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Encyclopedia > Adirondack Mountains
Adirondack Mountains
Eagle Lake, Adirondack region
Country United States
State New York
Highest point Mount Marcy
 - coordinates 44°06′45″N 73°55′26″W / 44.1125, -73.92389
 - elevation 5,344 ft (1,629 m)
Map of the main regions of the northeast Appalachians.
Stream on the hike to the top of Ampersand Mountain
Stream on the hike to the top of Ampersand Mountain

The Adirondack mountain range is located in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, St. Lawrence, Saratoga, Warren, and Washington counties. balls The mountains are often included by geographers in the Appalachian Mountains, but they are geologically more similar to the Laurentian Mountains of Canada.[1] They are bordered on the east by Lake Champlain and Lake George, which separate them from the Green Mountains in Vermont. They are bordered to the south by the Mohawk Valley and to the west by the Tug Hill Plateau, separated by the Black River. This region is south of the St. Lawrence River. Download high resolution version (640x642, 97 KB)Description: Photograph of Eagle Lake, Adirondack region, New York Source: Photograph taken by Jared C. Benedict on 01 July 2004. ... This article is about the state. ... Mount Marcy, at 5,344 ft, is the highest mountain in the Adirondack Mountain Range and the highest point in New York State. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Image File history File linksMetadata NortheastAppalachiansMap. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 1632 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2448 × 1632 pixel, file size: 1. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... This article is about the state. ... Clinton County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Essex County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Franklin County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Fulton County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Hamilton County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Herkimer County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Lewis County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... St. ... Saratoga County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Warren County is a county in the U.S. state of New York. ... Washington County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Appalachians in North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... The Laurentians mountains in the Hautes-Gorges Quebec national parc, Charlevoix, Quebec, Canada The Laurentian mountains (French: Laurentides) are a mountain range in southern Quebec, Canada, north of the St. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long narrow lake at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, northern New York, USA. The lake extends about 32. ... The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U.S. state of Vermont. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... The Mohawk Valley region of the U.S. state of New York includes the industrialized cities of Utica and Rome, along with other smaller commercial centers. ... The Tug Hill Plateau is a upland region in upstate New York in the USA. The Tug Hill Plateau is west of the Adirondack Mountains and is separated from the Adirondacks by the Black River Valley. ... The Black River is a river that empties into the eastern end of Lake Ontario on the shore of Jefferson County, New York in the United States of America. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ...

Contents

Land

Mill Pond, Long Lake Road
Mill Pond, Long Lake Road

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 2. ...

State park

The Adirondack Mountains are within the 6.1 million acres (25,000 km²) of Adirondack Park, which includes a constitutionally-protected Forest Preserve of approximately 2.3 million acres (9,300 km²). About 40% of the land is owned by the state, with 60% private inholdings, heavily regulated by the Adirondack Park Agency. http://www.apa.state.ny.us/ The Adirondack Park contains thousands of streams, brooks and lakes, most famously Lake Placid, adjacent to the village of Lake Placid, two-time site of the Olympic Winter Games. The Adirondack Park, is a large state park in northeast New York. ... Sign at bounds of New York State Forest Preserve land. ... An inholding is privately owned land inside the boundary of a national park, national forest, state park, or similar publicly-owned protected area. ... The body of water called Lake Placid is in the Adirondack Mountains in upstate New York in the USA. It is approximately 2,170 acres, and has an average depth of about 50 feet. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Placid (disambiguation). ... A runner carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics for short but more correctly The Olympic Winter Games, are the cold-weather counterpart to the Summer Olympic Games. ...


Mountains

The Adirondacks do not form a connected range, but are an eroded dome consisting of many summits, isolated or in groups, often with little apparent order. There are over one hundred summits, ranging from under 1200 to over 5000 feet (370 m to 1500 m) in altitude; the highest peak, Mount Marcy (sometimes also called Tahawus, although that was never its true name), at 5344 ft (1629 m), is near the eastern part of the group. Other noted High Peaks include Algonquin Peak (formerly Mt. McIntyre), 5114 ft (1559 m), Haystack 4960 ft (1512 m), Skylight 4926 ft (1501 m), Whiteface 4871 ft (1485 m), Dix 4857 ft (1480 m), and Giant 4627 ft (1410 m). Mount Marcy, at 5,344 ft, is the highest mountain in the Adirondack Mountain Range and the highest point in New York State. ... The High Peaks is the name for the 46 highest mountain peaks in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA, and the region around them. ... Algonquin Peak is in the Macintyre Range in Town of North Hudson, in Essex County, New York. ... Mount Haystack is a mountain in the Great Range of the Adirondack High Peaks in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. ... Mount Skylight is a mountain in the Great Range of the Adirondack High Peaks in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. ... Whiteface Mountain is one of the High Peaks of the Adirondack Mountains, located near Lake Placid, New York. ... Dix Mountain is the sixth highest peak in the High Peaks Region of the Adirondack State Park, and is located roughly on the boundary between the towns of North Hudson and Keene in Essex County, New York. ...


High Peaks

Forty-six of the tallest mountains are considered "the 46" peaks over 4000 ft (1219 m), thanks to a survey done around the start of the 20th century. Since then, better surveys have shown that four of these peaks (Blake Peak, Cliff & Nye, and Couchsachraga) are in fact just under 4000 ft, and one peak just over 4000 ft (MacNaughton) was overlooked.


There are many fans of the Adirondack Mountains who make an effort to climb all of the original 46 mountains (and most go on to climb MacNaughton as well), and there is a Forty Sixers club for those who have successfully reached each of these peaks. Twenty of the 46 remain trailless, so climbing them requires bushwhacking or following herd paths to the top. A 46er is a person who has climbed all forty-six of the traditionally recognized High Peaks of the Adirondack Mountains. ... Bushwhack and Bushwhacking can mean: A mountaineering term used to describe hiking without trails. ...


Geology

The mountains consist primarily of metamorphic rocks, mainly gneiss, surrounding a central core of intrusive igneous rocks, most notably anorthosite, in the high peaks region. These crystalline rocks are a lobe of the Precambrian Grenville Basement rock complex and represent the southernmost extent of the Canadian Shield, a cratonic expression of igneous and metamorphic rock 880 million to 1 billion years in age that covers most of eastern and northern Canada and all of Greenland. Although the rocks are ancient, the uplift that formed the Adirondack dome has occurred within the last 5 million years — relatively recent in geologic time — and is ongoing. The dome itself is roughly circular, approximately 160 miles (260 km) in diameter and about one mile (1.6 km) high. The uplift is almost completely surrounded by Palaeozoic strata which lap up on the sides of the underlying basement rocks. [1] Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of a pre-existing rock type, the protolith, in a process called metamorphism, which means change in form, derived from the Greek words meta, change, and morphe, form. The protolith is subjected to extreme heat (>150 degrees Celsius) and pressure causing profound... Gneiss Gneiss (IPA: ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ... Devils Tower, an igneous intrusion exposed when the surrounding softer rock eroded away. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Anorthosite is a phaneritic, intrusive igneous rock characterized by a predominance of plagioclase feldspar (90-100%), and a minimal mafic component (0-10%). Pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, and olivine are the mafic minerals most commonly present. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Basement rock usually refers to the thick foundation of ancient, and oldest metamorphic and igneous rock that forms the crust of continents, often in the form of granite. ... Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield— also called the Precambrian Shield, Laurentian Shield, Bouclier Canadien (French), or Laurentian Plateau— is a large shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American craton. ... World geologic provinces. ... The table and timeline of geologic periods presented here is in accordance with the dates and nomenclature proposed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. ... The Palaeozoic is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ...


The rate of uplift in the Adirondack dome is the subject of some debate, but in order to have the rocks which constitute the Adirondacks rise from the depth where they were formed to their present height, within the last 20 million years, an uplift rate of 1-3mm a year is required. [2] This rate is greater than the rate of erosion in the region today and is considered a fairly high rate of movement. Earthquakes in the region have exceeded 5 on the Richter scale.


The mountains form the drainage divide between the Hudson watershed and the Great Lakes Basin/St. Lawrence River watershed. On the south and south-west the waters flow either directly into the Hudson, which rises in the center of the group, or else reach it through the Mohawk River. On the north and east the waters reach the St. Lawrence by way of Lakes George and Champlain, and on the west they flow directly into that stream or reach it through Lake Ontario. The tiny Lake Tear-of-the-Clouds, nestled in the heart of the High Peaks area between Mt. Marcy and Skylight, is considered to be the source of the mighty Hudson. The most important streams within the area are the Hudson, Black, Oswegatchie, Grasse, Raquette, Saranac and Au Sable rivers. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... Great Lakes Basin The Great Lakes Basin consists of the Great Lakes and the surrounding lands of the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin in the United States, and the provinces of Ontario and Quebec in Canada, whose direct runoff and watersheds form a... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Mohawk River is a major waterway in north-central New York, United States. ... Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long narrow lake at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, northern New York, USA. The lake extends about 32. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... Lake Tear of the Clouds (44°07North, 73°39West) is small tarn (lake of glacial origin), in Essex County, New York, on the northwest slope of Mount Marcy; it is the official source of the Hudson River via Feldspar Creek and the Opalescent River. ... The Black River is a river that empties into the eastern end of Lake Ontario on the shore of Jefferson County, New York in the United States of America. ... The Oswegatchie enters the St. ... The Grasse River is a river in northern New York, in the United States. ... The Raquette River originates at Raquette Lake in the Adirondack Mountains. ... Saranac River is a river in the U.S. state of New York. ... The Au Sable River in New York state runs from the Adirondack Mountains and flows past the town of Lake Placid. ...


The region was once covered, with the exception of the higher summits, by the Laurentian glacier, whose erosion, while perhaps having little effect on the larger features of the country, has greatly modified it in detail, producing lakes and ponds, whose number is said to exceed 1300, and causing many falls and rapids in the streams. Among the larger lakes are Lake George, The Fulton Chain, the Upper and Lower Saranac, Big and Little Tupper, Schroon, Placid, Long, Raquette and Blue Mountain. The region known as the Adirondack Wilderness, or the Great North Woods, embraces between 5000 and 6000 square miles (13,000 km² and 16,000 km²) of mountain, lake, plateau and forest. The Fulton Chain Lakes are a string of eight lakes located in the Adirondack State Park in upstate New York in the United States of America. ... The village of Saranac Lake, bottom, with Lower Saranac Lake, above, from Baker Mountain, to the East. ... The village of Saranac Lake, bottom, with Lower Saranac Lake, above, from Baker Mountain, to the East. ... Tupper Lake is a lake in New York in the USA. The lake is in the Adirondack State Park and crosses the county lines of St. ... Tupper Lake is a lake in New York in the USA. The lake is in the Adirondack State Park and crosses the county lines of St. ... Schroon is a town located in Essex County, New York. ... The body of water called Lake Placid is in the Adirondack Mountains in upstate New York in the USA. The village of Lake Placid, New York borders this scenic lake. ... Long Lake can refer to a number of places, both real and imaginary. ... Raquette Lake is the source of the Raquette River in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. ... U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lake on the Petit Jean River in west central Arkansas. ... The Great North Woods are spread across four northeastern U.S. states: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and New York and into the Canadian province of Quebec, from the Down East lakes to the Adirondack Mountains. ...


Mining was once a significant industry in the Adirondacks. The region is rich in magnetic iron ores, which were mined for many years. Other mineral products are graphite, garnet used as an abrasive, pyrite wollastonite and zinc ore. There is also a great quantity of titanium, which was mined extensively. For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ... Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Image:Ti, 22. ...


Spelling and pronunciation

The mountains are sometimes known as the Adirondaks, without a "c", or even the Dax. Some of the place names in the vicinity of Lake Placid have peculiar phonetic spellings attributed to Melville Dewey, who was a principal influence in developing that town and the Lake Placid Club. The Adirondak Loj (pronounced "Lodge"), a popular hostel and trailhead run by the Adirondack Mountain Club in the high peaks region, is one example. Melvil Dewey (December 10, 1851–December 26, 1931) was the inventor of the Dewey Decimal Classification system for library classification. ... The Lake Placid Club was a social and recreation club founded in 1895, in Lake Placid, New York. ... Adirondak Loj is a hostel operated by the Adirondack Mountain Club at a popular trailhead in the Adirondack Mountains. ... The Adirondack Mountain Club (ADK) is a nonprofit organization founded in 1922. ...


More interesting is the meaning of the word "Adirondacks." It is an Anglicized version of the Mohawk latilontaks (ratirontaks) 'they eat bark', a derogatory name which the Mohawk historically applied to neighboring Algonquian-speaking tribes. When food was scarce, the Algonquians would eat the inside of the bark of the white pine. The Mohawk word is composed of several morphemes, as is usual in the language: lati-, third-person plural masculine agent prefix; -lonta-, incorporated noun root for 'bark'; -k-, verbal root for 'eat'; -s, active state aspect suffix.


The word carries stress on the third syllable: [ədɪˈɾɔndəks].


Tourism and Recreation

Ski Jumps
Ski Jumps
Tupper Lake Country Club
Tupper Lake Country Club
Adirondack Style Bench
Adirondack Style Bench

The mountain peaks are usually rounded and easily scaled. There used to be many railroads in the region but most are no longer functioning. The surface of many of the lakes lies at an elevation above 1500 ft (450 m); their shores are usually rocky and irregular, and the wild scenery within their vicinity has made them very attractive to tourists. Cabins, hunting lodges, villas and hotels are numerous. The resorts most frequented are in and around Lake Placid, Lake George, Saranac Lake, Schroon Lake and the St. Regis Lakes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 765 KB)Bold text== Summary == Dan Carmichael Tupper Lake, NY i like eggs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 765 KB)Bold text== Summary == Dan Carmichael Tupper Lake, NY i like eggs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1529 KB) Dan Carmichael File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1529 KB) Dan Carmichael File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Placid (disambiguation). ... Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long narrow lake at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, northern New York, USA. The lake extends about 32. ... The village of Saranac Lake, bottom, with Lower Saranac Lake, above, from Baker Mountain, to the East. ... Schroon is a town located in Essex County, New York. ...


Although the climate during the winter months can be severe, with absolute temperatures sometimes falling below −30 °F (−35 °C) pre wind chill, a number of sanatoriums were located there in the early 1900s because of the positive effect the air had on tuberculosis patients. The heavily forested region is the most southerly distribution of the boreal forest or taiga in the North American continent. The forests of the Adirondacks include spruce, pine and broad-leafed trees. Lumbering, once an important industry, has been much restricted since the establishment of the State Park in 1892. Sanatório Heliantia A sanatorium refers to a medical facility for long-term illness, typically cholera or tuberculosis. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or TuBerculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Species About 35; see text. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ...


Hunting and fishing are allowed in the Adirondack Park, although in many places there are strict regulations. Because of these regulations, the large tourist population has not overfished the area, and as such, the brooks, rivers, ponds and lakes are well stocked with trout and black bass. In Adirondack Park, approximately 260 species of birds have been recorded, of which over 170 breed here. Because of its unique taiga habitat, the park has many breeding birds not found in most areas of New York and other mid-Atlantic states, such as Boreal Chickadees, Gray Jays, Bicknell's Thrushes, Spruce Grouse, Philadelphia Vireos, Rusty Blackbirds, American Three-toed Woodpeckers, Black-backed Woodpeckers, Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Bay-breasted Warblers, Mourning Warblers, Common Loons and the crossbills. This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Biwa trout (or Biwa salmon), Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Trout is the common name given to a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmon family, Salmonidae. ... Species  M. cataractae - shoal bass  M. coosae - redeye bass  M. dolomieu - smallmouth bass  M. notius - Suwannee bass  M. punctulatus - spotted bass  M. salmoides - largemouth bass  M. treculii - Guadalupe bass Micropterus (Lacépède, 1802), is a genus of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (family Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... Binomial name Parus hudsonicus (Forster, 1772) The Boreal Chickadee, Parus hudsonicus or Poecile hudsonica, is a small songbird. ... Binomial name Perisoreus canadensis (Linnaeus, 1766) The Gray Jay Perisoreus canadensis, is a medium-sized jay. ... Binomial name Catharus bicknelli (Ridgway, 1882) The Bicknells Thrush, Catharus bicknelli, is a medium-sized thrush. ... Binomial name Falcipennis canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Spruce Grouse, Falcipennis canadensis, is a medium-sized grouse. ... Binomial name Vireo philadelphicus (Cassin, 1851) The Philadelphia Vireo, Vireo philadelphicus, is a small songbird. ... Binomial name Euphagus carolinus (Statius Muller, 1776) The Rusty Blackbird, Euphagus carolinus, is a medium-sized blackbird. ... Binomial name Picoides dorsalis (Baird, 1858) The American Three-toed woodpecker, Picoides dorsalis is a medium-sized woodpecker (family Picidae). ... Binomial name Picoides arcticus (Swainson, 1832) The Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) is a medium-sized woodpecker. ... Binomial name Regulus calendula (Linnaeus, 1766) The Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula, is a very small songbird. ... Binomial name Dendroica castanea (Wilson, 1810) The Bay-breasted Warbler, Dendroica castanea , is a New World warbler. ... Binomial name Oporornis philadelphia (Wilson, 1810) The Mourning Warbler, Oporornis philadelphia, is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. ... Binomial name Gavia immer (Brunnich, 1764) The Great Northern Diver, known in North America as the Common Loon (Gavia immer), is a large member of the loon, or diver, family. ... Species Loxia pytyopsittacus Loxia scotia Loxia curvirostra Loxia leucoptera Loxia megaplaga The crossbills are birds in the finch family Fringillidae. ...


At the head of Lake Placid stands Whiteface Mountain, from whose summit one of the finest views of the Adirondacks can be obtained. Two miles (3 km) southeast of this lake, at North Elba, is the old farm of the abolitionist John Brown, which contains his grave and is frequented by visitors. Lake Placid outflow is a major contributor to the Au Sable River, which for a part of its course flows through a rocky chasm 100 feet to 175 feet (30 m to 53 m) deep and rarely more than 30 ft (10 m) wide. At the head of the Ausable Chasm are the Rainbow Falls, where the stream makes a vertical leap of 70 ft (20 m). Whiteface Mountain is one of the High Peaks of the Adirondack Mountains, located near Lake Placid, New York. ... North Elba is a town located in Essex County, New York. ... John Brown, ca. ... The Au Sable River in New York state runs from the Adirondack Mountains and flows past the town of Lake Placid. ... Ausable Chasm is a sandstone gorge located in Au Sable, New York. ...


Another impressive feature of the Adirondacks is Indian Pass, a gorge about between Algonquin and Wallface Mountains. The latter is a majestic cliff rising several hundred feet from the pass. Keene Valley, in the center of the High Peaks, is another picturesque region, presenting a pleasing combination of peaceful valley and rugged hills.


July 4th, 2006, marked the dedication and opening celebration of The Wild Center/Natural History Museum of the Adirondacks. The 30 million dollar facility is in Tupper Lake, NY. The new museum, designed by the firm that built the Air & Space Museum in Washington, DC, has extensive exhibits about the natural history of the region. Many of the exhibits are live, including otters, birds, fish and porcupines. The Museum has trails to a river and pond on its campus.


History

Algonquian and Mohawk Indians used the Adirondacks for hunting and travel, but they had no settlements in the area. Samuel de Champlain sailed up the Saint Lawrence and Rivière des Iroquois near what would become Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain in 1609, and thus may have been the first European to encounter the Adirondacks. Jesuit missionaries and French trappers were among the first Europeans to visit the region, as early as 1642. The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... Statue symbolizing Samuel de Champlain in Ottawa. ... Saint Lawrence (225 – 258) (Latin Laurentius, laurelled) was one of the seven deacons of Rome who were martyred under the persecution of Roman Emperor Valerian in 258. ... The Richelieu River in Quebec, Canada flows about 130 km north to drain Lake Champlain into the St. ... Ticonderoga may refer to: Ticonderoga, New York Fort Ticonderoga in New York Battle of Ticonderoga, four separate battles at the fort USS Ticonderoga, five ships Ticonderoga-class aircraft carrier Ticonderoga-class cruiser Ticonderoga, a steam clipper Ticonderoga, a Lake Champlain steamboat Dixon Ticonderoga, a brand of pencils Category: ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ...


Part of the French and Indian War (1754-1763) was played out on the edge of the Adirondacks. The British built Fort William Henry on the south end of Lake George in 1755; the French countered by building Fort Carillon on the north end, which was renamed Fort Ticonderoga after it was captured by the British. In 1757, French General Montcalm, captured Fort William Henry. Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... The British Fort William Henry on the shores of Lake George, New York (NY), was built during the French and Indian War (1754-1763) by Sir William Johnson as a staging ground for attacks against the French Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga). ... Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long narrow lake at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, northern New York, USA. The lake extends about 32. ... Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used trade routes between the English-controlled Hudson... Portrait of Montcalm Image of Montcalm leading his troops by Toronto printer Ralph Clark Stone. ... The British Fort William Henry on the shores of Lake George, New York (NY), was built during the French and Indian War (1754-1763) by Sir William Johnson as a staging ground for attacks against the French Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga). ...

Adirondack guides (standing) and their Sports
Adirondack guides (standing) and their Sports

At the end of the 18th century rich iron deposits were discovered in the Champlain Valley, precipitating land clearing, settlement and mining in that area, and the building of furnaces and forges. A growing demand for timber pushed loggers deeper into the wilderness. Millions of pine, spruce, and hemlock logs were cut and floated down the area's many rivers to mills built on the edges. Logging continued slowly but steadily into the interior of the mountains throughout the 19th century and farm communities developed in many of the river valleys. Image File history File links Adirondack Guides (standing) and their Sports. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Adirondack Guides (standing) and their Sports. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Champlain Valley is a region of the United States around Lake Champlain in Vermont and New York. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... Species About 35; see text. ... Species Eastern Hemlock Carolina Hemlock Taiwan Hemlock Northern Japanese Hemlock Himalayan Hemlock Forrests Hemlock Western Hemlock Mountain Hemlock Southern Japanese Hemlock Tsuga is a genus of conifers in the family Pinaceae. ...


The area wasn't formally named the Adirondacks until 1837. In an 1780 map titled "A chorographical map of the Northern Department of North-America, drawn from the latest and most accurate observations", (published at Amsterdam by Cóvens and Mortier and Cóvens, junior. H. Klockhoff, sculp.), republisbed in the 4th volume of the Documentary History of New York, the area is called, Coughsagrage. The map also carries the paragraph, "Through this tract of Land, runs a Chain of Mountains, which from Lake Champlain on one side, and the River St. Lawrence on the other side, shew their tops always white with snow, but altho this one unfavorable circumstance, has hitherto secured it from the claws of the Hnrpy Land Jobbers, yet no doubt it is as fertile as the Land on the East side of the Lake, and will in future furnish a comfortable retreat for many Industrious Families." It is unusual that the high peaks are described as snow covered all year. This was also the start of a period called the Little Ice Age. The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ...


Serious exploration of the interior did not occur until after 1870; the headwaters of the Hudson River at Lake Tear of the Clouds near Mount Marcy were not discovered until more than fifty years after the discovery of the headwaters of the Columbia River in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... Lake Tear of the Clouds (44. ... Mount Marcy, at 5,344 ft, is the highest mountain in the Adirondack Mountain Range and the highest point in New York State. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735...


One consequence of the American Civil War was that many people who might otherwise never have left their home town got to see a great deal of the country; as a result, interest in outdoor life and adventure travel became commonplace. Although sportsmen had always shown some interest in the Adirondacks, the publication of William H. H. Murray's Adventures in the Wilderness; Or Camp-Life in the Adirondacks in 1869 started a flood of tourists to the area, leading to a rash of hotel building and the development of stage coach lines. Thomas Clark Durant, who had helped to build the Union Pacific railroad, acquired a large tract of central Adirondack land and built a railroad from fashionable Saratoga Springs to North Creek. By 1875 there were more than two hundred hotels in the Adirondacks, some of them with several hundred rooms; the most famous was Paul Smith's Hotel. About this time, the "Great Camps" of the Adirondacks evolved near Raquette Lake, where William West Durant, son of Thomas C. Durant, built luxurious compounds. Two of them, Camp Pine Knot and Camp Sagamore, both near Raquette Lake, have been designated as National Historic Landmarks, as has Santanoni Preserve, near Newcomb, NY. Camps Sagamore and Santanoni are open to the public seasonally. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... William Henry Harrison Murray, (1840–1904) also known as Adirondack Murray, was a clergyman and author of an influential series of articles and books which popularized the Adirondacks; he became known as the father of the Outdoor Movement. ... A stagecoach is a type of four-wheeled enclosed passenger and/or mail coach, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, widely used before the introduction of railway transport. ... Thomas Clark Durant Dr. Thomas Clark Durant, 1820–1885, was an American financier and railroad promoter. ... The Union Pacific Railroad (NYSE: UNP) is the largest railroad in the United States. ... Saratoga Springs is a city located in Saratoga County, New York. ... North Creek is a hamlet located in the Adirondack Park, in the town of Johnsburg, in Warren County, New York, between Indian Lake and Chester. ... Paul Smiths Hotel, circa 1892 Paul Smiths Hotel, formally known as the Saint Regis House, was founded in 1859 in the town of Brighton, New York as one of the first wilderness resorts in Adirondacks by Apollos (Paul) Smith. ... The term, Great Camps of the Adirondacks appeared in the late twentieth century, when preservation of these historic properties became a concern widely shared in the region and elsewhere. ... William West Durant was an architect and developer of camps in the Adirondack Great Camp style, including Camp Pine Knot and Sagamore Camp which are National Historic Landmarks. ... Raquette Lake is the source of the Raquette River in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. ... The Santanoni Preserve, once a private estate of some 13,000 acres in the Adirondack Mountains, now is the property of the State of New York, at Newcomb, New York. ... Newcomb is a town located in Essex County, New York. ...

An Adirondack guide (left) and his Sport
An Adirondack guide (left) and his Sport

Romanticism had also played a part in popularizing the area, as mountains previously seen as dreaded and forbidding were celebrated by the Romantics. Part of James Fenimore Cooper's 1826 The Last of the Mohicans: A narrative of 1757 is set in the Adirondacks. Frederic Remington canoed the Oswegatchie River, and William James Stillman, painter and journalist, spent the summer of 1857 painting near Raquette Lake. The next year he returned with a group of friends to a spot on Follensby Pond that became known as the Philosophers Camp. The group included James Russell Lowell, Louis Agassiz, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.'s brother John. Image File history File links Adirondack Guide (left), and his sport. ... Image File history File links Adirondack Guide (left), and his sport. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Cooper portrait by John Wesley Jarvis, 1822 James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. ... The Hunters Supper, 1909, National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Frederic Remington (October 4, 1861 - December 26, 1909) was an American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer who specialized in depictions of the American West. ... The Oswegatchie enters the St. ... William James Stillman (June 1, 1828 - July 6, 1901), United States painter and journalist, was born at Schenectady, New York. ... Raquette Lake is the source of the Raquette River in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. ... James Russell Lowell (b. ... Louis Agassiz After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Stanford President David Starr Jordan wrote, Somebody—Dr. Angell, perhaps—remarked that Agassiz was great in the abstract but not in the concrete. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. ...


In 1873 Verplanck Colvin developed a report urging the creation of a state forest preserve covering the entire Adirondack region, based on the need to preserve the watershed as a water source for the Erie Canal, which was vital to New York's economy at the time. In 1883 he was appointed superintendent of the New York state land survey, and in 1885 the Adirondack Forest Preserve was created, followed in 1892 by the Adirondack Park. When it became clear that the forces seeking to log and develop the Adirondacks would soon reverse the two measures through lobbying, environmentalists sought to amend the State Constitution. In 1894, Article VII, Section 7, (renumbered in 1938 as Article XIV, Section 1)[3] of the New York State Constitution was adopted, which reads in part: Verplanck Colvin Verplanck Colvin (1847–1920) was a lawyer and topographical engineer whose understanding and appreciation for the environment of the Adirondack Mountains lead to the creation of the Adirondack Forest Preserve and the Adirondack State Park. ... Sign at bounds of New York State Forest Preserve land. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the political effort. ... Environmentalism is activism aimed at improving the environment, particularly nature. ...

The lands of the State...shall be forever kept as wild forest lands. They shall not be leased, sold, or exchanged, nor shall the timber thereon be sold, removed or destroyed.

The restrictions on development and lumbering embodied in Article XIV have withstood many challenges from timber interests, hydropower projects, and large scale tourism development interests.[4] Further, the language of the article, and decades of legal experience in its defense, are widely recognized as having laid the foundation for the U.S. National Wilderness Act of 1964. As a result of the legal protections, many pieces of the original forest of the Adirondacks have never been logged: they are old growth.[5] The Wilderness Act of 1964 (Public Law 88-577) created the legal definiton of wilderness in the United States, and protected some 9 million acres (37,000 km²) of federal land. ...


Environmental advocacy organizations like The Adirondack Council[2] are critical to ensuring the Park's ecological integrity and wild character today.


See also

Adirondack Life Adirondack Life is a bi-monthly magazine based in Jay, New York that covers the Adirondack region of the state. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Isachsen, Yngvar W. (Editor) (2000), The Geology of New York: A Simplified Account. New York State Museum Press. See also The Andirondack Mountains: New Mountains From Old Rocks
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ McMartin, Barbara (1994), "Introduction", in McMartin, Barbara & James McMartin Long, Celebrating the Constitutional Protection of the Forest Preserve: 1894-1994, Silver Bay, New York: Symposium Celebrating the Constitutional Protection of the Forest Preserve, pp. 9-10
  4. ^ Woodworth, Neil F. (1994), "Recreational Use of the Forest Preserve under the Forever Wild Clause", in McMartin, Barbara & James McMartin Long, Celebrating the Constitutional Protection of the Forest Preserve: 1894-1994, Silver Bay, New York: Symposium Celebrating the Constitutional Protection of the Forest Preserve, pp. 27-37
  5. ^ McMartin, Barbara (1994), The Great Forest of the Adirondacks, Utica, New York: North Country Books, ISBN 0-925168-29-7

Barbara McMartin (November 18, 1931 – September 27, 2005) was the daughter of Dr. D. Malcolm McMartin, Johnstown, NY physician, and Barbara Clark McMartin. ...

Sources

  • Graham, Jr., F., The Adirondack Park: A Political History. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1984.
  • Donaldson, A. L., A History of the Adirondacks, 2 vols., Mamaroneck, NY: Harbor Hill Books, 1989; reprint of 1921 edition.
  • Haynes, Wesley. "Adirondack Camps National Historic Landmark Theme Study." [3]
  • McKibben, B. (1995), Hope, Human and Wild: true stories of living lightly on the earth. Little, Brown, and Co., Boston, Massachusetts.
  • Schaeffer, P. (1989), Defending the Wilderness: the Adirondack Writings of Paul Schaefer. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York.
  • Schneider, P. (1997), The Adirondacks: A History of America's First Wilderness. Henry Hold and Co., Inc., New York, N.Y.
  • Terrie, P.G. (1994), Forever Wild: A Cultural History of Wilderness in the Adirondacks. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York.
  • Terrie, P.G. (1997), Contested Terrain: A New History of Nature and People in the Adirondacks. The Adirondack Museum/Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Adirondack Mountains - definition of Adirondack Mountains in Encyclopedia (1214 words)
The Adirondack mountain range are a group of mountains in north-eastern New York, U.S.A., in Clinton, Essex, Franklin and Hamilton counties, often included by geographers in the Appalachian Mountains, but pertaining geologically to the Laurentian Mountains of Canada.
These mountains, consisting of various sorts of gneiss, intrusive granite and gabbro, have been formed partly by faulting but mainly by erosion, the lines of which have been determined by the presence of faults or the presence of relatively soft rocks.
The mountains are sometimes known as the Adirondaks, without a "c", and the main lodge for visitors is officially known as the Adirondak Loj.
Adirondack Mountains - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2103 words)
The Adirondack mountain range is a group of mountains in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, and Warren counties.
There are many fans of the Adirondack Mountains who make an effort to climb all of the original 46 mountains (and most go on to climb MacNaughton as well), and there is a Forty Sixers club for those who have successfully reached each of these peaks.
The mountains are sometimes known as the Adirondaks, without a "c." Some of the place names in the vicinity of Lake Placid have peculiar phonetic spellings attributed to Melville Dewey, who was a principal influence in developing that town and the Lake Placid Club.
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