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Encyclopedia > Adiabene
This article is part of the series on:
History of the
Assyrian people

Antiquity

Ancient Assyria (20th - 16th c. BC)
Aramaeans (14th - 9th c. BC)
Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-612 BC)
Achaemenid Assyria (612-330 BC)
Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The Assyrian people (Aramaic: Āṯūrāyē; Akkadian: Aššuri) are believed to have descended from the ancient Assyrians of Mesopotamia (Aramaic: Bet-Nahrain, the land of the rivers), who, in the 7th century BC, controlled the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire which stretched from Egypt and Anatolia, across Mesopotamia, to western... The Assyrian people (Aramaic: Āṯūrāyē; Akkadian: Aššuri) are believed to have descended from the ancient Assyrians of Mesopotamia (Aramaic: Bet-Nahrain, the land of the rivers), who, in the 7th century BC, controlled the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire which stretched from Egypt and Anatolia, across Mesopotamia, to western... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions. ... The Persian Empire of the Achaemenid Dynasty was at its height the most powerful force in the known world, incorporating a variety of cultures and peoples. ...

Late Antiquity and Middle Ages

Osroene (132 BC - 244 AD)
Roman Syria (64 BC - 637 AD)
Adiabene (15 - 116 AD)
Roman Assyria (116-118)
Sassanid Assyria (226-651)
Syriac Christianity (since 325)
Nestorian Schism (5th c.)
Emirs of Mosul (905-1383)
Principality of Antioch (1098-1268) Osroene (also: Osrohene, Osrhoene; Syriac: ܡܠܟܘܬܐ Ü•Ü’ܝܬ Ü¥Ü£ÜªÜ Ü¥ÜÜ¢Ü¶Ü), also known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (modern Sanli Urfa, in Syriac: ܐܘܪܗܝ), was one of several kingdoms arising from the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... Roman province of Assyria, 120 CE Assyria was a province of the Roman Empire, roughly situated in modern-day northern Iraq. ... Asuristan (Assyria) was a satrapy (province) of the Sassanid Empire. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Syriac Christianity is a culturally and... The Nestorian Schism was the split between the Byzantine church of the West and the Assyrian church of the East in the 5th century. ... This is a list of the rulers of the Iraqi city of Mosul . ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ...

Modern History

Ottoman Empire (1534-1917)
Assyrian Genocide (1914-1920)
Independence movement (since 1919)
Simele massacre (1933)
Post-Saddam Iraq (since 2003) Ottoman redirects here. ... Bodies of Christians who perished during the Assyrian Genocide 40 Christians dying a day say Assyrian refugees - The Syracuse Herald, 1915. ... Proposed State of Assyria The Flag of the Assyrian People. ... The Simele massacre was the first massacre commited by the Iraqi government as Assyrian Christians of Sumail (Simele) were systematically being targeted. ... Assyrians in Iraq number at an estimated 1,300,000. ...

Map showing kingdoms of Corduene and Adiabene in the first centuries CE. The blue line shows the expedition and then retreat of the Ten Thousand through Corduene in 401 BC.
Map showing kingdoms of Corduene and Adiabene in the first centuries CE.
The blue line shows the expedition and then retreat of the Ten Thousand through Corduene in 401 BC.

Adiabene (from the Greek: Αδιαβηνή, Adiabene, itself derived from Aramaic ܚܕܝܐܒ, Ḥaḏy’aḇ or Ḥḏay’aḇ)[1] was an ancient Kurdish semi-independent kingdom in Mesopotamia,[2][3] with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Arbil, Iraq). Its rulers converted to Judaism in the 1st Century.[4] The Queen of Adiabene at the time of the conversion to Judaism, Queen Helena of Adiabene, moved for a time to Jerusalem. There she built palaces for herself and her sons, Izates bar Monobaz and Monobaz II at the northern part of the city of David, south of the Temple Mount. According to the Talmud, both Heleni and Monbaz donated large funds for the Temple of Jerusalem. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2350x1547, 397 KB)Asia minor under the Greeks and Romans. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2350x1547, 397 KB)Asia minor under the Greeks and Romans. ... 60 BC Kingdom of Corduene Corduene (also known as Cordyene, Cardyene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Korchayk and Girdiyan) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia, known today as Kurdistan. ... The Ten Thousand were a group of mercenary units, mainly Greek, drawn up by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Persian Empire from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Their march to the Battle of Cunaxa and back to Greece (401 BC-399 BC) was recorded by... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC - 401 BC - 400 BC 399 BC... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: ArbÄ«l; Arabic: , ArbÄ«l; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ, Arbela, Turkish: Erbil) is believed by many to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Helena was queen of Adiabene and wife of Monobaz I. With her husband she was the mother of Izates II. She died about 56 CE. Her name and the fact that she was her husbands sister [1] indicate a Hellenistic origin. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Izates II or Izates bar Monobaz (also known as Izaates) (c. ... Monobaz II or Monobaz bar Monobaz was the son of Helena of Adiabene and Monobaz I. Like his brother Izates bar Monobaz and his mother, Monobaz became a convert to Judaism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Silwan. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ...

Contents

Location

Adiabene occupied a district in Mesopotamia between the Upper Zab River (Lycus) and the Lower Zab (Caprus), though Ammianus speaks of Nineveh, Ecbatana, and Gaugamela as also belonging to it.[5] Although nominally a dependency of the Parthian Empire, for some centuries, beginning with the first century BC, it was semi-independent. In the Talmudic writings the name occurs as חדייב ,חדייף and הדייב, which is parallel to its Syriac form "Hadyab" or "Hedayab." Its chief city was Arbela (Arba-ilu), where Mar Uqba had a school, or the neighboring Hazzah, by which name the Arabs also called Arbela.[6] Zab (Kurdish: Zê, Persian: زاب; Zâb, Syriac: ܙܘܐ; Zawa) is the name given to two separate rivers that flow through Iran, Iraq and Turkey to become the two principal tributaries of the Tigris. ... Ammianus Marcellinus, thought by some to be the last Roman historian of worth, was born about A.D. 325‑330 likely at Antioch (the likelihood hingeing on whether he was the recipient of a surviving letter to a Marcellinus from a fellow citizen of Antioch). ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... In the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC Alexander the Great of Macedonia defeated Darius III of Persia. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


In Kiddushin 72a the Biblical Habor is identified with Adiabene (compare Yebamot 16b et seq., Yalqut Daniel 1064), but in Yerushalmi Megillah i. 71b with Riphath.[7] In the Targum to Jeremiah li. 27, Ararat, Mini, and Ashkenaz are paraphrased by Kordu, Harmini, and Hadayab, i.e., Corduene, Armenia, and Adiabene; while in Ezekiel xxvii. 23 Harran, Caneh, and Eden are interpreted by the Aramaic translator as "Harwan, Nisibis, and Adiabene." Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally southeast to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... The Jerusalem Talmud (In Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi, in short known as the Yerushalmi), also known as the Palestinian Talmud is a collection of Rabbinic discussions in Western Aramaic elaborating on the Mishnah, collected in the Land of Israel in the same period as the Babylonian Talmud. ... Important note: This article should not be confused with the five books of the Torah (or Pentateuch) which also consists of five books -- sometimes called scrolls -- (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. ... Riphath - a crusher, Gomers second son (Gen. ... A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ... For other uses, see Jeremiah (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Ararat, see Ararat (disambiguation) Mount Ararat (Turkish Ağrı; Armenian Արարատ; Persian آرارات; Hebrew אררט, Standard Hebrew Ararat, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂrārāṭ), the tallest peak in... For the new MINI, see MINI (BMW). ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... 60 BC Kingdom of Corduene Corduene (also known as Cordyene, Cardyene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Korchayk and Girdiyan) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia, known today as Kurdistan. ... Ezekiel, , IPA: , God will strengthen, from , chazaq, [ xazaq ], literally to fasten upon, figuratively strong, and , el, [ el ], literally strength, figuratively Almighty. He is a prophet and priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 500s BCE while in the form of visions exiled in... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


Population

Adiabene had a mixed population. In the account of Adiabene's conversion to Judaism in Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews, the royal family and aristocracy all bear Hellenistic names, pointing to their origin as ruling class during the Seleucid Empire.[citation needed] The work also shows that there was a substantial Jewish population in the kingdom, which led to the establishment of a prominent rabbinic academy in Arbela.[citation needed] During the Sassanid era, Iranians came to the fore politically.[citation needed] Adiabene was home to Christians, Zoroastrians and Manichees. The difficult mixing of cultures can be seen in the story of the martyrdom of Mahanuš, a prominent Iranian Zoroastrian who converted to Christianity.[8] In later times Adiabene became an archbishopric, with the seat of the metropolitan at Arbela.[9] A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Antiquities of the Jews was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the year A.D. 93. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ...


The Adiabene was the country between upper and lower Zab and that is the land of Kurds; and the Kurdish vocabulary does in fact contain numerous expressions which were borrowed directly from the old Semitic Iraq before the Arab period and which are foreign to all other Iranian dialects.[10]


After islamization of the area by invading Muslim Arabs, the Hadhabanis are recorded as inhabitants of the area, whom Arab geographers named al-’Akrād (الأکراد, Kurds). According to Vladimir Minorsky, Hadhbani Kurds have been named after Adiabene.[11] Hadhabani (also: Hadhbani) was an 11th century Kurdish dynasty centered at Ushnu. ... Vladimir Minorsky (1877-1966) was a famous Russian Iranologist. ...


(For subsequent history, see Arbil; Kurdish people, Assyrian people, Kurdistan). Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Arabic: , Arbīl; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ, Arbela, Turkish: Erbil) is believed by many to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other peoples from the Fertile Crescent. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ...


History

Under the Achamenid Persian kings Adiabene seems for a time to have been a vassal state of the Persian Empire. At times the throne of Adiabene was held by a member of the Achamenid house; Ardashir III (361-338 BC), before he came to the throne of Persia, had the title "King of Hadyab".[12] The Ten Thousand, an army of Greek mercenaries, retreated through Adiabene on their march to the Black Sea after the Battle of Cunaxa. The little kingdom may have had a series of native rulers nominally vassal to the Macedonian and later Seleucid empires. It later became one of the client kingdoms of the Parthian empire. During the first century BC and the first century AD, it gained a certain prominence under a series of kings descended from Izates I and his son Monobaz I. Monobaz I is known ot have been allied with king Abennerig of Characene, in whose court his son Izates bar Monobaz lived for a time and whose daughter Symacho Izates married, as well as the rulers of other small kingdoms on the periphery of the Parthian sphere of influence. The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiya, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–338 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... Persia redirects here. ... Persia redirects here. ... Ardashir III (c. ... The Ten Thousand were a group of mercenary units, mainly Greek, drawn up by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Persian Empire from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Their march to the Battle of Cunaxa and back to Greece (401 BC-399 BC) was recorded by... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Cunaxa was fought in 401 BC between Cyrus the Younger and his elder brother Arsaces, who had seized the Persian throne as Artaxerxes II in 404 BC. Cyrus gathered an army of Greek mercenaries under the Spartan general Clearchus, and met Artaxerxes at Cunaxa on the left... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Izates I was king of Adiabene in the late first century BCE and father of Monobaz I. Categories: | | ... Monobaz I (also known as Bazeus or Monobazus) was king of the Parthian client state of Adiabene in the 20s and 30s of the 1st century CE. He was the husband (and brother) of Queen Helena of Adiabene. ... Characene was a kingdom within the Parthian empire at the Persian Gulf. ... Izates II or Izates bar Monobaz (also known as Izaates) (c. ... Symacho (fl. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ...


Izates, the son of Monobaz I and his wife Helena of Adiabene, became a Jew. His conversion to Judaism took place before he ascended the throne and while he lived in Charax Spasinu. At about the same time his mother, Helena, was also converted. The times were troublous ones; for Parthian kings and counter-kings followed each other in quick succession. Artabanus II of Parthia was king of Atropatene. He had succeeded Vonones I, who, having been educated entirely at Rome, was unsympathetic toward the Parthians. Artabanus soon had to flee to Hyrcania to escape from the rival king, Tiridates III. He returned, however, in 36, and, being afraid of a conspiracy, took refuge at the court of Izates, who was powerful enough to induce the Parthians to reinstate Artabanus. For this service certain kingly honors were granted Izates, and the city of Nisibis was added to his dominions. However, around 40, Gotarzes II, an adopted son of Artabanus, was raised to the throne by the nobles, in preference to Vardanes I, his half-brother. In 49 Meherdates Mithridates, a son of Vonones, was sent from Rome by Claudius to take possession of the throne of Parthia. Izates played a double game, though he secretly sided with Gotarzes. A few years later, Vologeses I set out with the intention of invading Adiabene and of punishing Izates; but a force of Dacians and Scythians had just entered Parthia, and Vologeses had to return home. Helena was queen of Adiabene and wife of Monobaz I. With her husband she was the mother of Izates II. She died about 56 CE. Her name and the fact that she was her husbands sister [1] indicate a Hellenistic origin. ... Conversion to Judaism (Hebrew גיור, giur, conversion) is the religious conversion of a previously non-Jewish person to the Jewish religion and to the Jewish people. ... Charax Spasinu, or Charax Pasinu, Charax Spasinou (Greek: Χάρακα του Σπασίνου), Alexandria (Greek: Αλεξανδρία), and Antiochia in Susiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Σουσιανής) was an ancient port at the head of the Persian Gulf (Abadan in todays Iran), and the capital of the ancient kingdom of Characene. ... Coin of Artabanus II from the mint at Ecbatana. ... Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ... Coin of Vonones I from the mint at Ecbatana. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... Tiridates was the name of three members of the Arsacid Dynasty of Parthia: Tiridates I of Parthia was the brother of Arsaces I. Tiridates II of Parthia ruled c. ... The newly excavated Church of Saint Jacob in Nisibis. ... Gotarzes II, or Goterzes II, king of Parthia (c. ... Vardanes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 40–47. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Vologases I. Vologases I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 51 to 78. ... Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC The Dacians (Lat. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ...


Izates was followed on the throne by his elder brother, Monobaz II. It is related that in the year 61 he sent a contingent of soldiers to Armenia to assist the Parthian candidate, Tiridates, against Tigranes, who had made an incursion into the territory of Adiabene. The troops of Monobaz, however, were beaten back at Tigranocerta. Monobaz was present when peace was concluded at Rhandea between Parthia and Rome in the year 63. He later sent assistance to the Jews in their rebellion against Rome in the late 60's and early 70's AD. Monobaz II or Monobaz bar Monobaz was the son of Helena of Adiabene and Monobaz I. Like his brother Izates bar Monobaz and his mother, Monobaz became a convert to Judaism. ... Tiridates, was the youngest brother of the Parthian king Vologases I., who with interruptions from 53 to 68 or 72 was king of Armenia and founder of the Armenian line of the Arsacid Dynasty known as the Arshakuni Dynasty in Armenia. ... Tigranes VI was the King of Armenia from 58 to 63. ... Tigranocerta (also spelled Dikranagerd) was the capital of the Armenian Empire that Tigranes the Great founded (95‑56BC) south of the present city of Diyarbakır, Turkey. ... For the 1925-1927 Syrian uprising, see Syrian Revolution. ...

The "Tomb of the Kings", built outside the walls of Jerusalem by Queen Helena in the mid first century AD. From a lithograph by William Henry Bartlett.
The "Tomb of the Kings", built outside the walls of Jerusalem by Queen Helena in the mid first century AD. From a lithograph by William Henry Bartlett.

The chief opponent of Trajan in Mesopotamia during the year 115 was the last king of independent Adiabene, Meharaspes. He had made common cause with Ma'nu (Mannus) of Singar (Singara). Trajan invaded Adiabene, and made it part of the Roman province of Assyria; under Hadrian in 117,[3] however, Rome gave up possession of Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia.[citation needed] In the summer of 195 Septimus Severus was again warring in Mesopotamia, and in 196 three divisions of the Roman army fell upon Adiabene. According to Dio Cassius, Caracalla took Arbela in the year 216, and searched all the graves there, wishing to ascertain whether the Arsacid kings were buried there. Many of the ancient royal tombs were destroyed. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... William Henry Bartlett (born March 26, 1809, died September 13, 1854) was a British artist, best known for his numerous steel engravings. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Meharaspes (Pers. ... Sinjar (Kurdish: Şingar[1]) is the name of a region and a town in northwestern Iraqs Ninawa Governorate near the Syrian border. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ...


As a province of Sassanid Persia

Despite the overthrow of the Parthians by the Sassanids, the feudatory dynasties remained royal to the Parthians, and resisted Sassanid advance into Adiabene and Atropatene. Due to this, and religious differences, Adiabene was never regarded as an integral part of Iran, even though the Sassanids controlled it for several centuries. After the Roman empire declared Christianity its official religion, the inhabitants of Adiabene, who were Christians, sided with Christian Rome rather than the Zoroastrian Sassanids. The Byzantine empire sent many armies to the region during the Byzantine-Sassanid Wars, but this did nothing to change the territorial boundaries. Adiabene remained a provinces of the Sassanid Empire until the Islamic conquests of Persia.[13] Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Sassanid Empire Commanders Justinian, Belisarius, Heraclius Kavadh I, Khosrau I, Khosrau II, Shahrbaraz, Rhahzadh The Byzantine-Sassanid Wars refers to a series of conflicts between the Byzantine Empire (also known as the Eastern Roman Empire) and the Sassanid dynasty of the Persian Empire. ...


Rulers of Adiabene

  1. Izates I (c. 15 AD)
  2. Bazeus Monobazus I (20?–30?)
  3. Heleni (c. 30–58)
  4. Izates II bar Monobazus (c. 34–58)
  5. Vologases (a Parthian rebel opposing Izates II) (c. 50)
  6. Monobazus II bar Monobazus (58 – middle of the 70s)
  7. Meharaspes (?–116)
  8. To the Roman Empire (116–117)
  9. Narsai (c. 170–200)
  10. unknown (200 – c. 310)
  11. Aphraates (c. 310)
  12. To the Sassanid Empire (226–649)

Izates I was king of Adiabene in the late first century BCE and father of Monobaz I. Categories: | | ... Monobaz I (also known as Bazeus or Monobazus) was king of the Parthian client state of Adiabene in the 20s and 30s of the 1st century CE. He was the husband (and brother) of Queen Helena of Adiabene. ... Helena was queen of Adiabene and wife of Monobaz I. With her husband she was the mother of Izates II. She died about 56 CE. Her name and the fact that she was her husbands sister [1] indicate a Hellenistic origin. ... Monobaz II or Monobaz bar Monobaz was the son of Helena of Adiabene and Monobaz I. Like his brother Izates bar Monobaz and his mother, Monobaz became a convert to Judaism. ... Vologases, also seen as Vologaeses, Vologaesus, Vologeses, Ologases, Valarsh (Armenian), and Balash (modern Persian) was the name of six kings of Parthia: Vologases I c. ... Monobaz II or Monobaz bar Monobaz was the son of Helena of Adiabene and Monobaz I. Like his brother Izates bar Monobaz and his mother, Monobaz became a convert to Judaism. ... Meharaspes (Pers. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Map showing kingdoms of Corduene and Adiabene in the first centuries CE. The blue line shows the expedition and then retreat of the Ten Thousand through Corduene in 401 BC. Adiabene (from the Greek: , Adiabene, itself derived from Aramaic , or )[1] was an ancient Kurdish semi-independent kingdom in Mesopotamia... Aphraates (a Greek form of the Persian name Aphrahas or arhadh) was a Syriac writer belonging to the middle of the 4th century AD, who composed a series of twenty-three expositlosis homilies on points of Christian doctrine and practice. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ...

Bishops of Adiabene

  1. Pkidha (104–114)
  2. Semsoun (120–123)
  3. Isaac (135–148)
  4. Abraham (148–163)
  5. Noh (163–179)
  6. Habel (183–190)
  7. Abedhmiha (190–225)
  8. Hiran of Adiabene (225–258)
  9. Saloupha (258–273)
  10. Ahadabuhi (273–291)
  11. Sri'a (291–317)
  12. Iohannon (317–346)
  13. Abraham (346–347)
  14. Maran-zkha (347–376)
  15. Soubhaliso (376–407)
  16. Daniel (407–431)
  17. Rhima (431–450)
  18. Abbousta (450–499)
  19. Joseph (499–511)
  20. Huana (511–?)

Pkidha was the first Christian bishop of Adiabene, a kingdom in northern Mesopotamia. ... Daniel was a medieval Bishop of Rochester. ...

References

  1. ^ other variants include Parthian Nôd-Šîragân and Middle Persian Ardaxširagân. "Assyria". Livius.org
  2. ^ Parpola, Simo. Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today (PDF) (English). Assyriology p.15. Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. “When the Seleucid Empire disintegrated at the end of the second century BC, its western remnants were annexed to Rome, while several semi-independent kingdoms of decidedly Assyrian identity (Osrhoene, Adiabene, Hatra, Assur) popped up in the east under Parthian overlordship.”
  3. ^ a b The Chronicle of Arbela (PDF) (English). “In 115, the Romans invaded Adiabene and named it Assyria.”
  4. ^ http://www.eretzyisroel.org/~jkatz/kurds.html
  5. ^ "Hist." xviii., vii. 1
  6. ^ Yaqut, Geographisches Wörterbuch, ii. 263; Payne-Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, under "Hadyab"; Hoffmann, Auszüge aus Syrischen Akten, pp. 241, 243.
  7. ^ Genesis x. 3; compare also Genesis Rabba xxxvii.
  8. ^ Fiey, J. M. (1965). Assyrie chrétienne I. Beirut: Imprimerie catholique. 
  9. ^ Hoffmann, "Akten," pp. 259 et seq.
  10. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, page: 495, Ehsan Yar-Shater, Ehsan Yarshater, Published 1983, Cambridge University Press, 1488 pages, ISBN 052120092X
  11. ^ V. Minrosky, Roman and Byzantine Campaigns in Atropatene, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1944, p.244.
  12. ^ Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser, p. 70.
  13. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica [www.Iranica.com online], article on Adiabene

The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Simo Parpola is professor of Assyriology at the University of Helsinki, Finland. ... Assyriology is the historical and archaeological study of ancient Mesopotamia. ... Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies is an academic journal published by various Assyriologists and other academics, focusing on the history of the Assyrian people. ... Yaqut (Yaqut ibn-Abdullah al-Hamawi) (1179 - 1229) was an Arab biographer and geographer. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Genesis Rabba, (Breshit Rabba in Hebrew), is a religious text holy to classical Judaism. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ...

Notes

  • idem, Wars of the Jews. ii. 19, § 2; iv. 9, § 11; v. 2, § 2; 3, § 3; 4, § 2; 6, § 1, noting that Josephus probably got his information from Adiabene Jews in Jerusalem (Von Gutschmid, Kleine Schriften, iii. 4).
  • Pliny the Elder, Historia Naturalis, v. 66, vi. 44 et seq.
  • Ammianus, History, xviii. 7, § 1; xxiii. 6, § 21
  • Strabo, Geography, xvi. 745 et seq.
  • Brüll, Adiabene, in Jahrbuch i. 58 et seq.
  • Grätz, Heinrich, in Monatsschrift, 1877, xxvi. 241 et seq., 289 et seq.
  • Von Gutschmid, Gesch. Irans, pp. 140 et seq.
  • Schürer, Gesch. ii. 562.

The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Antiquities of the Jews was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the year A.D. 93. ... Penguin Classics 1981 edition of Josephus The Jewish War The Wars of the Jews (or The History of the Destruction of Jerusalem, or as it usually appears in modern English translations, The Jewish War - original title: Phlauiou Iôsêpou historia Ioudaïkou polemou pros Rhômaious bibliona) is a... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ... Ammianus Marcellinus, thought by some to be the last Roman historian of worth, was born about A.D. 325‑330 likely at Antioch (the likelihood hingeing on whether he was the recipient of a surviving letter to a Marcellinus from a fellow citizen of Antioch). ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Heinrich Graetz, ca. ...

External links

  • Adiabene Was Assyrian, Not Kurdish
  • Bishops of Adiabene
  • History of Aramaic (includes references to Adiabene)
  • University of Chicago
  • Adiabene, Jewish Kingdom of Mesopotamia
  • History of Christianity in Iran
  • The forced conversion of the Jewish community of Persia and the beginnings of the Kurds
  • The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East, American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 69, 1095-1112, 2001.
  • The history of Judaism in Kurdistan.
  • Josephus' Antiquities book 20 chapter 2: HOW HELENA THE QUEEN OF ADIABENE AND HER SON IZATES, EMBRACED THE JEWISH RELIGION
  • "Assyria" at Livius.org
  • "Arbela" at Livius.org
  • Adiabene, Jewish Kingdom of Mesopotamia (different page see above)
  • Info from Jewish Encyclopedia


The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ...

Provinces of the Sassanid Empire
Abarshahr | Adiabene | Albania | Arabistan | Aria | Armenia | Asuristan | Atropatene | Balasagan | Carmania | Hyrcania | Iberia | India | Kushanshahr | Machelonia | Maishan | Margiana | Mazun | Media | Mokran | Paratan | Parthia | Patishkhwagar | Persis | Sakastan | Susiana | Turan
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Adiabene (1601 words)
Adiabene occupied a district in Mesopotamia between the Upper Zab River (Lycus) and the Lower Zab (Caprus), though Ammianus speaks of Nineveh, Ecbatana, and Gaugamela as also belonging to it.
The Adiabene was the country between upper and lower Zab and that is the land of Kurds; and the Kurdish vocabulary does in fact contain numerous expressions which were borrowed directly from the old Semitic Iraq before the Arab period and which are foreign to all other Iranian dialects.
Adiabene remained a provinces of the Sassanid Empire until the Islamic conquests of Persia.
JewishEncyclopedia.com - ADIABENE: (957 words)
Trajan invaded Adiabene, and made it part of the Roman province of Assyria; under Hadrian in 117, however, Rome gave up possession of Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia.
In the summer of 195 Severus was again warring in Mesopotamia, and in 196 three divisions of the Roman army fell upon Adiabene.
It is impossible to tell how far the inhabitants of Adiabene had followed the example of their king and become Judaized.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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