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Encyclopedia > Adipose tissue
Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue.
Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue.
"Adipose" redirects here. For the Doctor Who monster, see below, or "Partners in Crime".

In histology, adipose tissue or fat is loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Adipose tissue is derived from lipoblasts. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. Obesity or being overweight in humans and most animals does not depend on body weight but on the amount of body fat—specifically, adipose tissue. Two types of adipose tissue exist: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Adipose tissue also serves as an important endocrine organ[1] by producing hormones such as leptin, resistin and the cytokine TNFα. The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled by the adipose gene. Image File history File links Illu_connective_tissues_1. ... Image File history File links Illu_connective_tissues_1. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thermal insulation Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan against the grain Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan with the grain The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and... This article is about the medical term. ... White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals (compare to brown adipose tissue). ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue (the other being white adipose tissue) that is present in many newborn or hibernating mammals. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. ... Cytokines are a category of less-widely-known signalling proteins and glycoproteins that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ...

Contents

Anatomical features

In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin, and is also found around internal organs. Adipose tissue is found in specific locations which are referred to as 'adipose depots'. Adipose tissue contains several cell types, with the highest percentage of cells being adipocytes, which contain fat droplets. Other cell types include fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells. Adipose tissue contains many small blood vessels. In the integumentary system, which includes the skin, it accumulates in the deepest level, the subcutaneous layer, providing insulation from heat and cold. Around organs, it provides protective padding. However, its main function is to be a reserve of lipids, which can be burned to meet the energy needs of the body. Adipose depots in different parts of the body have different biochemical profiles. This article is about the organ. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... In zootomy, the integumentary system is the external covering of the body, comprising the skin, hair, scales, nails, sweat glands and their products (sweat and mucus). ... The subcutis is the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis. ...


In a severely obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus (or pannus). A panniculus complicates surgery of the morbidly obese. The panniculus may remain as a literal "apron of skin" if a severely obese person quickly loses large amounts of fat (a common result of gastric bypass surgery). This condition cannot be effectively corrected through diet and exercise alone, as the panniculus consists of adipocytes and other supporting cell types shrunken to their minimum volume and diameter. Reconstructive surgery is one way to fix the problem. Obesity is an excess storage of fat and can affect any mammal, such as the mouse on the left. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... Panniculus is a medical term describing a dense layer of fatty tissue growth, usually in the abdominal cavity. ... Pannus is a medical term for a hanging flap of skin. ... Gastric bypass procedures (GBP) are any of a group of similar operations used to treat morbid obesity—the severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue—and the health problems (comorbidities) it causes. ...


In mice, there are eight major adipose depots, four of which are within the abdominal cavity: the paired gonadal depots are attached to the uterus and ovaries in females and the epididymis and testes in males, the paired retroperitoneal depots are found along the dorsal wall of the abdomen, surrounding the kidney, and when massive extend into the pelvis. The mesenteric depot forms a glue-like web that supports the intestines, and the omental depot, which originates near the stomach and spleen and when massive extends into the ventral abdomen. Both the mesenteric and omental depots incorporate much lymphoid tissue as lymph nodes and milky spots respectively. The two superficial depots are the paired inguinal depots, which are found anterior to the upper segment of the hind limbs (underneath the skin) and the subscapular depots, paired medial mixtures of brown adipose tissue adjacent to regions of white adipose tissue, which are found under the skin between the dorsal crests of the scapulae. The layer of brown adipose tissue in this depot is often covered by a “frosting” of white adipose tissue, sometimes these two types of fat (brown and white) are hard to distinguish. The inguinal depots enclose the inguinal group of lymph nodes. Minor depots include the pericardial which surrounds the heart, and the paired popliteal depots, between the major muscles behind the knees, each containing one large lymph node(Pond 1998). Of all the depots in the mouse, the gonadal depots are the largest and the most easily dissected (Cinti, 1999), comprising about 30% of dissectible fat, e.g., (Bachmanov et al. 2001). This article is about the rodent. ... The abdominal cavity is the cavity of the human body (and other animal bodies) that holds the bulk of the viscera and which is located below (or inferior to) the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are a part of a female organism that produces eggs. ... Male Anatomy The epididymis is part of the human male reproductive system and is present in all male mammals. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Dorsal is an adjective which means, being at the back. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... This article is about the organ. ... Pericardial can refer to: Pericardial sinus Pericardium Category: ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ...


Physiology

Free fatty acid is "liberated" from lipoproteins by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and enters the adipocyte, where it is reassembled into triglycerides by esterifying it onto glycerol. Human fat tissue contains about 87% lipids. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids. ... Lipoprotein lipase (EC 3. ... {{refimprove|date=October 2007} Ausra yra maza mergaite. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ...


In humans, lipolysis is controlled though the balanced control of lipolytic B-adrenergic receptors and a2A-andronergic receptor mediated antilipolysis.


Fat is not laid down when there is a surplus available and stored passively until it is needed; rather it is constantly being stored in and released from each cell.


Fat cells have an important physiological role in maintaining triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, as well as determining insulin resistance. Abdominal fat has a different metabolic profile—being more prone to induce insulin resistance. This explains to a large degree why central obesity is a marker of impaired glucose tolerance and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (even in the absence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension).[citation needed] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ... The abdomen in a human and an ant. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Central obesity (or apple-shaped or masculine obesity) occurs when the main deposits of body fat are localised around the abdomen and the upper body. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ...


Recent advances in biotechnology have allowed for the harvesting of adult stem cells from adipose tissue, allowing stimulation of tissue regrowth using a patient's own cells. The use of a patient's own cells reduces the chance of tissue rejection and avoids the ethical issues associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells. Stem cell division and differentiation. ... Human embryonic stem cell colony. ...


Adipose tissue is the greatest peripheral source of aromatase in both males and females contributing to the production of estradiol. For an account of the words periphery and peripheral as they are used in biology, sociology, politics, computer hardware, and other fields, see the periphery disambiguation page. ... Aromatase belongs to the group of cytochrome P450 enzymes (EC 1. ... Estradiol (17β-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ...


Adipose derived hormones include:

Adipose tissues also secrete a type of cytokines (cell-to-cell signalling proteins) called adipokines (adipocytokines) which play a role in obesity-associated complications. RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Adiponectin (also referred to as Acrp30, apM1) is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism. ... Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is the principal inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase (uPA), the activators of plasminogen and hence fibrinolysis (the physiological breakdown of blood clots). ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The name is sort of a relic though; it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of bodily... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Estradiol (17β-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... Cytokines are a category of less-widely-known signalling proteins and glycoproteins that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication. ... The adipokines or adipocytokines are a group of cytokines (cell-to-cell signalling proteins) secreted by adipose tissue. ...


Brown fat

A specialised form of adipose tissue in human infants, and some hibernating animals, is brown fat or brown adipose tissue. It is located mainly around the neck and large blood vessels of the thorax. This specialised tissue can generate heat by "uncoupling" the respiratory chain of oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria, leading to the breakdown of fatty acids. This thermogenic process may be vital in neonates exposed to the cold, who then require this thermogenesis to keep warm as they are unable to shiver, or take other actions to keep themselves warm.[2] “Baby” redirects here. ... Brown fat is a type of adipose tissue present in many newborn or hibernating mammals. ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue (the other being white adipose tissue) that is present in many newborn or hibernating mammals. ... The electron transfer chain (also called the electron transport chain, or simply electron transport), is a series of protein complexers and lipid messengers spanning the inner mitochondrial membrane that accepts electrons from electron donors such as NADH or succinate, shuttles these electrons from within the mitochondrial matrix across the inner... The electron transport chain in the mitochondrion is the site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Shivering is a human bodily function in response to cold. ...


Attempts to stimulate this process pharmacologically have so far been unsuccessful, but might in the future be a target of weight loss therapy. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body weight, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. ...


Genetics

In 2007, researchers isolated the adipose gene, which ap­par­ently serves to keep animals lean dur­ing times of plen­ty. Increased adipose gene activity was associated with slimmer individuals.[3]


Physical properties

Adipose tissue has a density of ~0.9g/ml [4]. Thus, a person with much adipose tissue will float easier than a person with lot of muscular tissue, since muscular tissue has a density of 1.06 g/ml[4]. For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ...


Cultural and social role

Excess adipose tissue on a human can lead to medical problems; however, a round or large figure does not of itself imply a medical problem, and is sometimes not primarily caused by adipose tissue. For a discussion of the aesthetic and medical significance of body shape, see dieting and obesity. Measuring body weight on a scale Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve a particular objective. ...


The term "adipose" was also used as the name of a cute character in a 2008 episode of the British science fiction series Doctor Who , Partners in Crime. Aliens called "the Adipose" are part of a plan involving diet pills, hence the link with fat tissue. This article is about the television series. ...


Additional images

References

  1. ^ Kershaw EE, Flier JS (2004). "Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89 (6): 2548-56. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-0395. PMID 15181022. 
  2. ^ Himms-Hagen, J. (August 1990) "Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis: interdisciplinary studies" The FASEB Journal (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology) 4(11): pp. 2890-2898
  3. ^ Suh, Jae Myoung et al. (September 2007) "Adipose Is a Conserved Dosage-Sensitive Antiobesity Gene" Cell Me­tab­o­lism 6(3): pp. 195-207
  4. ^ a b Google Answers: Muscle Density vs. Fat Density
  1. Bachmanov AA, Reed DR, Tordoff MG, Price RA, Beauchamp GK (2001) Nutrient preference and diet-induced adiposity in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice. Physiology and Behavior 72, 603-613
  2. Cinti S (1999) The adipose organ. Editrice Kurtis, Milano
  3. Pond CM (1998) The fats of life. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

See also

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPTA) is a way of referring to the combined effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... The corpus luteum (Latin for yellow body) is a small, temporary endocrine structure in animals. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... A porcine islet of Langerhans. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types Areoloar tissue is the most common connnective tissue type and can be found in the skin as well as in places that connect epithelium to other tissues. ... Dense Connective Tissue is. ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue (the other being white adipose tissue) that is present in many newborn or hibernating mammals. ... White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals (compare to brown adipose tissue). ... Reticular connective tissue are a network of reticular fibers (fine collagen) that form a soft skeleton (stroma) to support the lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen. ... Mucous connective tissue (or mucous tissue) is a type of connective tissue found during fetal development. ... Mesenchyme (also known as embryonic connective tissue) is the mass of tissue that develops mainly from the mesoderm (the middle layer of the trilaminar germ disc) of an embryo. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Illustration depicting extracellular matrix (basement membrane and interstitial matrix) in relation to epithelium, endothelium and connective tissue In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the extracellular part of animal tissue that usually provides structural support to the cells in addition to performing various other important functions. ... Chemical structure of one unit in a chondroitin sulfate chain. ... Interstitial fluid (or tissue fluid, or intercellular fluid) is a solution which bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Reticular fibers are the structural fiber in some connective tissues. ... Elastic fibers are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries. ... NIH/3T3 Fibroblasts A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes and maintains the extracellular matrix of many animal tissues. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... A chondroblast is a cell, which originates from a mesenchymal stem cell and forms Chondrocytes, commonly known as cartilage cells. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and germ or embryonic) is a mononucleate cell that is responsible for bone formation. ... In anatomy and histology, the term wandering cell (or ameboid cell) is used to describe cells that are found in loose connective tissue, but arent fixed in place. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Adipose Tissue (3305 words)
Adipose tissue is found in mammals in two different forms: white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue.
In the rat, brown adipose tissue is found primarily in the interscapular region and the axillae, minor amounts are found near the thymus and in the dorsal midline region of the thorax and abdomen.
The remaining weight of white adipose tissue is composed of water (5 to 30%) and protein (2 to 3%).
Adipose tissue - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (574 words)
Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes.
In a severely obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus (or pannus).
Adipose tissue, because of its association with high food energy intake and low physical exertion, historically was considered an indication of wealth and privilege.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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