters. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Sexuality

Hitler presented himself to his public as a man without an intimate domestic life, dedicated to his political "mission". He is known to have had a fiancée, Mimi Reiter in the 1920s, and to have later had a mistress, Eva Braun. He had a close bond with his niece Geli Raubal, which many commentators have claimed was sexual.[20] All three women attempted suicide during their relationship with him, a fact which has led to speculation that Hitler may have had unusual sexual fetishes, though Reiter, the only one to survive the Nazi regime, denies this.[21] During the war and afterwards psychoanalysts offered numerous inconsistent psycho-sexual explanations of his pathology. More recently Lothar Machtan has argued in his book The Hidden Hitler that Hitler was homosexual. Mimi Reiter was Adolf Hitlers fiancée in the late 1920s. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud. ...


Hitler's family

Main article: Hitler (disambiguation)

Paula Hitler, the last living member of Adolf Hitler's immediate family, died in 1960. There have been several persons named Hitler: Adolf Hitler (1889–1945), Führer (Leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party and dictator of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


The most prominent, and longest-living direct descendants of Adolf Hitler's father, Alois, was his nephew William Patrick Hitler. With his wife Phyllis, he eventually moved to Long Island, New York and had four sons. None of William Hitler's children have yet had any children of their own. William Patrick Hitler (later Stuart-Houston) (March 12, 1911 – July 1987), nicknamed Willy, was the nephew of Adolf Hitler and his life, and claim to fame, has become interwoven with that of his uncle. ... This article is about Long Island in New York State. ...


Over the years various investigative reporters have attempted to track down other distant relatives of the Führer; many are now alleged to be living inconspicuous lives and have long since changed their last name.

Adolf Hitler's genealogy.
Adolf Hitler's genealogy.
Sketch of Eva Braun by Hitler.
Enlarge
Sketch of Eva Braun by Hitler.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1359x913, 71 KB) Created in Inkscape, unfortunately I was unable to save in SVG format so I went with PNG. The information contained in the image is derived from multiple sources. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1359x913, 71 KB) Created in Inkscape, unfortunately I was unable to save in SVG format so I went with PNG. The information contained in the image is derived from multiple sources. ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Image File history File links Evabrown-by-Hitler. ... Image File history File links Evabrown-by-Hitler. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alois Hitler Alois Hitler, born Aloys Schicklgruber (June 7, 1837 – January 3, 1903) was the father of Adolf Hitler. ... Klara Hitler Klara Hitler, born Klara Pölzl (August 12, 1860 - December 21, 1907), was the mother of Adolf Hitler. ... Paula Hitler. ... Alois Hitler, Jr. ... Bridget Elizabeth Dowling Hitler (alternative Brigid) (1891-1969) was Adolf Hitlers sister-in-law via her marriage to Alois Hitler, Jr. ... William Patrick Hitler (later Stuart-Houston) (March 12, 1911 – July 1987), nicknamed Willy, was the nephew of Adolf Hitler and his life, and claim to fame, has become interwoven with that of his uncle. ... Heinz Hitler was the son of Alois Hitler, Jr. ... Adolf Hitler with his halfsister Angela Angela Raubal Hamitsch, born Angela Hitler (July 28, 1883 - October 30, 1949), was the elder half-sister of Adolf Hitler. ... Maria Anna Schicklgruber (April 15, 1795 – January 7, 1847) was Adolf Hitlers paternal grandmother. ... In German history, Johann Georg Hiedler (28 September 1792, – 1857) was born to Martin Hiedler (17 November 1762 - 10 January 1829) and Anna Maria Goschl (August 23, 1760 - 7 December 1854). ... Johann von Nepomuk Hiedler, also known as Johann von Nepomuk Hüttler (March 19, 1807 - September 17, 1888), was a maternal great-grandfather and possibly also the paternal grandfather of Adolf Hitler. ... Geli Raubal Angela Geli Raubal (June 4, 1908 – September 18, 1931). ...

People associated with Hitler

  • Martin Bormann, Adolf Hitler's secretary.
  • Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, sister of philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche and Hitler supporter.
  • Hans Frank, Hitler's lawyer and later senior Nazi official in occupied Poland.
  • Joseph Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda.
  • Hermann Göring, Reichsmarschall, Commander of the Luftwaffe, founder of the Gestapo.
  • Rudolf Hess, Hitler's deputy as party leader, best known for his flight to Scotland to negotiate peace in 1941.
  • Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Reich Main Security Office (including the Gestapo)
  • Heinrich Himmler, leader of the SS, key figure in the Holocaust and the "Final Solution".
  • Heinrich Hoffmann, official photographer from 1920 to 1945.
  • Alfred Jodl, military officer, knew Hitler since 1923.
  • Wilhelm Keitel, military Field Marshal during World War II.
  • August Kubizek, close friend and roommate in Vienna
  • Leopold Poetsch, Hitler's anti-Semitic school teacher
  • Leni Riefenstahl, friend and filmmaker who documented the Nazi party.
  • Erwin Rommel, the famous "Desert Fox", a highly skilled Field Marshal during World War II who was forced to commit suicide after being implicated in a plot against Hitler.
  • Ernst Röhm, leader of the SA and internal critic, killed in the Night of the Long Knives (1934).
  • Albert Speer, Hitler's personal architect, Minister of armaments. Close friend to Hitler.
  • Paul Troost, famous architect who served before Speer.
  • Winifred Wagner, head of the Wagner family and close friend of Hitler's.

Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Gunter dAlquen Ludolf von Alvensleben Max Amann Benno von Arent Heinz Auerswald... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... now. ... Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, ca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ... Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... Hermann Göring. ... Rudolf Hess Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Reinhard Heydrich as SS-Gruppenführer Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (March 7, 1904 – June 4, 1942, Prague) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Security Main Office (which included the Gestapo, security agency and criminal police) and Reich governor of Bohemia and Moravia. ... The Deaths Head emblem similar to skull and crossbones, often used as the insignia of the Gestapo The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei; Secret State Police) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...   (October 7, 1900 – May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... Youth and Hitler, a Hoffmann picture book Heinrich Hoffmann (October 12, 1885 in Fürth - December 11, 1957 in Munich) was a German photographer, who is best known for his numerous pictures of Adolf Hitler. ... Generaloberst Alfred Jodl Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 - October 16, 1946) was a Wehrmacht leader. ... Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882 - October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // [edit] Early life and career The son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, he was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German... August Kubizek was a childhood friend and one time room mate of Adolf Hitler. ... Leopold Poetsch was a teacher of Adolf Hitler who influenced the future-leaders later views. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Riefenstahl, 1931 Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German dancer, actor, and film director widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... A photographic portrait of Ernst Röhm. ... The Night of the Long Knives (June 30 and Sunday July 1, 1934) (German, Nacht der langen Messer), also known as Reichsmordwoche, Operation Hummingbird or the Blood Purge, was a lethal purge of Adolf Hitlers potential political rivals in the Sturmabteilung (SA; also known as storm troopers or brownshirts). ... Albert Speer, c. ... Paul Ludwig Troost Paul Ludwig Troost (August 17, 1878 to 21 March 1934) born in Elberfeld. ... Winifred Wagner, born Winifred Williams (June 23, 1897 - March 5, 1980) was born in Hastings, England. ...

Miscellany

  • A nickname for Hitler used by German soldiers was Gröfaz, a derogatory and/or sarcastic abbreviation for Größter Feldherr aller Zeiten ("Greatest War Lord of all Time"), a title initially publicized by Nazi propaganda after the surprisingly quick fall of France.
  • Hitler did not like women to wear cosmetics, since they contained animal by-products, and frequently teased his mistress Eva Braun about her habit of wearing makeup.[22]
  • He almost never wore a uniform to social engagements, which he attended frequently whenever in Berlin during the 1930s. When he did wear uniforms, they were tailored and understated compared to those of other prominent Nazis who often wore elaborate uniforms with extensive decorations and medals.
  • According to the 2001 documentary The Tramp and the Dictator, the Charlie Chaplin parody/satire The Great Dictator was not only sent to Hitler, but an eyewitness confirmed he did see it, twice.[23] Chaplin has been quoted as saying, "I'd have given anything to know what he thought of it."

An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviour of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Nazi Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other people named Chaplin, see Chaplin (disambiguation). ... The Great Dictator is a film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. ... King Kong battles a pterosaur in the original 1933 version. ... The Lives of a Bengal Lancer is a 1930 book, a memoir by Francis Yeats-Brown (1886-1944), and a 1935 movie loosely adapted from the book. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... Rienzi, der Letzte der Tribunen (Rienzi, the Last of the Tribunes) is an early opera by Richard Wagner in five acts, with the libretto written by the composer after Bulwer-Lyttons novel of the same name. ...

Hitler in various media

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See also: Hitler in popular culture

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889–30 April 1945) was the Führer of the National Socialist German Workers Party and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...

Movie clip

  • Hitler at Berchtesgaden ( file info)
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Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ...

Speeches and talk by Hitler

Hitler was a gifted orator who captivated many with his beating of the lectern and growling, emotional speech. Authentic though they may seem, Hitler's speeches were full of propaganda and rhetoric, used to touch a spot with his audience as a way to persuade them. While his early speeches were rather amateurish, over time Hitler perfected his delivery by rehearsing in front of mirrors and carefully choreographing his display of emotions with the message he was trying to convey.[24][25] List of Adolf Hitler speeches is an attempt to aggregate all of Adolf Hitlers speeches. ... Orator is a Latin word for speaker (from the Latin verb oro, meaning I speak or I pray). In ancient Rome, the art of speaking in public (Ars Oratoria) was a professional competence especially cultivated by politicians and lawyers. ...


Recording of Hitler in private conversation

Hitler visited Finnish Field Marshal Mannerheim on his 75th birthday on the June 4, 1942. During the visit an engineer of the Finnish broadcasting company YLE, Thor Damen, recorded Hitler and Mannerheim in a private conversation, something which had to be done secretly as Hitler never allowed recordings of him off-guard.[2] Today the recording is the only known recording of Hitler not speaking in an official tone. The recording captures 11 and a half minutes of the two leaders in private conversation.[3] Hitler speaks in a slightly excited, but still intellectually detached manner during this talk (the speech has been compared to that of the working class). The majority of the recording is a monologue by Hitler. In the recording, Hitler admits to underestimating the Soviet Union's ability to conduct war (some English transcripts exist [4] [5]). Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... C.G.E. Mannerheim C.G.E. Mannerheims autograph This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Yleisradio (YLE), or the Finnish Broadcasting Company, is a national publicly-funded radio and television broadcaster based in Finland, it was founded in 1926. ...

Films

During Hitler's reign, he appeared in and was involved to varying degrees with a series of films by the pioneering filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl: Riefenstahl, 1931 Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German dancer, actor, and film director widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ...

Hitler was the central figure of the first three films, that focused on the party rallies of the respective years and are considered propaganda films, and features prominently in the Olympia film. Whether the latter is a propaganda film or a mere documentation is controversial, but it nonetheless perpetuated and spread the propagandistic message of the 1936 Olympic Games, depicting Nazi Germany as a prosperous and peaceful country. Sieg des Glaubens (German for Victory of Faith) is the first documentary directed by Leni Riefenstahl, who was hired despite opposition from Nazi officials that resented employing a woman — and a non-Party member too. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a documentary and propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl that chronicles the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg. ... Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht (German for Day of Freedom: Our Armed Forces) is the third documentary directed by Leni Riefenstahl. ... Olympia is a 1938 film by Leni Riefenstahl documenting the 1936 Summer Olympics. ... The Nuremberg Rally (officially, Reichsparteitag, literally National Day of the (Nazi)Party - referring to the Nazi Party) was the annual rally of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) in the years 1923 to 1938 in Germany. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...

  • IMDb: Adolf Hitler

Documentaries

  • The World at War (1974) is a famous Thames Television series which contains much information about Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany, including an interview with his secretary, Traudl Junge.
  • Adolf Hitler's Last Days, from the BBC series "Secrets of World War II" tells the story about Hitler's last days during World War II.
  • Blind Spot: Hitler's Secretary (2002) is an exclusive 90 minute interview with Traudl Junge, Hitler's final trusted secretary. Made by Austrian Jewish director André Heller shortly before Junge's death from lung cancer, Junge recalls the last days in the Berlin bunker. Clips used in Downfall.

The World at War was a 1974 television documentary series on the Second World War, the events that led up to it, and those that followed in its wake. ... Thames Television was an British television production company, and between 1968 and 1992, it was the weekday ITV company serving London. ... Traudl Junge just after World War II. Traudl Junge (born Gertrude Humps, 16 March 1920 – 10 February 2002) was Adolf Hitlers last personal private secretary, from 1942 to 1945. ... Im toten Winkel poster. ...

Dramatizations

  • Hitler: The Last Ten Days (1973) is a movie depicting the days leading up to Adolf Hitler's death, starring Sir Alec Guinness.
  • The Bunker (1978) by James O'Donnell, describing the last days in the Führerbunker from 1945-01-17 to 1945-05-02. Made into the TV movie The Bunker (1981), starring Anthony Hopkins.
  • Hitler: The Rise of Evil (2003) is a two-part TV series about the early years of Adolf Hitler and his rise to power (up to 1933). Stars Robert Carlyle.
  • Der Untergang (Downfall) (2004) is a German movie about the last days of Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich, starring Bruno Ganz. This film is partly based on the autobiography of Traudl Junge, a favorite secretary of Hitler's. In 2002 Junge said she felt great guilt for "...liking the greatest criminal ever to have lived."
  • Hans-Jürgen Syberberg's Hitler - Ein Film aus Deutschland (Hitler, A Film From Germany), 1977. Originally presented on German television, this is a 7-hour work in 4 parts: The Grail; A German Dream; The End Of Winter's Tale; We, Children Of Hell. The director uses documentary clips, photographic backgrounds, puppets, theatrical stages, and other elements from almost all the visual arts, with the "actors" addressing directly the audience/camera, in order to approach and expand on this most taboo subject of European history of the 20th century.
  • Max is a 2002 Drama movie, that depicts a friendship between art dealer Max Rothman (who is Jewish) and a young Adolf Hitler as a failed painter in Vienna.

Hitler: The Last Ten Days is a 1973 film depicting the days leading up to Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... The Bunker is an account, written by American journalist James ODonnell, of the history of the Fuehrerbunker in early 1945, as well as the last days of Adolf Hitler. ... This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... The Bunker is an account, written by American journalist James ODonnell, of the history of the Fuehrerbunker in early 1945, as well as the last days of Adolf Hitler. ... Robert Carlyle, OBE (born April 14, 1961) is a Scottish movie actor. ... Der Untergang (2004; international English title Downfall) is a German film depicting the final days of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany in 1945. ... (born March 22, 1941 in Zurich) is a Swiss actor. ... Traudl Junge just after World War II. Traudl Junge (born Gertrude Humps, 16 March 1920 – 10 February 2002) was Adolf Hitlers last personal private secretary, from 1942 to 1945. ... Max is a 2002 Drama movie, that depicts a friendship between art dealer Max Rothman and a young painter, Adolf Hitler. ... A drama film is a film that depends mostly on in-depth character development, interaction, and highly emotional themes. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 UN complex in Vienna, with the non-affiliated Austria Center Vienna in front - picture taken from Danube Tower in nearby Danube Park. ...

Further reading

Many books have been written about Adolf Hitler with his life and legacy thoroughly researched. See this list for an extensive annotated bibliography, containing also a list of works authored by Hitler. Adolf Hitlers Mein Kampf. ... Adolf Hitlers Mein Kampf. ... Annotated Bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. ...


See also

Further information: Category:Adolf Hitler

References

  1. ^ Origin and Popularity of the Name "Adolph" thinkbabynames.com
  2. ^ Walter C. Langer, The Mind of Adolf Hitler, p. 246 (Basic Books: New York, 1972)
  3. ^ Shirer, William L., The Rise And Fall of Adolf Hitler c 1961, Random House
  4. ^ David Lewis, The Man who invented Hitler, Headline Book Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7553-1148-5.
  5. ^ The War Against the Jews. Bantam. 1986
  6. ^ http://mdz1.bib-bvb.de/cocoon2/histlexbay/document/artikel_44676_bilder_value_6_beisetzung-eisners3.jpg
  7. ^ Joachim C. Fest, The Drummer in The Face Of The Third Reich (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1970; URL accessed June 11, 2005).
  8. ^ Hitler dodged taxes, expert finds BBC News
  9. ^ Mythos Ladenhüter Spiegel Online
  10. ^ "Die Übertragung der verantwortlichen Leitung eines mit den besten sachlichen und persönlichen Kräften ausgestatteten Präsidialkabinetts an den Führer der grössten nationalen Gruppe wird die Schlacken und Fehler, die jeder Massenbewegung notgedrungen anhaften, ausmerzen und Millionen Menschen, die heute abseits stehen, zu bejahender Kraft mitreissen." Glasnost archives
  11. ^ Plant, Richard. The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals. New York, Henry Holt and Company, 1986
  12. ^ Robert S. Wistrich,Who's Who in Nazi Germany (New York: Routledge, 2002), p. 193.
  13. ^ "There is no precise figure for the number of Jews killed in the Holocaust. The figure commonly used is the six million quoted by Adolf Eichmann, a senior SS official. Most research confirms that the number of victims was between five to six million." How many Jews were murdered in the Holocaust? How do we know? Do we have their names?; FAQs About The Holocaust, Yad Vashem (URL accessed on January 3, 2006)
    "Between 1942 and 1944, Nazi Germany deported millions more Jews from the occupied territories to extermination camps, where they murdered them in specially developed killing facilities" The Holocaust; Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (URL accessed on January 3, 2006).
  14. ^ TIME magazine (January 2, 1939), "Man of the Year", time.com
  15. ^ Shirer, William L., Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, ch. 29, The Allied Invasion of Western Europe and the Attempt to Kill Hitler lists 4,980.
  16. ^ (Review, Excerpts) Schoeman, Roy. "Salvation Is from the Jews: The Role of Judaism in Salvation History", Ignatius Press 2004. ISBN 0-89870-975-X
  17. ^ Portrait of a Demagogue AsiaWeek's interview with Bal Thackeray
  18. ^ Hitler's Anti-Tobacco Campaign
  19. ^ John Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 741
  20. ^ Rosenbaum, R., "Was Hitler 'unnatural'", Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of his Evil, Macmillan, 1998, pp.99-117.
  21. ^ Rosenbaum, op. cit., p.116
  22. ^ Hugh Trevor-Roper (ed.), Hitler's Table Talk, 1941-1944, section 66
  23. ^ The Tramp and the Dictator. BBC. Accessed June 22, 2006.
  24. ^ The Power of Speech by A. E. Frauenfeld. Calvin College
  25. ^ The Führer as a Speaker by Dr. Joseph Goebbels. Calvin College

Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952. ... David Lewis is an English psychologist with a doctorate from the University of Sussex. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Exterior of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum viewed from 14th St. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Willard Toland (June 29, 1912 in La Crosse, Wisconsin - January 4, 2004 in Danbury, Connecticut) was an American author and historian. ... Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton (January 15, 1914 - January 26, 2003) was a notable historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany, who became infamous for authenticating the Hitler Diaries, which were later proved to be a hoax. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Political Offices
Preceded by:
Anton Drexler
Leader of the NSDAP
1921–1945
Succeeded by:
None
Preceded by:
Franz Pfeffer von Salomon
Leader of the SA
1930–1945
Preceded by:
Kurt von Schleicher
Chancellor of Germany(a)
1933–1945
Succeeded by:
Joseph Goebbels
Preceded by:
Paul von Hindenburg (as President)
Führer und Reichskanzler(a)
1934–1945
Succeeded by:
Karl Dönitz (as President)
Preceded by:
Walther von Brauchitsch
Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres (Army Commander)
1941–1945
Succeeded by:
Ferdinand Schörner
(a) The offices of Head of State and of Chancellor were combined 1934-1945 in the office of Führer und Reichskanzler
Chancellors of Germany

Flag of the German Empire German Empire (1871–1918): Otto von Bismarck | Leo von Caprivi | Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst | Bernhard von Bülow | Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg | Georg Michaelis | Georg von Hertling | Prince Maximilian of Baden •  Weimar Republic (1919–1933): Friedrich Ebert/Hugo Haase | Philipp Scheidemann | Gustav Bauer | Hermann Müller | Konstantin Fehrenbach | Joseph Wirth | Wilhelm Cuno | Gustav Stresemann | Wilhelm Marx | Hans Luther | Wilhelm Marx | Hermann Müller | Heinrich Brüning | Franz von Papen | Kurt von Schleicher •  Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany (1933–1945): Adolf Hitler | Joseph Goebbels | Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk•  Flag of Germany Federal Republic of Germany (1949–): Konrad Adenauer | Ludwig Erhard | Kurt Georg Kiesinger | Willy Brandt | Helmut Schmidt | Helmut Kohl | Gerhard Schröder | Angela Merkel The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime (but not direct) precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency. ... Anton Drexler (June 13, 1884 - February 24, 1942) was a German Nazi political leader of 1920s. ... The (German: Nazional- socialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) [National Socialist German Workers Party]); generally known in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Franz Pfeffer Von Salomon (?,?)- He was a Free Corps member and veteran from World War One, he made a name for himself by organizing resistances groups to stop the French occupying the Ruhr. ... Hermann Göring as the SA Commander in 1923 Oberste SA-Führer was a title used by the Sturmabteilung from 1920 to 1945. ... Kurt von Schleicher (4 April 1882–30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... The head of government of Germany has been known as the Chancellor (German: Kanzler) ever since the creation of the post. ... Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German Field Marshal and statesman. ... (Fuehrer in English when umlauts are not used) is a proper noun meaning leader or guide in the German language. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as President of Germany after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... Walther von Brauchitsch in 1939. ... The Oberkommando der Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ... Ferdinand Schörner (December 5, 1892 - February 7, 1973) was a general and later Field Marshal in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. // Early life He was born in Munich, Bavaria. ... The head of government of Germany has been known as the Chancellor (German: Kanzler) ever since the creation of the post. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I   Capital Berlin Language(s) German (official) Polish (Posen, Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871-1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Bismarck redirects here. ... Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprara de Montecuccoli (en: Count George Leo von Caprivi, Caprara, and Montecuccoli) (February 24, 1831–February 6, 1899) was a German major general and statesman, who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany, serving between 1890 and 1894. ... Prince Chlodwig Karl Victor zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (31 March 1819–6 July 1901) was a German statesman and Chancellor of the German Empire. ... Prince Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow (May 3, 1849 – October 28, 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909. ... Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (November 29, 1856–January 1, 1921) was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917. ... Georg Michaelis (September 8, 1857–July 21, 1936) was the first Chancellor of Germany of non-noble background. ... Count Georg von Hertling (August 31, 1843–January 4, 1919) was a Bavarian politician who served as Imperial Chancellor of Germany from 1917 to 1918. ... Prince Maximilian of Baden (Max von Baden) (10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden, and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House in 1928. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest   Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler... Friedrich Ebert (February 4, 1871–February 28, 1925) was a German politician (SPD), who served as the 9th Chancellor of Germany and its first president during the Weimar period. ... Hugo Haase (September 29, 1863 - November 7, 1919) was a German politician, jurist, and pacifist. ... Philipp Scheidemann ( 26 July 1865– 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic politician, who was responsible for the proclamation of the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ... Gustav Adolf Bauer (6 January 1870–16 September 1944) was a German Social Democratic Party leader and Chancellor of Germany from 1919 to 1920. ... For other Hermann Müllers: see Hermann Müller. ... Konstantin Fehrenbach (January 11, 1852–March 26, 1926) was a German Catholic politician who was one of the major leaders of the Catholic Center Party. ... Dr. Karl Joseph Wirth (September 6, 1879–January 3, 1956) was a German Catholic Centre politician who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1921 to 1922. ... Dr. jur. ... Gustav Stresemann (May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German politician and statesman during the Weimar Republic and the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Wilhelm Marx (January 15, 1863–August 5, 1946) was a German Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party. ... Hans Luther (10 March 1885–11 May 1962) was a German politician and former Chancellor of Germany. ... Wilhelm Marx (January 15, 1863–August 5, 1946) was a German Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party. ... For other Hermann Müllers: see Hermann Müller. ... Dr. Heinrich Brüning (November 26, 1885–March 30, 1970) was a German politician and Chancellor of Germany. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German Catholic politician and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... Kurt von Schleicher (4 April 1882–30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk, (August 22, 1887 – March 4, 1977), German politician, was born Johann Ludwig von Krosigk in Rathmannsdorf in the Kingdom of Saxony, and studied law and political science in Halle, in Lausanne and at Oxford University. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Konrad Hermann Josef Adenauer (IPA: ) (January 5, 1876 – April 19, 1967) was a conservative German statesman. ... Ludwig Erhard (February 4, 1897–May 5, 1977) was a German politician (CDU) and Chancellor of Germany from 1963 until 1966. ... Kurt Georg Kiesinger (April 6, 1904–March 9, 1988) was a conservative German politician and Chancellor of Germany from 1 December 1966 until 21 October , 1969. ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992) was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (born December 23, 1918) is a German Social Democratic politician. ... Dr. Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a Catholic German conservative politician and statesman. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... (pronounced //) (born in Hamburg, Germany on July 17, 1954) is the current Chancellor of Germany. ...


Adolf Hitler
Hitler's life and views
Death | Family | Home | Last will and testament | Medical health | Mein Kampf | Political beliefs | Religious beliefs | Speeches | Vegetarianism
Depictions of Hitler
Books on Hitler | Der Sieg des Glaubens | Triumph of the Will | Hitler: The Last Ten Days | Der Untergang (Downfall) | The Empty Mirror
Edit


The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... The Berghof was Adolf Hitlers home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Germany. ... The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was dictated by Hitler to his secretary Traudl Junge in his Berlin Führerbunker on April 29, 1945, the day he and Eva Braun married. ... Adolf Hitlers medical health has long been a subject of popular controversy. ... Cover of Mein Kampf (First Edition) Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle, My Battle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... Historians and biographers note some difficulty in attributing the political beliefs of Adolf Hitler. ... Hitler redirects here. ... List of Adolf Hitler speeches is an attempt to aggregate all of Adolf Hitlers speeches. ... Martin Bormanns children are seen (around 1940) inside the greenhouse he built for Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden, from colour movie film shot by Eva Braun, now in the U.S. National Archives. ... Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889–30 April 1945) was the Führer of the National Socialist German Workers Party and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Adolf Hitlers Mein Kampf. ... Sieg des Glaubens (German for Victory of Faith) is the first documentary directed by Leni Riefenstahl, who was hired despite opposition from Nazi officials that resented employing a woman — and a non-Party member too. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a documentary and propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl that chronicles the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg. ... Hitler: The Last Ten Days is a 1973 film depicting the days leading up to Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... Downfall (German: Der Untergang) is a German film depicting the final days of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany in 1945. ... The Empty Mirror is a film set within a world where Adolf Hitler and his closest cadre of followers survived, this speculative psychodrama attempts to explore the dark, twisted mind of the mad ruler as he converses with Eva Braun, Hermann Goering, Josef Goebbels, and Sigmund Freud. ... This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... Julius Schaub (August 20, 1898, Munich - December 27, 1967, Munich) was Adolf Hitlers chief aide for many years. ... Christa Schröder was one of Adolf Hitlers personal secretaries before and during World War II. She lived at the Wolfsschanze near Rastenburg with him along with others in their retinue. ... Johanna Wolf (1 June 1900 - 28 June 1984), was one of Adolf Hitlers secretaries. ... Professor Theodore Morell was Adolf Hitlers personal physician. ... Albert Speer, c. ... Robert Ritter von Greim Robert Ritter von Greim or Robert Greim (June 22, 1892 - May 24, 1945) was a German pilot and army officer. ... Hanna Reitsch in the FW 61 Hanna Reitsch (March 29, 1912 - August 24, 1979) was a famous World War II German test pilot, and a favourite of the upper echelon of the Nazi party. ... A native of Munich, SS Standartenführer Wilhelm Zander served as an adjutant to Martin Bormann during the Second World War. ... Heinrich Müller Heinrich Müller (born 28 April 1900; date of death unknown), German police official, was head of the Gestapo, the political police of Nazi Germany, and played a leading role in the planning and execution of the Holocaust. ... Bernd Baron Freytag von Loringhoven (born 1914 in Arensburg/Kuressaare, Estonia) is a Baltic-German former General and deputy head of German Bundeswehr. ... Otto Günsche (September 24, 1917 - October 2, 2003) was a Sturmbannführer in the SS and a close aide of Adolf Hitler, and was asked by the Führer to ensure that his body would be burnt after death. ... Gerda Christian (née Daranowski) (13 December 1913 - April 14, 1997, Düsseldorf) was one of the three private secretaries of Adolf Hitler in World War II. One of the last remaining occupants of the Führerbunker at the end of the war, Christian escaped from the Red Army along... Wilhelm Mohnke, 1944 SS-Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke (March 15, 1911 - August 6, 2001) was one of Hitlers last remaining generals. ... now. ... 16. ... Traudl Junge just after World War II. Traudl Junge (born Gertrude Humps, 16 March 1920 – 10 February 2002) was Adolf Hitlers last personal private secretary, from 1942 to 1945. ... Ludwig Stumpfegger (July 11, 1910 - May 2, 1945) was an SS doctor in World War II and Adolf Hitlers personal physician from 1944. ... Hans Baur (?, ?)-he was Hitlers pilot, he flew Hitler around Germany on his campaign trail in the twenties and earlier thirties-once when they were flewing in the early days the engine of the plane stop and the plane started to nose dive it through everyone in a state... Erich Kempka SS-Obersturmbannführer Erich Kempka (16 September 1910–24 January 1975) served as the chauffeur of Adolf Hitler from 1934, while serving as member #2803 of the Allgemeine-SS. Born in Oberhausen to a miner with ten children, Kempka worked as a mechanic for DKW when he initially... Johann Rattenhuber in Soviet captivity Johann Rattenhuber (30 April 1897 - 30 June 1957), also known as Hans Rattenhuber, German police and SS officer, was the head of Adolf Hitlers bodyguard at the time of Hitlers death in April 1945. ... Werner Naumann (June 16, 1909 Guhrau, Schlesien - October 25, 1982, Lüdenscheid) was an official in Joseph Goebbels Propagandaministerium in Nazi Germany. ... Hans-Erich Voss in Soviet captivity Vice-Admiral Hans-Erich Voss (or Voß, see ß) (1897-1969) German naval officer, was among the last people to see Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels alive. ... Rochus Misch in 1999 (left) and in 1944 (right) Rochus Misch (b. ... Erna Flegel (born in 1913) was a German nurse. ... Werner Haase in Soviet captivity Werner Haase (2 August 1900 - 30 November 1950), German professor of medicine and SS officer, was one of Adolf Hitlers personal physicians. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Heinz Linge (1913-1980) was one of Adolf Hitlers servants at his headquarters. ... Schaub, Heydrich and Hewel at the Berghof Walther Hewel was born in 1904 to parents Anton and Elsa in Cologne where his father ran a cocoa factory. ... Born in 1920 Innsbruck, Constanze Manziarly served as a cook/dietician to Adolf Hitler, from his 1943 stays at the Berghof until his final days in the Führerbunker in 1945. ... Hermann Fegelein (30 October 1906 - 29 April 1945?) was a prominent officer of the Waffen-SS in Nazi Germany, a member of Adolf Hitlers entourage, and brother-in law to Eva Braun through his marriage to her sister, Gretl. ... Nicolaus Von Below (third from right), with Heinrich Himmler and Adolf Hitler Nicolaus von Below (1907-1983) was Adolf Hitlers Luftwaffe adjutant from 1937 through 1945. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... Magda Goebbels Johanna Maria Magdalena Goebbels (November 11, 1901 - May 1, 1945) was the wife of Joseph Goebbels and First Lady of the Third Reich. ... Wilhelm Burgdorf (14 February 1895-1 May 1945) was born in Fürstenwalde and served as a commander and staff officer in the German army during World War II. He was one of the officers most loyal to Adolf Hitler in the final months of the war and commited suicide... General of Infantry Hans Krebs (4 March 1898, Helmstedt - d. ... The Goebbels family on October 29, 1942 :(back row) Hilde, Harald Quandt, and Helga, (front row) Helmut, Holde, Magda, Heide, Joseph and Hedda. ... (Fuehrer in English when umlauts are not used) is a proper noun meaning leader or guide in the German language. ... The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Braunau am Inn is a city in the Innviertel (River Inn area) of Upper Austria (Ober sterreich), the north-western province of Austria. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ...


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Adolf Hitler, Der Fuhrer (3215 words)
Hitler would only tolerate approval from his friend and could not stand to be corrected, a personality trait he had shown in high school and as a younger boy as well.
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The European Jews were the primary victims of Adolf Hitler.
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