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Encyclopedia > Adolescent sexual behavior
Sexuality Portal

Adolescent sexual behavior refers to the sexual behavior of adolescents. Image File history File links Portal. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... “Adolescent” redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

In the United States

Changes in the expression of adolescent sexuality in the United States find their origins in the sexual revolution and is a focus of the culture wars. The U.S. federal government policy under George W. Bush has emphasized sexual abstinence or pre-marital chastity, particularly in sex education with a focus on abstinence-only sex education rather than the harm reduction approach of the safe sex focus. It has extended this approach to foreign policy, using foreign aid to pressure NGO's into ending condom education in third-world countries. This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term culture war has been used to describe ideologically-driven and often strident confrontations typical of American public culture and politics since at least the 1980s. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ... Abstinence-only sex education is a form of sex education which emphasizes abstaining from sex, often to the exclusion of all other types of sexual and reproductive health education, particularly regarding birth control and safe sex. ... Harm reduction is a philosophy of public health, intended to be a progressive alternative to the prohibition of certain potentially dangerous lifestyle choices. ... Safe sex (also called safer sex or protected sex) is a set of practices that are designed to reduce the risk of infection during sexual intercourse to avoid developing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a private institution that is independent of the government although many NGOs, particular in the global South, are funded by Northern governments. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Due to better nutrition[citation needed], both boys and girls in the U.S. are "entering puberty at least two years earlier than previous generations." According to one commentator, this means "they are ready for sex earlier physically, but not emotionally or cognitively."[1] In his book Why Gender Matters, researcher Dr Leonard Sax states that teenage sexual encounters are increasingly taking place outside the context of romantic relationships, in purely sexual "hookups."[2] According to a survey commissioned by NBC News and PEOPLE Magazine, while only 27% of 13-16 year olds had been involved in intimate or sexual activity, 8% had had a casual sexual relationship",[3] which has been described by one journalist as a "profound shift in the culture of high school dating and sex."[4] Casual sex refers to promiscuous sexual activity, consisting of a range of informal sexual encounters. ...


In 2002, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health reported a "dramatic trend toward the early initiation of sex."[5] According to the American Academy of Pediatrics "early sexual intercourse among American adolescents represents a major public health problem. Although early sexual activity may be caused by a variety of factors, the media are believed to play a significant role. In film, television, and music, sexual messages are becoming more explicit in dialogue, lyrics, and behavior. In addition, these messages contain unrealistic, inaccurate, and misleading information that young people accept as fact. U.S. Teens rank the media second only to school sex education programs as a leading source of information about sex."[6] The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (also called Add Health) is the first and only nationally-representative study of adolescent sexuality, which has spawned over one thousand peer-reviewed publications on many issues related to adolescent health and sexuality, and other adolescent health risk behaviors. ...


Between 1991 and 2001 the number of high school seniors in the United States who reported that they have had sexual intercourse dropped from 54% to 46%.[7] The vast majority, 87%, of 13-16 year olds have not reported having sexual intercourse and 73% report having not been sexually intimate at all. Three quarters of them say they have not because they feel they are too young, and just as many say they have made a conscious decision not to.[3] 14% more girls than boys (81% vs. 67%) say they have made a conscious decision to wait and 15% more say they believe they are too young (82% vs. 67%). Girls who date or hang out with older boys are said to be "more likely to be pressured into having sex, more likely to get a sexually transmitted disease, and more likely to experience an unwanted pregnancy."[8]


Relative to vaginal intercourse, oral sex has reportedly increased in popularity.[9] Teen pregnancies in the United States decreased 28% between 1990 and 2000 from 117 pregnancies per every 1,000 teens to 84 per 1,000.[10] Based on interviews with legislators, U.S. News & World Report wrote in 2002 that opinion was divided between those advocating "medically accurate sex education" and those seeing anything other than abstinence-based education as opposed to "the values held by most Americans." There is a general agreement among public health officials that STDs and risky behaviors that include "anything but intercourse" were "rampant" among teens. [11] Vaginal sex or vaginal intercourse is human sexual behavior involving the vagina, especially, but not limited to, the insertion of the erect penis into the vagina. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ...


Of sexually active 15-19 year olds almost all (98%) use at least one form of contraception. The most popular form, at 94% usage, are condoms and the birth control pill is second at 61%.[12]


The CDC found that between 1991 and 2005, there was a significant linear increase and a significant quadratic change in the number of students who using drugs or alcohol before sexual intercourse.[13] Among the 33.9% of high school students nationwide in 2005 who had had sexual intercourse with one or more persons during the three months preceding the survey, 23.3% had drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse.[13] Among the 33.9% of students, 14.1% of Black students, 25.6% of Hispanic students, and 25.0% of White students reported using alcohol or drugs the last time they had intercourse.[13] Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse was higher among male than female students.[13] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The word linear comes from the Latin word linearis, which means created by lines. ... f(x) = x2 - x - 2 In mathematics, a quadratic function is a polynomial function of the form , where a is nonzero. ...


When polled on behalf of NBC News and PEOPLE Magazine, most teenagers (70%) reported that they received some or a lot of information about sex and sexual relationships from their parents. Other sources of information included friends at 53%, school, also at 53%, TV and movies at 51% and magazines at 34%. School and magazines were said to be used as sources of information more by girls than by boys, and sexually active teens were more likely to cite their friends and partners as information sources.[3]


In Britain

In 2006, a survey conducted by The Observer showed that most adolescents in Britain were waiting longer to have sexual intercourse than they were only a few years earlier. In 2002, 32% of teens were having sex before the legal age of consent of 16; in 2006 it was only 20%. The average age a teen lost their virginity was 17.13 years in 2002; in 2006, it was 17.44 years on average for girls and 18.06 for boys. The most notable drop among teens who reported having sex was 14 and 15 year olds.[14] Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Main article: Adolescent sexuality Adolescent sexuality in Britain refers to sexual feelings, behavior and development in British adolescents. ... Main article: Adolescent sexuality Adolescent sexuality in Britain refers to sexual feelings, behavior and development in British adolescents. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Of Western European countries, Britain has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are on the increase.[15] One in nine sexually active teens has chlamydia and 790,000 teens have sexually transmitted infections. In 2006 The Independent newspaper reported that the biggest rise in sexually transmitted infections was in syphilis, which rose by more than 20 per cent, while increases were also seen in cases of genital warts and herpes.[16] Chlamydia is a common term for infection with any bacterium belonging to the phylum Chlamydiae. ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ...


Girls in India

Main article: Adolescent sexuality In India there is growing evidence that adolescents are becoming more sexually active outside of marriage. ...

Motivation and frequency

Sexual relationships outside marriage are not uncommon among teenage boys and girls in India. By far, the best predictor of whether or not a girl would be having sex is if her friends were engaging in the same activities. For those girls whose friends were having a physical relationship with a boy, 84.4% were engaging in the same behavior. Only 24.8% of girls whose friends were not having a physical relationship had one themselves. In urban areas, 25.2% of girls have had intercourse and in rural areas 20.9% have. Better indicators of whether or not girls were having sex were their employment and school status. Girls who were not attending school were 14.2%(17.4% v. 31.6%) more likely and girls who were employed were 14.4%(36.0% v. 21.6%) more likely to be having sex.[17]


In the Indian socio cultural milieu girls have less access to parental love, schools, opportunities for self development and freedom of movement than boys do. It has been argued that they may rebel against this lack of access or seek out affection through physical relationships with boys. While the data reflects trends to support this theory, it is inconclusive.[17] The freedom to communicate with adolescent boys was restricted for girls regardless of whether they lived in an urban or rural setting, and regardless of whether they went to school or not. More urban girls than rural girls discussed sex with their friends. Those who did not may have felt "the subject of sexuality in itself is considered an 'adult issue' and a taboo or it may be that some respondents were wary of revealing such personal information."[18]


Contraceptive use

Among Indian girls, "misconceptions about sex, sexuality and sexual health were large. However, adolescents having sex relationships were somewhat better informed about the sources of spread of STDs and HIV/AIDS."[17] While 40.0% of sexually active girls were aware that condoms could help prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and reduce the likelihood of pregnancy, only 10.5% used a condom during the last time they had intercourse.[17]


Sex education

Main article: Sex education

Sex education is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, and other aspects of human sexual behavior. Common venues for sex education are parents or caregivers, school programs, and public health campaigns. An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ...


However, the degrees of sexual education given vary worldwide. For example, in France sex education has been part of school curricula since 1973. Schools are expected to provide 30 to 40 hours of sex education, and pass out condoms, to students in grades eight and nine. In January 2000 the French government launched an information campaign on contraception with TV and radio spots and the distribution of five million leaflets on contraception to high school students.[19]


In Britain and the United States there has been a significant amount of controversy over what should and should not be taught by schools and other venues. In the United States the Bush Administration has backed abstinence only sexual education which makes up a large part of United States school taught sexual education. Sex education is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, and other aspects of human sexual behavior. ...


In Asia the state of sex education programs are at various stages of development. Indonesia, Mongolia, South Korea and Sri Lanka have a systematic policy framework for teaching about sex within schools. Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand have assessed adolescent reproductive health needs with a view to developing adolescent-specific training, messages and materials. India has programs that specifically aim at school children at the age group of nine to sixteen years. These are included as subjects in the curriculum and generally involves open and frank interaction with the teachers. Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan have no coordinated sex education programs. [20]


Legal aspects of adolescent sexuality

Main articles: Age of consent and Marriageable age

The age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any contract or behavior regulated by law with another person, specifically laws regulating sexual acts rather than the age of majority, age of criminal responsibility, or the marriageable age. Age of consent laws Worldwide While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any... . ... Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The defense of infancy is a form of defense known as an excuse so that defendants falling within the definition of an infant are excluded from criminal liability for their actions, if at the relevant time, they had not reached an age of criminal responsibility. ... . ...


Sexual relations with a person under the age of consent are generally a criminal offense, with punishments ranging from token fines to life imprisonment. Many different terms exist for the charges laid and include statutory rape, illegal carnal knowledge, or corruption of a minor. Common stereotype of a criminal A crime in a broad sense is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... DVD cover Carnal Knowledge is a 1971 American drama film. ...


See also

Significant age disparity in sexual relationships has been a feature of couples in many cultures and societies. ... Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. ... Child sexuality refers to sexual feelings, behavior and development in children. ... An Ephebe Kisses A Man Tondo from an Attic kylix, 5th c. ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Sexual morality varies greatly over time and between cultures. ... Teenage pregnancy refers to the controversial social issue of teenage girls getting pregnant. ... Theology of the Body refers to a series of 129 lectures given by Pope John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in the Pope Paul VI Hall between September, 1979, and November. ...

References

  1. ^ Ponton, Lynn (2000). The Sex Lives of Teenagers. New York: Dutton, 3. ISBN 0452282608. 
  2. ^ Sax, M.D., Ph.D, Leonard (2005). Why Gender Matters. Doubleday, 132. ISBN 038551073X. 
  3. ^ a b c Katie Couric (2005). Nearly 3 in 10 young teens 'sexually active' (html). MSNBC. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  4. ^ Alexandra Hall. "The Mating Habits of the Suburban High School Teenager". Boston Magazine (May 2003). 
  5. ^ Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Sexual Health, Renee E. Sieving, Jennifer A. Oliphant, and Robert Wm. Blum, Pediatrics in Review 2002 23: 407-416.
  6. ^ Sexuality, Contraception, and the Media, PEDIATRICS Vol. 107 No. 1 January 2001, pp. 191-194
  7. ^ Trends in Sexual Risk Behaviors Among High School Students--United States, 1991-2001, Center for Disease Control, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2002]
  8. ^ Why Gender Matters, Leonard Sax, M.D., Ph.D., 2005, Doubleday books, page 136. See also Mike Males, Adult Liaison in the Epidemic of Teenage Birth, Pregnancy and Venereal Disease, Journal of Sex Research, 29:525-45, 1992.
  9. ^ Sax, M.D., Ph.D, Leonard (2005). Why Gender Matters. Doubleday, 121. ISBN 038551073X. 
  10. ^ Henshaw S. K. U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics (2003) The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York. Data based on NCHS, AGI, CDC, and Census figures.
  11. ^ Anna Mulrine. "Risky Business". U.S. News & World Report (May 27, 2002). 
  12. ^ http://www.kff.org/youthhivstds/upload/U-S-Teen-Sexual-Activity-Fact-Sheet.pdf
  13. ^ a b c d The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): 2005 (pdf). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). Retrieved on 2007-01-20. page 198.
  14. ^ Denis Campbell (January 22, 2006). "No sex please until we're at least 17 years old, we're British". The Observer. 
  15. ^ Christine Webber, psychotherapist and Dr David Delvin (2005). Talking to pre-adolescent children about sex (html). Broaching the subject. Net Doctor. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  16. ^ Jonathan Thompson (November 12, 2006). "New safe sex ads target teens 'on the pull'". The Independent. 
  17. ^ a b c d R.S.Goya, Indian Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur, India. Socio-psychological Constructs of Premarital Sex Behavior among Adolescent Girls in India (pdf). Abstract. Princeton University. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  18. ^ Dhoundiyal Manju & Venkatesh Renuka (2006). "Knowledge regarding human sexuality among adolescent girls". The Indian Journal of Pediatrics 73 (8). 
  19. ^
  20. ^ Adolescents In Changing Times: Issues And Perspectives For Adolescent Reproductive Health In The ESCAP Region United Nations Social and Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific

 
 

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