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Encyclopedia > Adjectives for U.S. citizens
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Please see the discussion on the talk page.
This article is about terms applied to people. For terms used for the USA as an entity see List of terms for the United States of America.

There are a number of alternative adjectives to American as a demonym for a person of the United States that can not simultaneously mean any inhabitant of the Americas. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This list refers to the nation-state. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ethnonym. ...

The most widely used and recognised term in English for a person of the United States is "American ." Other terms were used historically; and some modern attempts have been made to develop different terms for political or humorous reasons. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

The use of American as a national demonym for United States citizens has been challenged primarily by Latin Americans (and Canadians in the past) since 1816 or earlier [1]. 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Some, mostly outside of the U.S., perceive use of the word America for the United States of America as culturally aggressive[citation needed] as others use the word to refer to the entirety of the New World, though residents of what would become and what is the United States of America have been using the adjectives America and American to describe themselves since colonial times. Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting, distinguishing, separating, artificially injecting of the culture or language of one nation in another. ...



The best-known alternative words for people of the United States are understood to be pejorative and may also be ambiguous: A word or phrase is pejorative if it implies contempt or disapproval. ...

Names and words sometimes are intentionally and satirically misspelled for a rhetorical purpose. ... Look up gringo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Yankee currently refers to people from or in New England; by extension it is applied to any resident of the Northeast (New England, Mid-Atlantic, and upper Great Lakes states), to any Northerner during and after the American Civil War, or to other citizens of the United States. ... The term Yankee currently refers to people from or in New England; by extension it is applied to any resident of the Northeast (New England, Mid-Atlantic, and upper Great Lakes states), to any Northerner during and after the American Civil War, or to other citizens of the United States. ...

Alternative terms in English

The Colonial adjective was Virginian, since Virginia was the mother of colonies and states. Virginia as a toponym, originally extended all along the Eastern Seaboard. Other regions like New England and the Mid-Atlantic emerged as splinter collectives from joint stock administration in the Virginia Company. New England was originally called "northern Virginia", especially in transport manifests for colonists. Economic divergence stimulated separated identities, especially since the London (based at Fort James) and Plymouth (based at Fort Saint George) companies were divided by the Dutch and Swedish Middle Colonies. A map of the Colony of Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Categories: US geography stubs ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... A joint stock company is a type of business partnership in which the capital is formed by the individual contributions of a group of shareholders. ... The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. ... Virginia Company of London Seal The London Company (also called the Charter of the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established by royal charter by James I on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America. ... Sketch of Jamestown c. ... The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. ... The site of the 1607 Popham Colony in present-day Maine is shown by Po on the map. ... Middle Colonies were a part of the original Thirteen Colonies that would later become The United States of America. ...

Alternative demonyms proposed for U.S. citizens are: For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...

From 'America':

From Columbus: Richard Amerike (Ameryk or ap Meryk) (c. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ...

  • Columbard
  • Columbian (hence the District of Columbia)

From 'the United States':

  • Stater
  • Statesider
  • Uesican (pronounced [juˈɛsɪkən]) or Uessian (pronounced [juˈɛsiən])
  • Unisan or Unisian
  • United States American, United Stater, United Stateser, United Statesian, United Statesman, or United Statian
  • USAian, U.S. American, Usan, USAn, Usanian, Usian (pronounced [ˈjuʒən]), U-S-ian, or Usonian (pronounced [juˈsoʊniən])

Others Usonia is a term used by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright to refer to his vision for the landscape of the United States, including the planning of cities and the architecture of buildings. ...

Although there might be good arguments in favor of some of these terms, "American" remains by far the most common word for a citizen of the USA. "Usonian" is used for an architectural style, and "Washingtonian" remains as the adjective for the state of Washington and the city of Washington, D.C.. It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... Species See text. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Brother Jonathan was a fictional character created to personify the entire United States, in the early days of the countrys existence. ... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... See Anthropology. ... Horace Mitchell Miner was born on May 26, 1912, in St. ... Realtor is a U.S. registered trademark that identifies a real estate professional who is a member of the National Association of Realtors (NAR) and subscribes to its Code of Ethics. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Junior (born November 11, 1922) is an American novelist, satirist, and most recently, graphic artist. ... Wampeters, Foma & Granfalloons (Opinions) is a collection of essays, reviews, short travel accounts, and human interest stories written by Kurt Vonnegut from c. ... J. M. Flaggs 1917 , based on the original British Lord Kitchener poster of three years earlier, was used to recruit soldiers for both World War I and World War II. Flagg used a modified version of his own face for Uncle Sam, and veteran Walter Botts provided the pose. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ... Yanks is a 1979 John Schlesinger film, set in World War II in the village of Dobcross, Oldham, England. ... Yank was a weekly magazine published by the United States military during World War II. Founded and edited by Major Hartzell Spence (1908-2001), the magazine was written by enlisted rank soldiers only and was made available to the soldiers, sailors and airmen serving overseas. ... Over There is a 1917 song popular with United States soldiers in both world wars. ...

Other languages

In Spanish, the term 'American' is more ambiguous. In the Ibero-American countries, the use of 'American' to refer only to U.S. citizens could be considered factually incorrect and culturally aggressive.[citation needed]

  • Norteamericano (North American) is common in Latin America, but suffers from the same kind of ambiguity as American, since Canadians and Mexicans, amongst others, are also North Americans. For that reason, estadounidense is also frequently used.
  • In Portuguese, norte-americano is the most commonly used term[citation needed]. Estadunidense is gaining some popularity, specifically in Brazil, where its usage traditionally rises during times of tension with the USA.
  • The Esperanto term for the United States of America is Usono. This is generally thought to come from "Usonia". In Esperanto, one forms the word for a citizen of a given country using the suffix "-an" which means "member of". Therefore a citizen of the United States is usonano. (Such derived words are not capitalized.) Esperanto terms for the American geographic regions and their people are Ameriko/amerikano, Norda Ameriko/nordamerikano, Meza Ameriko/mezamerikano, and Suda Ameriko/sudamerikano.
  • In French, États-Unien(ne), Étatsunien(ne) or Étasunien(ne) are occasionally used, but considered pedantic in speech.
  • In Italian the term Statunitense (from Stati Uniti = United States) is sometimes used, especially referring to sporting events.
  • In German, US-Amerikaner may be used to avoid ambiguity or to be politically correct, but it may come across as pedantic if used conversationally. Amerikaner is in general usage in Germany, and is widely accepted to refer to the United States. Ami is a colloquialism which unambiguously refers to US citizens. The German usage of Ami is akin to the Mexican usage of Gringo, in that it can be neutral, patronizing, or perhaps even affectionate.
  • Pindos (or Pindosian) was born during UN operation in Kosovo. The initiators of this were Russian troops at Kosovo airport in Pristina. In some Southern Russian dialects pindos is a derogatory term for Greeks. Some reports indicate that its use has spread beyond Russian troops and that its meaning has likewise spread, to refer not only to soldiers.

See also

Use of the word American in the English language differs between historical, geographical and political contexts. ...


  1. ^ Dictionary of Australian Slang. Australian Travel Search.



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