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Encyclopedia > Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
Date of birth: See Dates
Place of birth: Kalady, Kerala, India
Birth name: Shankara
Date of death: See Dates
Guru/Teacher: Govinda Bhagavatpada
Philosophy: Advaita Vedanta
Titles/Honors: Founded Dashanami Sampradaya, Shanmata

Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, Devanāgarī: आदि शङ्कर, Ādi Śaṅkara, IPA: [aːd̪i ɕəŋkərə]); c. [See Dates Section],[1] also known as Śaṅkara Bhagavatpādācārya ("the teacher at the feet of God"), and Ādi Śaṅkarācārya ("the first Shankara in his lineage")[2] was the first philosopher to consolidate the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta, a sub-school of Vedanta. His teachings are based on the unity of the soul and Brahman, in which Brahman is viewed as without attributes. In the Smārta tradition, Adi Shankara is regarded as an incarnation of Shiva. Image File history File links Adi_Shankara_recoloured. ... Kalady (Malayalam: കാലടി) is a village located at 10. ... Kerala ( ; Malayalam: േകരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Govinda Bhagavatpada (IAST ) was the Guru of the Advaita philosopher, Adi Shankara. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... Dasanami Sampradaya (IAST ), literally Tradition of Ten Names, is a Hindu monastic tradition established by Adi Shankara in the 8th century CE in India. ... Shanmata (IAST ) is the system of worship founded by Adi Shankara, the 8th century CE Hindu philosopher. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... Ishvara (ईश्वर in devanagari script, pronunciation Ä«:shvÉ™rÉ™), also variously transliterated (romanized) as Īshvara, Īshwara, Īshwar, Īśvara, etc. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... Brahman (Devanagari: ब्रह्म) is the concept of the Godhead found in Hinduism. ... Nirguna Brahman, is God without any form in Advaita and without material form in Dvaita schools of Hinduism. ... Smartism[1], (or Smarta Sampradaya, Smarta Tradition, as termed in Sanskrit), is a denomination of the Hindu religion. ... “Nilakantha” redirects here. ...


Adi Shankara toured India with the purpose of propagating his teachings through discourses and debates with other philosophers. He founded four mathas ("abbeys") which played a key role in the historical development, revival and spread of post-Buddhist Hinduism and Advaita Vedanta. Adi Shankara was the founder of the Dashanami monastic order and the Shanmata tradition of worship. Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Dasanami Sampradaya (IAST ), literally Tradition of Ten Names, is a Hindu monastic tradition established by Adi Shankara in the 8th century CE in India. ... Shanmata (IAST ) is the system of worship founded by Adi Shankara, the 8th century CE Hindu philosopher. ...


His works in Sanskrit, all of which are extant today, concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of Advaita (Sanskrit, "Non-dualism"). Adi Shankara quotes extensively from the Upanishads and other Hindu scriptures in forming his teachings. He also includes arguments against opposing schools of thought like Samkhya and Buddhism in his works. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Hindu scriptures Hindu scripture is overwhelmingly written in Sanskrit. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the schools of Indian philosophy. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ...

Contents

Life

The traditional accounts of Adi Shankara's life are called the Shankara Vijayams, ("Victory of Shankara"). These are poetic works containing a mix of biographical and legendary material, written in the epic style. The most important among these biographies are the Mādhavīya Śaṅkara Vijayaṃ (of Mādhava, c. 14th century), the Cidvilāsīya Śaṅkara Vijayaṃ (of Cidvilāsa, c. between 15th century and 17th century), and the Keraļīya Śaṅkara Vijayaṃ (of the Kerala region, extant from c. 17th century).[3][4] According to these texts, Adi Shankara was born in Kalady, a village in Kerala, India, to a Namboothiri brahmin couple, Shivaguru and Aryamba and lived for thirty-two years. Shankara Vijayams (IAST ) are traditional biographies of the Advaita philosopher Adi Shankara. ... This is an article on biographies. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Kerala ( ; Malayalam: േകരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Kalady (Malayalam: കാലടി) is a village located at 10. ... The Namboothiris (Malayalam :നമ്പൂതിരി) are the Brahmins of Kerala, thought to be the most orthodox brahmins in India. ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit word IAST ; Devanagari ), also known as Vipra, Dvija, Dvijottama (best of the Dvijas), (god on Earth) is the highest caste in Indian caste system within Hindu society. ...


Birth and childhood

The birth place of Adi Shankara at Kalady
The birth place of Adi Shankara at Kalady

Adi Shankara's parents were childless for many years. They prayed at the Vadakkunnathan temple (also known as Vrishachala) in Thrissur, Kerala, for the birth of a child.[5] Legend has it that Shiva appeared to both husband and wife in their dreams, and offered them a choice: a mediocre son who would live a long life, or an extraordinary son who would not live long. Both the parents chose the latter; thus a son was born to them. He was named Shankara (Sanskrit, "bestower of goodness"), in honour of Shiva (one of whose epithets is Shankara).[6] Image File history File links Kaladi_shankarabirthplace. ... Image File history File links Kaladi_shankarabirthplace. ... Kalady (Malayalam: കാലടി) is a village located at 10. ... The Vadakkunathan Temple The Vadakkunathan Temple Vadakkkunnathan Temple is one of the largest temples in Kerala that is dedicated to Lord Shiva. ... For the district with the same name, see Thrissur district. ... “Nilakantha” redirects here. ... “Nilakantha” redirects here. ... Shankara can refer to: Shiva, the Hindu god Adi Shankara, Hindu philosopher of around 800 CE Also written, Sankara This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


His father died while Shankara was very young. Shankara's upanayanaṃ, the initiation into student-life, was performed at the age of five. As a child, Shankara showed remarkable scholarship, mastering the four Vedas by the age of eight. Following the customs of those days, Shankara studied and lived at the home of his teacher. It was customary for students and men of learning to receive Bhikṣā ("alms") from the laity; on one occasion, while accepting Bhikṣā, Shankara came upon a woman who had only a single dried amalaka fruit to eat. Rather than consuming this last bit of food herself, the pious lady gave away the fruit to Shankara as Bhikṣā. Moved by her piety, Shankara composed the Kanakadhārā Stotram on the spot. Legend has it that on completion of the stotra, golden amalaka fruits were showered upon the woman by Lakṣmi, the Goddess of wealth.[7] Upanayanam perhaps better known outside India by the name Sacred thread ceremony, is a Hindu rite-of-passage ritual. ... Veda redirects here. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... Binomial name Phyllanthus emblica Gaertn. ... Stotras are Hindu prayers that praise aspects of God, such as Devi, Siva, or Vishnu. ... For South Indian actress, see Laxmi (actress). ...


Sannyasa

From a young age, Shankara was attracted to sannyasa ("monastic life"). His mother was against his becoming a monk, and refused him formal permission. However, once when Shankara was bathing in the Purna River near his house, a crocodile gripped his leg and began to drag him into the water. Only his mother was nearby, and it proved impossible for her to rescue him. Shankara asked his mother to give him permission to renounce the world then and there, so that he could be a sannyāsin at the moment of death. This mode of entering the renunciatory stage is called Āpat Sannyāsa. At the end of her wits, his mother agreed. Shankara immediately recited the mantras to make a renunciate of himself. Miraculously, the crocodile released him and swam away. Shankara emerged unscathed from the water.[8] Samnyasa (IAST , also spelled , Sannyasa) in Hinduism symbolizes the conception of the life of a monk, a person is now integrated into the spiritual world after wholly giving up material life. ... Periyar is one of the major river in Kerala. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ...


With the permission of his mother, Shankara left Kerala and travelled towards North India in search of a Guru. On the banks of the Narmada River, he met Govinda Bhagavatpada, the disciple of Gaudapada. When Govinda Bhagavatpada asked Shankara's identity, he replied with an extempore verse that brought out the Advaita Vedanta philosophy. Govinda Bhagavatapada was impressed and took Shankara as his disciple.[9] Adi Shankara was commissioned by his Guru to write a commentary on the Brahma Sutras and propagate Advaita Vedanta. The Madhavīya Shankaravijaya states that Adi Shankara calmed a flood from the Reva River by placing his kamaṇḍalu ("water pot") in the path of the raging water, thus saving his Guru, Govinda Bhagavatpada, who was engaged in Samādhi ("meditation") in a cave nearby. Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... Guru - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... Govinda Bhagavatpada (IAST ) was the Guru of the Advaita philosopher, Adi Shankara. ... Gaudapada (c. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... The Brahma sutra is the nyaya prasthana, the logical text that sets forth the philosophy systematically (nyaya - logic/order). ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... Samadhi (Sanskrit, lit. ...


On his mission to spread the Advaita Vedanta philosophy, Adi Shankara travelled to Kashi, where a young man named Sanandana from Choladesha in South India, became his first disciple. In Kashi, Adi Shankara was on his way to the Vishwanath Temple, when he came upon an untouchable with four dogs. When asked to move aside by Shankara's disciples, the untouchable replied: "Do you wish that I move my ever lasting Ātman ("the Self"), or this body made of food?" Understanding that the untouchable was none other than god Shiva, and his dogs the four Vedas, Shankara prostrated himself before him, composing five shlokas known as Manisha Panchakam.[10][11] VārāṇasÄ«   (HindÄ«: वाराणसी, UrdÅ«: وارانسی, IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras (HindÄ«: बनारस, UrdÅ«: بنارس, ; IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi (काशी کاشی ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Padmapadacharya (fl. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... The most famous temple of the city of Varanasi, the Vishwanath temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva. ... In the Indian caste system, a Dalit, often called an untouchable, is a person who does not have any varnas. ... The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ä€tmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ... It has been suggested that Deva (tribe) be merged into this article or section. ... “Nilakantha” redirects here. ... Veda redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


On reaching Badari in the Himalayas, he wrote the famous Bhashyas ("commentaries") and Prakarana granthas ("philosophical treatises"). Afterwards he taught these commentaries to his disciples. Some, like Sanandana, were quick to grasp the essence; the other disciples thus became jealous of Sanandana. In order to convince the others of Sanandana's inherent superiority, Adi Shankara summoned Sanandana from one bank of the Ganga River, while he was on the opposite bank. Sanandana crossed the river by walking on the lotuses that were brought out wherever he placed his foot. Adi Shankara was greatly impressed by his disciple and gave him the name Padmapāda ("lotus-footed one").[12] [13] ... Perspective view of the Himalayas and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Ganges River (Ganga in Indian languages; Ganges is the Latin form) (Devanagari गंगा) is the major river in northern India and Bangladesh. ... Padmapāda (fl. ...


Meeting with Mandana Mishra

One of the most famous debates of Adi Shankara was with the ritualist Mandana Mishra. Mandana Mishra's Guru was the famous Mimamsa philosopher, Kumarīla Bhaṭṭa. Shankara sought a debate with Kumarīla Bhaṭṭa and met him in Prayag where he had buried himself in a slow burning pyre to repent for sins committed against his Guru: Kumarīla Bhaṭṭa had learnt Buddhist philosophy incognito from his Guru in order to be able to refute it. This constitutes a sin according to the Vedas.[14] Kumarīla Bhaṭṭa thus asked Adi Shankara to proceed to Mahiṣmati (known today as Mahishi (Bangaon, Saharsa in Bihar)[15] to meet Mandana Mishra and debate with him instead. The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... (c. ... Guru - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... Kumarila Bhatta (Sanskrit: कुमारिल भट्ट) was an 8th century Hindu philosopher and mimamsa scholar from Prayag (Now Allahabad, UP, India). ... Map of India. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ... Veda redirects here. ... Saharsa is a city and a municipality in Saharsa district in the Indian state of Bihar in northeast India, east of the Kosi River. ... Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ...


Adi Shankara had a famous debate with Mandana Mishra in which the wife of Mandana Mishra, Ubhaya Bhāratī, was the referee. After debating for over fifteen days, Mandana Mishra accepted defeat.[16] Ubhaya Bhāratī then challenged Adi Shankara to have a debate with her in order to 'complete' the victory. This debate was to be on the subject of kāmaśāstra ("science of sex-love"). But Adi Shankara, being a sannyasi, had no knowledge of this subject; thus, after requesting for some time before entering into this fresh debate, he entered the body of a king by his yogic powers and acquired the knowledge of kāmaśāstra. Later, however, Ubhaya Bhāratī declined to debate with him and allowed Mandana Mishra to accept sannyasa with the monastic name, Sureśvarācārya as per the agreed rules of the debate.[17] In Hinduism, Kamashastra (from Kama = pleasure shastra = specialised knowledge or technique) was a document about sex written by Nandi, the disciple of lord Shiva. ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Image:.jpg The debate with the master SureÅ›vara (c. ...


Dig-vijaya

Adi Shankara then travelled with his disciples to Maharashtra and Srisailam. In Srisailam, he composed Shivanandalahari, a devotional hymn to Shiva. The Madhaviya Shankaravijayam says that when Shankara was about to be sacrificed by a Kapalika, the god Narasimha appeared to save Shankara on Padmapada's prayer to him. So Adi Shankara composed the Laksmi-Narasimha stotra.[18] He then travelled to Gokarṇa, the temple of Hari-Shankara and the Mūkambika temple at Kollur. At Kollur, he accepted as his disciple a boy believed to be dumb by his parents. He gave him the name, Hastāmalakācārya ("one with the amalaka fruit on his palm", i.e., one who has clearly realised the Self). Next, he visited Śṛngeri to establish the Śārada Pīṭham and made Toṭakācārya his disciple.[19] Image File history File links Sringeri_Sharadha_temple. ... Image File history File links Sringeri_Sharadha_temple. ... Sri Sringeri Sharada Peetham is one of the important Hindu Advaita maá¹­has. ... Sringeri is the site of the first matha established by the Adi Sankaracharya, the 8th century Hindu reformer and exponent of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy. ... Maharashtra   (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , English: , IPA: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Srisailam is a Jyothirlingam (Hindu shrine to Shiva) located in Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Shivanandalahari (IAST ) is a devotional hymn composed by Adi Shankara, the Advaita philosopher, on Shiva. ... “Nilakantha” redirects here. ... In Hindu culture, Kapalika means bearer of the skull-bowl. ... Yoga Narasimha form at a temple in Vijayanagara, Hampi, India (man-lion) (also spelt as Narasingh, Narasinga) (नरसिंह in Devanagari) is described as the fourteenth incarnation (avatara) of Vishnu within the Puranic texts of Hinduism [1] who takes the form of half-man / half-lion, having a human torso and lower... Padmapadacharya (fl. ... Gokarna meaning Cows Ear is a small town situated in North Kannada district coastal Karnataka, India. ... Mookambika Temple is a famous Hindu temple situated at Kollur, Kundapur Taluk of Karnataka state, India, on the banks of the river Sauparnika. ... Kollur is a tiny hamlet situated at Kundapur, about 140 Kms away from Mangalore. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Hastamalakacharya (IAST ) (c. ... Binomial name Phyllanthus emblica Gaertn. ... Sringeri is the site of the first matha established by the Adi Sankaracharya, the 8th century Hindu reformer and exponent of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy. ... Sri Sringeri Sharada Peetham is one of the important Hindu Advaita maá¹­has. ... Totakacharya (IAST ) (c. ...


After this, Adi Shankara began a Dig-vijaya ("missionary tour") for the propagation of the Advaita philosophy by controverting all philosophies opposed to it. He travelled throughout India, from the South to Kashmir and Nepal, preaching to the local populace and debating philosophy with Hindu, Buddhist and other scholars and monks along the way. South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


With the Malayali King Sudhanva as companion, Shankara passed through Tamil Nadu , Andhra Pradesh and Vidarbha. He then started towards Karnataka where he encountered a band of armed Kapalikas. King Sudhanva, with his army, resisted and defeated the Kapalikas. They safely reached Gokarna where Shankara defeated in debate the Shaiva scholar, Neelakanta. Malayali or Malayalee is the Malayalam word used to denote a person (usually Dravidians) from the state of Kerala. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Andhra Pradesh  : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, IPA: ), is a state in South India. ... Vidarbha is the north-eastern region of Maharashtra state, now forming two divisions (Nagpur and Amravati). ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... In Hindu culture, Kapalika means bearer of the skull-bowl. ... Gokarna meaning Cows Ear is a small town situated in North Kannada district coastal Karnataka, India. ... Åšaivism, also transliterated Shaivism and Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ...


Proceeding to Saurashtra (the ancient Kambhoja)[20] and having visited the shrines of Girnar, Somnath and Prabhasa and explaining the superiority of Vedanta in all these places, he arrived at Dwarka. Bhaṭṭa Bhāskara of Ujjayini, the proponent of Bhedābeda philosophy, was humbled. All the scholars of Ujjayini (also known as Avanti) accepted Adi Shankara's philosophy. Saurashtra may refer to: Saurashtra (region) Saurashtra language Saurashtra script There are several popular cities in Saurahstra Area viz:- Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Rajula, Mahuva, Veraval, Kandla, Kundla Category: ... Kamboja is ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ... Dwarka   is a city and a municipality in Jamnagar district in the state of Gujarat, India. ... Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... The name may refer to one of the following. ...


He then defeated the Jainas in philosophical debates at a place called Bahlika. Thereafter, the Acharya established his victory over several philosophers and ascetics in Kamboja (region of North Kashmir), Darada (Dabistan) and many regions situated in the desert and crossing mighty peaks, entered Kashmir. Later, he had an encounter with a tantrik, Navagupta at Kamarupa. Navagupta pretended to have become a disciple, but later caused Adi Shankara to develop a rectal fistula. However, Adi Shankara was soon cured and Navagupta later died of the same disease.[21] Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) , is a classical religion with its origins in the prehistory of India. ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Daradas were a people who lived north and north-east to the Kashmir valley. ... Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र weave denoting continuity[1]), tantricism or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in the religions of India. ... Kamarupa is the ancient name of the kingdom/region that consisted of the Brahmaputra valley and adjoining region. ... An anal fistula is an abnormal connection between the epithelialised surface of the anal canal and (usually) the perianal skin. ...


Accession to Sarvajnapitha

Statue of Adi Shankara at his Samadhi Mandir in Kedarnath, India
Statue of Adi Shankara at his Samadhi Mandir in Kedarnath, India

Adi Shankara visited Sarvajñapīṭha in Kashmir (now in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir).[22] The Madhaviya Shankaravijayam states this temple had four doors for scholars from the four cardinal directions. The southern door (representing South India) had never been opened, indicating that no scholar from South India had entered the Sarvajna Pitha. Adi Shankara opened the southern door by defeating in debate all the scholars there in all the various scholastic disciplines such as Mimamsa, Vedanta and other branches of Hindu philosophy; he ascended the throne of Transcendent wisdom of that temple.[23] Image File history File links Adi_Shankara. ... Image File history File links Adi_Shankara. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Azad Kashmir (formally the Islamic Republic of Azad Jammu and Kashmir) is part of what India calls Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, the Pakistani-occupied part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, along with the Northern Areas. ... The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with colourful icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Towards the end of his life, Adi Shankara travelled to the Himalayan area of Kedarnath-Badrinath and attained videha mukti ("freedom from embodiment"). There is a samadhi mandir dedicated to Adi Shankara behind the Kedarnath temple. However, there are variant traditions on the location of his last days. One tradition, expounded by Keraliya Shankaravijaya, places his place of death as Vadakkunnathan temple in Thrissur, Kerala.[24] The followers of the Kanchi kamakoti pitha claim that he ascended the Sarvajñapīṭha and attained videha-mukti in Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu). The Kedarnath temple Kedarnath is a Hindu holy town located in the the Indian state of Uttarakhand. ... ... Videha mukti (literally, liberation without the body, in Sanskrit) refers to the moksha (liberation) attained by a person after death. ... The Vadakkunathan Temple The Vadakkunathan Temple Vadakkkunnathan Temple is one of the largest temples in Kerala that is dedicated to Lord Shiva. ... For the district with the same name, see Thrissur district. ... Videha mukti (literally, liberation without the body, in Sanskrit) refers to the moksha (liberation) attained by a person after death. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


Dates

Modern scholarly opinion is that Shankara's date should lie somewhere in the mid-8th century CE. It has proved impossible to reach agreement on Adi Shankara's precise dates of birth or death. Traditional sources from the Shankara Maṭhas give two different dates; some cite 788820 CE, while others cite 509477 BCE. The Śṛṅgeri Śāradā Pīṭham accepts the 788820 CE dates.[25]Of the other major Shankara Maṭhas active today, the ones at Dwaraka, Puri and Kanchi ascribe the dates 509477 BCE to Adi Shankara. If these dates were true, they would require moving back the date of Buddha (which serves as an anchor for modern academic history of India).[26] (See also Mathas). According to Swami Niranjanananda Saraswati's biography of Adi Shankara, published in his book Sannyasa Darshan, Adi Shankara was born in Kalady, Kerala, in 686, and attained mahasamadhi at Kedarnath, Uttarakhand, in 718. Events Charlemagne conquers Bavaria. ... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of... Events Births Emperor Kimmei of Japan († 571) Adi Sankara Deaths Categories: 509 ... Events Huneric becomes king of Vandals Aelle king of the South Saxons, arrives in England, with his three sons, near Cymenshore. ... Sri Sringeri Sharada Peetham is one of the important Hindu Advaita maá¹­has. ... Events Charlemagne conquers Bavaria. ... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of... Events Births Emperor Kimmei of Japan († 571) Adi Sankara Deaths Categories: 509 ... Events Huneric becomes king of Vandals Aelle king of the South Saxons, arrives in England, with his three sons, near Cymenshore. ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Events October 21 - Conon becomes Pope, succeeding Pope John V. Empress Jito ascends to the throne of Japan Kingdom of Kent attacked and conquered by West Saxons under Caedwalla Births August 23 - Charles Martel, winner of the Battle of Tours Deaths Emperor Temmu of Japan Korean Buddhist monk Weonhyo See... Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ...


Mathas

Vidyashankara temple at Sringeri Sharada Peetham, Sringeri
Vidyashankara temple at Sringeri Sharada Peetham, Sringeri

Adi Shankara founded four Maṭhas, to guide the Hindu religion. These are at Sringeri in Karnataka in the south, Dwaraka in Gujarat in the west, Puri in Orissa in the east, and Jyotirmath (Joshimath) in Uttarakhand in the north. Hindu tradition states that he put in charge of these mathas his four main disciples: Sureshwaracharya, Hastamalakacharya, Padmapadacharya, and Totakacharya respectively. The heads of the mathas trace their authority back to these figures. Each of the heads of these four mathas takes the title of Shankaracharya ("the learned Shankara") after the first Shankara. The matha at Kanchi, Tamil Nadu, claims that it was founded by Adi Shankara.[27] The table below gives an overview of the four Amnaya Mathas founded by Adi Shankara and their details.[28] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 578 KB) Vidyasankara temple, Sringeri. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 578 KB) Vidyasankara temple, Sringeri. ... Sri Sringeri Sharada Peetham is one of the important Hindu Advaita maá¹­has. ... Sringeri is the site of the first matha established by the Adi Sankaracharya, the 8th century Hindu reformer and exponent of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy. ... A maá¹­ha (also written matha and mutt) is a term for monastic and similar religious establishments of the Hindu religion. ... Sri Sringeri Sharada Peetham is one of the important Hindu Advaita maá¹­has. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... The Dwaraka PÄ«tha or Dwaraka matha is situated in the coastal city of Dwaraka, Gujarat — which itself is a great site of pilgrimage for the Hindus, dedicated to Krishna. ... Gujarātlanguage|GujarātÄ«]]: , IPA: ,  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... The Govardhana matha is located in the city of Puri in Orissa state (India), and is associated with the Jagannath temple. ... Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated in the east coast of India. ... Jyotirmath, also called Jyotir Math and Joshimath, is a place in Uttaranchal, India in the Himalayas. ... Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... Image:.jpg The debate with the master SureÅ›vara (c. ... Hastamalakacharya (IAST ) (c. ... Padmapāda (fl. ... Totakacharya (IAST ) (c. ... Shankaracharya, (IAST: Åšankarāchārya) is a commonly used title of heads of maÅ£has (monasteries) in the Advaita tradition. ... Kanchipuram temple, engraved in 1811. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...

Śishya Maṭha Mahāvākya Veda Sampradaya
Hastāmalakācārya Govardhana Pīṭhaṃ Prajñānam brahma (Brahman is Knowledge) Rig Veda Bhogavala
Sureśvarācārya Śārada Pīṭhaṃ Aham brahmāsmi (I am Brahman) Yajur Veda Bhūrivala
Padmapādācārya Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ Tattvamasi (That thou art) Sama Veda Kitavala
Toṭakācārya Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ Ayamātmā brahma (This Atman is Brahman) Atharva Veda Nandavala

A disciple (from the Latin discipulus, a pupil) is one who receives instruction from another; a scholar; a learner; especially, a follower who has learned to believe in the truth of the doctrine of his teacher, and implies that the pupil is under the discipline of, and understands, his teacher... A maá¹­ha (also written matha and mutt) is a term for monastic and similar religious establishments of the Hindu religion. ... ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... In Hinduism, a Sampradaya is a tradition of disciplic succession serving as a spiritual channel and encompassing a common philosophy embraced by many schools, groups, or guru lineages (called parampara). ... Hastamalakacharya (IAST ) (c. ... The Govardhana matha is located in the city of Puri in Orissa state (India), and is associated with the Jagannath temple. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Image:.jpg The debate with the master SureÅ›vara (c. ... Sri Sringeri Sharada Peetham is one of the important Hindu Advaita maá¹­has. ... The Yajur Veda यजुर्वेद is one of the four Hindu Vedas; it contains religious texts focussing on liturgy and ritual. ... Padmapāda (fl. ... The Dwaraka PÄ«tha or Dwaraka matha is situated in the coastal city of Dwaraka, Gujarat — which itself is a great site of pilgrimage for the Hindus, dedicated to Krishna. ... The Sama Veda (सामवेद), or Veda of Holy Songs, is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... Totakacharya (IAST ) (c. ... Jyotirmath, also called Jyotir Math and Joshimath, is a place in Uttaranchal, India in the Himalayas. ... The Atharva Veda is a sacred text of Hinduism, part of the four books of the Vedas. ...

Philosophy and religious thought

Main article: Advaita Vedanta
The swan is an important motif in Advaita Vedanta. Its symbolic meanings are: firstly; upon verbally repeating hamsa (the Sanskrit word for Swan), it becomes soham (Sanskrit, "I am That"). Secondly, even as a swan lives in water its feathers are not soiled by water, a liberated Advaitin lives in this world full of maya but is untouched by its illusion. Thirdly, a monk of the Dashanami order is called a Paramahamsa ("the supreme swan")
The swan is an important motif in Advaita Vedanta. Its symbolic meanings are: firstly; upon verbally repeating hamsa (the Sanskrit word for Swan), it becomes soham (Sanskrit, "I am That"). Secondly, even as a swan lives in water its feathers are not soiled by water, a liberated Advaitin lives in this world full of maya but is untouched by its illusion. Thirdly, a monk of the Dashanami order is called a Paramahamsa ("the supreme swan")

Advaita ("non-dualism") is often called a monistic system of thought. The word "Advaita" essentially refers to the identity of the Self (Atman) and the Whole (Brahman[29]). The key source texts for all schools of Vedānta are the Prasthanatrayi– the canonical texts consisting of the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras. Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1430x1073, 855 KB) Beskrivelse Copied from the English Wiki: Source: en:Image:Swans. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1430x1073, 855 KB) Beskrivelse Copied from the English Wiki: Source: en:Image:Swans. ... Hamsa, also spelt as Hansha (Anser indicus), is one of the most significant birds with wide references in texts pertaining to Hindu, Jaina and Buddhist, and their respective mythologies. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... Sanyasa (pronounced sanyaas) symbolises the conception of the mystic life in Hinduism where a person is now integrated into the spiritual world after wholly giving up material life. ... Dasanami Sampradaya (IAST ), literally Tradition of Ten Names, is a Hindu monastic tradition established by Adi Shankara in the 8th century CE in India. ... Paramahamsa (also paramahansa and paramhansa) -- This is a religio/theological title associated with particular Hindu saints, by their devotees; one thus sees these religious figures referred to as -- Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Paramahansa Yogananda. Hamsa is only an allegory. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ä€tmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ... Brahman (Devanagari: ब्रह्म) is the concept of the Godhead found in Hinduism. ... Prasthanatrayi, literally, three points of departure, (IAST ) refers to the three canonical texts of Hindu philosophy, especially the Vedanta schools. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniá¹£ad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Brahma sÅ«tras, also called Vedānta SÅ«tras, constitute the Nyāya prasthāna, the logical starting point of the Vedānta philosophy (Nyāya = logic/order). ...


Adi Shankara was the first in its tradition to consolidate the siddhānta ("doctrine") of Advaita Vedanta. He wrote commentaries on the Prasthana Trayi. A famous quote from Vivekacūḍāmaṇi, one of his prakarana granthas that succinctly summarises his philosophy is: Prasthanatrayi, literally, three points of departure, (IAST ) refers to the three canonical texts of Hindu philosophy, especially the Vedanta schools. ... The two Epics and the Prasthana thraya—the triple foundation of the Vedanta school of philosophical and spiritual system, namely the Upanishads, Brahma Sutras (Vedanta Sutras) and the Bhagavad-Gita—are the perennial sources of ethical and spiritual knowledge and wisdom, inspiring thousands of earnest seekers of truth. ...

Brahma satyaṃ jagat mithyā, jīvo brahmaiva nāparah

Brahman is the only truth, the world is unreal, and there is ultimately no difference between Brahman and individual self. Brahman (Devanagari: ब्रह्म) is the concept of the Godhead found in Hinduism. ...

Advaita Vedanta is based on śāstra ("scriptures"), yukti ("reason") and anubhava ("experience"), and aided by karmas ("spiritual practices").[30] This philosophy provides a clear-cut way of life to be followed. Starting from childhood, when learning has to start, the philosophy has to be realised in practice throughout one's life even up to death. This is the reason why this philosophy is called an experiential philosophy, the underlying tenet being "That thou art", meaning that ultimately there is no difference between the experiencer and the experienced (the world) as well as the universal spirit (Brahman). Among the followers of Advaita, as well those of other doctrines, there are believed to have appeared Jivanmuktas, ones liberated while alive. These individuals (commonly called Mahatmas, great souls, among Hindus) are those who realised the oneness of their self and the universal spirit called Brahman. Some of the Translated philosophies of Adi Shankara are - Adi Sanakara Philosophy. Karma is the force generated by a persons actions held in Hinduism and Buddhism to perpetuate transmigration and in its ethical consequences to determine the nature of the persons next existence ... Brahman (Devanagari: ब्रह्म) is the concept of the Godhead found in Hinduism. ... Jivanmukta is a unique concept in Hindu philosophy, and that too, particularly in the school of philosophy known as advaita. ... Mahatma is Sanskrit for Great Soul (महात्मा mahātmā: महा mahā (great) + आत्मं or आत्मन ātman (soul)). This epithet is applied to people like Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, though sources vary on who first gave him this name. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Atma_Bodha_translation Aparokshanubhuti_translation Vakya_Vritti_translation Saundaryalahari_ Panchikaranam_translation Category: ...


Adi Shankara's Bhashyas (commentaries) on the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras are his principal and almost undeniably his own works. Although he mostly adhered to traditional means of commenting on the Brahma Sutra, there are a number of original ideas and arguments to establish that the essence of Upanishads is Advaita. He taught that it was only through direct knowledge of Brahman that one could be enlightened. The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Brahma sutra is the nyaya prasthana, the logical text that sets forth the philosophy systematically (nyaya - logic/order). ... Brahman (Devanagari: ब्रह्म) is the concept of the Godhead found in Hinduism. ...


Adi Shankara's opponents accused him of teaching Buddhism in the garb of Hinduism, because his non-dualistic ideals were a bit radical to contemporary Hindu philosophy. However, it may be noted that while the Later Buddhists arrived at a changeless, deathless, absolute truth after their insightful understanding of the unreality of samsara, historically Vedantins never liked this idea. Although Advaita proposes the theory of Maya, explaining the universe as a "trick of a magician", Adi Shankara and his followers see this as a consequence of their basic premise that Brahman alone is real. Their idea of Maya emerges from their belief in the reality of Brahman, rather than the other way around. (See also List of types of clothing) Introduction Humans often wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments or attire) on the body (for the alternative, see nudity). ... The Wheel of Life as portrayed within Buddhism, showing the cycle of Samsara, or reincarnation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maya (illusion). ... Brahman (Devanagari: ब्रह्म) is the concept of the Godhead found in Hinduism. ...


Historical and cultural impact

At the time of Adi Shankara's life, Hinduism had begun to decline because of the influence of Buddhism and Jainism. Hinduism had become divided into innumerable sects, each quarrelling with the others. The followers of Mimamsa and Sankhya philosophy were atheists, insomuch that they did not believe in God as a unified being. Besides these atheists, there were numerous theistic sects. There were also those who rejected the Vedas, like the Charvakas. Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion and a philosophy. ... Jainism (pronounced in English as IPA ), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म), is a dharmic religion and philosophy originating in Ancient India. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य) is a school of Indian philosophy, and is one of the six astika or Hindu philosophical schools of India. ... Ishvara (ईश्वर in devanagari script, pronunciation Ä«:shvÉ™rÉ™), also variously transliterated (romanized) as Īshvara, Īshwara, Īshwar, Īśvara, etc. ... Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka, and also known as Lokayata, is a thoroughly materialist and atheist school of thought with ancient roots in India. ...


Adi Shankara held discourses and debates with the leading scholars of all these sects and schools of philosophy to controvert their doctrines. He unified the theistic sects into a common framework of Shanmata system. In his works, Adi Shankara stressed the importance of the Vedas, and his efforts helped Hinduism regain strength and popularity. Many trace the present worldwide domination of Vedanta to his works. He travelled on foot to various parts of India to restore the study of the Vedas. Shanmata (IAST ) is the system of worship founded by Adi Shankara, the 8th century CE Hindu philosopher. ...


Even though he lived for only thirty-two years, his impact on India and on Hinduism was striking. He reintroduced a purer form of Vedic thought. His teachings and tradition form the basis of Smartism and have influenced Sant Mat lineages.[31] He is the main figure in the tradition of Advaita Vedanta. He was the founder of the Daśanāmi Sampradāya of Hindu monasticism and Ṣaṇmata of Smarta tradition. He introduced the Pañcāyatana form of worship. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Hinduism, a Sampradaya is a tradition of disciplic succession serving as a spiritual channel and encompassing a common philosophy embraced by many schools, groups, or guru lineages (called parampara). ... Smartism[1], (or Smarta Sampradaya, Smarta Tradition, as termed in Sanskrit), is a denomination of the Hindu religion. ... Sant Mat translates from Hindi into English as The Religion of the Saints. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... Dasanami Sampradaya (IAST ), literally Tradition of Ten Names, is a Hindu monastic tradition established by Adi Shankara in the 8th century CE in India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to devote ones life fully to spiritual work. ... Shanmata (IAST ) is the system of worship founded by Adi Shankara, the 8th century CE Hindu philosopher. ... In Hinduism, a Sampradaya is a tradition of disciplic succession serving as a spiritual channel and encompassing a common philosophy embraced by many schools, groups, or guru lineages (called parampara). ... Panchayatana puja (IAST ) is the system of worship in the Smarta sampradaya of Hinduism. ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ...


Adi Shankara, along with Madhva and Ramanuja, was instrumental in the revival of Hinduism. These three teachers formed the doctrines that are followed by their respective sects even today. They have been the most important figures in the recent history of Hindu philosophy. In their writings and debates, they provided polemics against the non-Vedantic schools of Sankhya, Vaisheshika etc. Thus they paved the way for Vedanta to be the dominant and most widely followed tradition among the schools of Hindu philosophy. The Vedanta school stresses most on the Upanishads (which are themselves called Vedanta, End or culmination of the Vedas), unlike the other schools that gave importance to texts authored by their founders. The Vedanta schools have the belief that the Vedas, which include the Upanishads, are unauthored, forming a continuous tradition of wisdom transmitted orally. Thus the concept of apaurusheyatva ("being unauthored") came to be the guiding force behind the Vedanta schools. However, along with stressing the importance of Vedic tradition, Adi Shankara gave equal importance to the personal experience of the student. Logic, grammar, Mimamsa and allied subjects form main areas of study in all the Vedanta schools. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... An acharya (आचार्य) is a prominent guru, teacher and scholar who teaches by his own example (from Sanskrit achara, behavior). ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Polemic is the art or practice of inciting disputation or causing controversy, for example in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य) is a school of Indian philosophy, and is one of the six astika or Hindu philosophical schools of India. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Veda redirects here. ... Vedic may refer to: Ancient India the Vedic civilization the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts Vedic Sanskrit, their language (see also Vedic meter, Vedic accent, Vedic chant and Shrauta) the historical Vedic religion traditional Hindu culture: Vedic astrology the Ayurveda (Vedic medicine) Ancient Vedic weights and measures modern... In Hinduism, a Sampradaya is a tradition of disciplic succession serving as a spiritual channel and encompassing a common philosophy embraced by many schools, groups, or guru lineages (called parampara). ... The development of logic in India dates back to the analysis of inference by Aksapada Gautama, founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, probably in the first or second centuries BCE, and so stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and Chinese traditions. ... The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of , is one of the six Vedanga disciplines. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ...


A well known verse, recited in the Smarta tradition, in praise of Adi Shankara is:

श्रुति स्मृति पुराणानामालयं करुणालयं|
नमामि भगवत्पादशंकरं लॊकशंकरं ||
Śruti smṛti purāṇānāṃālayaṃ karuṇālayaṃ|
Namāmi Bhagavatpādaśaṅkaraṃ lokaśaṅkaraṃ||
I salute the compassionate abode of the Vedas, Smritis and Puranas known as Shankara Bhagavatpada, who makes the world auspicious.

See also: History of Hinduism

Regions which are currently or were historically under classical Hindu rule. ...

Works

For more details on this topic, see Works of Adi Shankara.
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Adi Shankara's works deal with logically establishing the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta as he saw it in the Upanishads. He formulates the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta by validating his arguments on the basis of quotations from the Vedas and other Hindu scriptures. He gives a high priority to svānubhava ("personal experience") of the student. His works are largely polemical in nature. He directs his polemics mostly against the Sankhya, Buddha, Jaina, Vaisheshika and other non-vedantic Hindu philosophies. Adi Shankara, a Hindu philsospher of the Advaita Vedanta school, wrote many works[1] in his life-time of thirty two years; however, many works thought to be of his authorship are debated and questioned as to their authorship today. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image File history File links Aum. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the schools of Indian philosophy. ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... Nyaya (pronounced as nyα:yÉ™) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy - specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (originally called Tattvavada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... Vallabhacharya (1479 - 1531) was the founder of the Vallabha sect in Indian philosophy. ... Dvaitadvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a 13th Century Vaishnava Philosopher who hailed from Andhra Region. ... Achintya-Bheda-Abheda is the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference, in relation to the individual soul (jiva) and God (Krishna) within the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Patañjali as an incarnation of Adi Sesha Patañjali (DevanāgarÄ« पतञ्जलि) is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja Yoga. ... Maharishi GAUTAM, one of the seven sages “Sapt Rishi” was creator of “Nyaya Shsatra”. “Nyaya Shastra” is oldest known book on judicial system. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... MadhusÅ«dana SarasvatÄ« (c. ... Swamy Vedanta Desika, Sri Vaishnava Philosopher Vedanta Desika (1269 – 1370) is the second great name in Vaishnavism. ... Seer Jayateertharu (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Vallabhacharya. ... Nimbarka, is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitaadvaita, duality in unity. ... Caitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1534) Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Caitanya, IAST ) (Bangla ) (1486 - 1534), was an ascetic Hindu monk and social reformer in 16th century Bengal, India (present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh). ... Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস Ramkrishno Pôromôhongsho), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায় Gôdadhor Chôţţopaddhae) [1], (February 18, 1836–August 16, 1886) was a Hindu religious teacher and an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the Nineteenth century. ... For a place-name in Azerbaijan see Ramana (settlement). ... Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: স্বামী বিবেকানন্দ Shami Bibekanondo) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: নরেন্দ্রনাথ দত্ত Nôrendronath Dotto), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga and a major figure in the history of Hinduism and India. ... Narayana Guru It has been suggested that the section Sri Narayana Guru from the article Ezhava be merged into this article or section. ... Nitya Chaitanya Yati (Nithya Chaithanya Yati) (2 November 1923 - May 14, 1999) was an Indian philosopher. ... Dr. A.K. Coomaraswamy // Life of Dr. A.K. Coomaraswamy Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy (22 August 1877 Colombo - 9 September 1947 Needham, Massachusetts) was the son of the famous Sri Lankan legislator and philosopher Sir Mutu Coomaraswamy and his English wife Elizabeth Beeby. ... Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo, Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द SrÄ« Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian nationalist, scholar, poet, mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru [1]. After a short political career in which he became one of leaders of the early movement for the freedom of India from British... Swami Sivananda Saraswati (1887-1963), as he is known under his monastic name, was born Kuppuswamy in Pattamadai, Tamil Nadu, India. ... Swami Satyananda (born in Almorah, Uttar Pradesh, India in 1923), a disciple of Swami Sivananda, is a modern yoga master and guru. ... Image:Swami Chinmayananda. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Veda redirects here. ... Hindu scriptures Hindu scripture is overwhelmingly written in Sanskrit. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Polemic is the art or practice of inciting disputation or causing controversy, for example in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य) is a school of Indian philosophy, and is one of the six astika or Hindu philosophical schools of India. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ... Jaina Solo (b. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Traditionally, his works are classified under Bhāṣya ("commentary"), Prakaraṇa gratha ("philosophical treatise") and Stotra ("devotional hymn"). The commentaries serve to provide a consistent interpretation of the scriptural texts from the perspective of Advaita Vedanta. The philosophical treatises provide various methodologies to the student to understand the doctrine. The devotional hymns are rich in poetry and piety, serving to highlight the relationship between the devotee and the deity. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Bhakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... It has been suggested that Deva (tribe) be merged into this article or section. ...


Adi Shankara wrote Bhashyas on the ten major Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. In his works, he quotes from Shveshvatara, Kaushitakai, Mahanarayana and Jabala Upanishads, among others. Bhashyas on Kaushitaki, Nrisimhatapani and Shveshvatara Upanishads are extant but the authenticity is doubtful.[32] Adi Shankara's is the earliest extant commentary on the Brahma Sutras. However, he mentions older commentaries like those of Dravida, Bhartrprapancha and others.[33] The Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads is headed by 10 Mukhya Upanishads. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... The Brahma sutra is the nyaya prasthana, the logical text that sets forth the philosophy systematically (nyaya - logic/order). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Brahma sutra is the nyaya prasthana, the logical text that sets forth the philosophy systematically (nyaya - logic/order). ...


In his Brahma Sutra Bhashya, Adi Shankara cites the examples of Dharmavyadha, Vidura and others, who were born with the knowledge of Brahman acquired in previous births. He mentions that the effects cannot be prevented from working on account of their present birth. He states that the knowledge that arises out of the study of the Vedas could be had through the Puranas and the Itihasas. In the Taittiriya Upanishad Bhashya 2.2, he says:[34] The Brahma sutra is the nyaya prasthana, the logical text that sets forth the philosophy systematically (nyaya - logic/order). ... Vidura (Sanskrit: विदुर, vidūra) was a son of a maid-servant who served the Queens of Hastinapura, Queen Ambika and Ambalika. ... Brahman (Devanagari: ब्रह्म) is the concept of the Godhead found in Hinduism. ... Veda redirects here. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Itihasa (Sanskrit: इतिहास - itihāsa in IAST notation, literally meaning that which happened) is the word for History. ... The Taittiriya Upanishad is one of the Upanishads associated to the taittiriya samhita of the Black Yajurveda. ...

Sarveśāṃ cādhikāro vidyāyāṃ ca śreyah: kevalayā vidyāyā veti siddhaṃ

It has been established that everyone has the right to the knowledge (of Brahman) and that the supreme goal is attained by that knowledge alone.

Among the independent philosophical treatises, only Upadeśasāhasrī is accepted as authentic by modern academic scholars. Many other such texts exist, among which there is a difference of opinion among scholars on the authorship of Viveka Chudamani. The former pontiff of Sringeri Math, Shri Shri Chandrashekhara Bharati III has written a voluminous commentary on the Viveka Chudamani. The two Epics and the Prasthana thraya—the triple foundation of the Vedanta school of philosophical and spiritual system, namely the Upanishads, Brahma Sutras (Vedanta Sutras) and the Bhagavad-Gita—are the perennial sources of ethical and spiritual knowledge and wisdom, inspiring thousands of earnest seekers of truth. ... Chandrashekara Bharati III (born as Narasimha Sastri; 1892-1954 ) was the Jagadguru (literally, teacher of the world, in Sanskrit; assigned to heads of Hindu mathas) of the Sringeri Sharada Peetham during 1912-1954. ...


Notes

Image:Example.of.complex.text.rendering.svg This article contains Indic text.
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Indic characters; or irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts.
  1. ^ There is some debate regarding this issue. Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, xv-xxiv.  gives this date. However there have been other dates also proposed. See above
  2. ^ Adi means "the first"; the heads of a few Hindu mathas are also given the title Shankaracharya; Acharya means "teacher"
  3. ^ Vidyasankar, S.. The Sankaravijaya literature. Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  4. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, viii. 
  5. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 14. 
  6. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 17. 
  7. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 28-29. 
  8. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 40-50. 
  9. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 51-56. 
  10. ^ Adi Shankara. Manisha Panchakam. Retrieved on August 4, 2006.
  11. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 57-62. 
  12. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 62-63. 
  13. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 70-73. 
  14. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 77-80. 
  15. ^ Pilgrimages- Maheshwar. Retrieved on June 26, 2006.
  16. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 81-104. 
  17. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 117-129. 
  18. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 130-135. 
  19. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 136-150. 
  20. ^ See Link: [1].
  21. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 160-185. 
  22. ^ Photos of Sharada Temple (Sarvajna Pitha), Sharda, PoK. Retrieved on June 26, 2006.
  23. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, 186-195. 
  24. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, xxv-xxxv. 
  25. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, xv-xxiv. 
  26. ^ Vidyasankar, S.. Determining Sankara's Date - An overview of ancient sources and modern literature. Retrieved on June 26, 2006.
  27. ^ Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya, xiv-xxv. 
  28. ^ Adi Shankara's four Amnaya Peethams. Retrieved on August 20, 2006.
  29. ^ Brahman is not to be confused with Brahma, the Creator and one-third of the Trimurti along with Shiva, the Destroyer and Vishnu, the Preserver.
  30. ^ See "Study the Vedas daily. Perform diligently the duties ("karmas") ordained by them" from Sadhana Panchakam of Adi Shankara
  31. ^ Ron Geaves (March 2002). "From Totapuri to Maharaji: Reflections on a Lineage (Parampara)". 27th Spalding Symposium on Indian Religions, Oxford.
  32. ^ Vidyasankar, S. Sankaracarya. Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  33. ^ Mishra, Godavarisha. A Journey through Vedantic History -Advaita in the Pre-Sankara, Sankara and Post- Sankara Periods (pdf). Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  34. ^ Subbarayan, K. Sankara, the Jagadguru. Retrieved on July 24, 2006.

Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, Devanāgarī: , , IPA: ); c. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A maṭha (also written matha and mutt) is a term for monastic and similar religious establishments of the Hindu religion. ... Shankaracharya, (IAST: Śankarāchārya) is a commonly used title of heads of maţhas (monasteries) in the Advaita tradition. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Brahma (IAST: Brahmā) (Devanagari ब्रह्मा, pronounced as ) is the Hindu god (deva) of creation, and one of the Hindu Trinity - Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. ... From left, Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva In Hinduism, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity) is a concept that holds that God has three aspects, which are only different forms of the same one God. ... “Nilakantha” redirects here. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

References

  • Swami, Tapasyananda (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya: The Traditional Life of Sri Sankaracharya by Madhava-Vidyaranya. India: Sri Ramakrishna Math. ISBN 81-7120-434-1. 
  • Greaves, Ron (March 2002). "From Totapuri to Maharaji: Reflections on a Lineage (Parampara)". 27th Spalding Symposium on Indian Religions, Oxford.

Swami Tapasyananda was a senior monk of the Ramakrishna Mission. ... Ron Geaves BA, MA, PhD, CertEd, is a Senior Lecturer, Programme Leader and Chair in religious studies at University College Chester in England. ...

See also

Wikisource
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Adi Shankara

An index of articles related to Advaita Vedanta can be found at List of Advaita Vedanta-related topics The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the schools of Indian philosophy. ... Nyaya (pronounced as nyα:yÉ™) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy - specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (originally called Tattvavada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka or Cārvāka, and also known as Lokayata or Lokyāta, is a thoroughly materialistic and atheistic school of thought with roots in ancient India. ... The development of logic in India dates back to the analysis of inference by Aksapada Gautama, founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy, probably in the first or second centuries BCE, and so stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and Chinese traditions. ... Hindu idealism is a precursor of western idealism and the philosophical opposite of materialism. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Anekantavada is a basic principle of Jainism dealing with the fact that reality may be percieved diferently from different points of views. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli) or stong pa nyid (Tibetan), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, intimately related to the doctrine of the three marks of existence (ti-lakkhana). ... Madhyamaka (Also known as Åšunyavada) is a Buddhist Mahayāna tradition popularized by Nāgārjuna and AÅ›vaghoá¹£a. ... Yogācāra (Sanskrit: yoga practice), also spelled yogāchāra, is an influential school of philosophy and psychology that developed in Indian Mahayana Buddhism starting sometime in the fourth to fifth centuries C.E., also commonly known as Consciousness-only (Sanskrit: Cittamātra). ... The Sautrāntika school of Buddhism split from the Sarvāstivādins sometime between 50 BCE and c. ... The Svatantrika Madhyamaka school of Buddhism is a form of Madhyamaka in which reasoning is used to establish that phenomena (dharmas) have no self-nature, and further arguments to establish that the true nature of all phenomena is emptiness. ... Maharishi GAUTAM, one of the seven sages “Sapt Rishi” was creator of “Nyaya Shsatra”. “Nyaya Shastra” is oldest known book on judicial system. ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... Sage Yajnavalkya (याज्ञवल्क्य) of Mithila advanced a 95-year cycle to synchronize the motions of the sun and the moon. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... A statue depicting Nagarjuna at the Samye Ling Monastery, Dumfriesshire, Scotland Nāgārjuna (నాగార్జున in Telugu, 龍樹 in Chinese) (c. ... It has been suggested that Vidyaranya be merged into this article or section. ... KumārajÄ«va (Chinese: 鳩摩羅什; Jiumoluoshi; also Kiu-kiu-lo, Kiu-mo-lo-che, Kiu-mo-to-tche-po, Tang-cheu) was a Kuchean Buddhist monk and scholar whose father was originally from an Indian noble family, and whose mother was a princess. ... Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kullu, India Padmasambhava (also Padmakara or Padma Raja) (Ch: 蓮華生上師, Pinyin: Lian Hua Sheng Shang Shi; Tib: Pema Jungne, Wylie: padma byung gnas), in Sanskrit meaning lotus-born, is said to have brought Tantric Buddhism to Tibet in the 8th century. ... Vasubandhu (Sanskrit. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... Katyayana was probably a priest who lived in India around 200 BC. Like Baudhayana, he composed Shulba Sutra, or sacred mathematical texts. ... Main gate of the Shaolin temple in Henan Batuo (Fo Tuo, Chinese: ; pinyin: Bátuó, from Sanskrit Buddhabhadra), an Indian dhyana master, was the founder and the first patriarch [1] of the Shaolin Monastery. ... Bodhidharma was the Buddhist monk (usually Indian by most accounts) is credited as the founder of Chan/Zen Buddhism in 6th century China. ... This is an article about the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... The Nyaya-sutras were composed by Aksapada Gautama (c. ... Vaisheshika Sutra is by Kanada and it describes an atomic approach to matter. ... Samkhya Sutra is by Kapila and it describes a philosophical approach to cosmology both at the level of the universe and the individual. ... Mimamsa from Sanskrit meaning discussion, inquiry, investigation. The sutra is dated from the early 500s B.C.E. written by Jaimini Indian philosophy Categories: | ... The Brahma sÅ«tras, also called Vedānta SÅ«tras, constitute the Nyāya prasthāna, the logical starting point of the Vedānta philosophy (Nyāya = logic/order). ... MÅ«lamadhyamakakārikā, or Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way, is a key text by Nagarjuna, one of the most important Buddhist philosophers. ... Below is a list of sutras organized alphabetically under the broad categories of Hinduism and Buddhism. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... This is a list of topics related to Advaita Vedanta, a Hindu philosophy whose doctrine was first first established by Adi Shankara, 788 – 820 CE. // Advaita Vedanta Hindu philosophy Hinduism Smartism Vedanta Dashanami Sampradaya Sringeri Sharada Peetham List of teachers of Advaita Vedanta Adi Shankara Yoga Vasishtha Works of Adi...


External links

Works
  • Complete Works of Adi Shankara
  • Advaita Vedanta Anusandhana Kendra
  • Complete works of Adi Shankara
  • Advaita Vedanta Library
  • Some major works of Adi Shankaracharya
  • Adi Sankara's Books
Historical
  • Guru Parampara of Sringeri Sharada Peetham
  • Guru Parampara of the Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham
  • Sankara's date supporting the 788-820 CE date
  • Material supporting the 509–477 BCE dates (PDF)
Life and teachings
  • Biography of Adi Shankara as per Madhaviya Shankaravijayam: from the official site of Sringeri Peetham
  • Brief life history of Adi Shankara with informative additional links
  • Adi Śańkara — short introduction to his life & philosophy (by Peter J. King)
  • Biography of Shankara by Swami Sivananda
  • Another biography of Sankara from kamakoti.org
Mathas
  • Shringeri Sharada Peetham
  • Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham
Preceded by
(none)
Jagadguru of Sringeri Sharada Peetham
? – 820(videha-mukti)
Succeeded by
Sureshwaracharya

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Adi Shankara provided the divine light of enlightenment to the people of India, especially at a time when they were badly mired in the narrow confines of regionalism, orthodoxy, weakness, sectarianism and excessive ritualism.
Adi Shankara, who held the ideal of national dharma to be Supreme, traversed the entire country and also established four mutts in the four different corners of the country with the purpose of preserving and strengthening national unity and integrity.
Adi Shankara, though not choosing any sovereign ruler or monarch to represent the political unity of India, left the imprint of his effort in engineering unity in every walk of national life, also strengthening the traditions and values that lent sustenance to this unique oneness of India.
Adi Shankara (2258 words)
Adi Shankara (Śaṅkara, Shri Shankaracharya, Adhi Shankaracharya, Ādi Śaṅkarācārya; 'the first Shankara' in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of the Lord) (approximately 8th century, but see below) was the most famous advaita philosopher, who had a profound influence on the growth of Hinduism through his non-dualistic philosophy.
Shankara was born in Kalady, a small village in Kerala, India, to a Namboothiri brahmin couple, Shivaguru and Aryamba.
Shankara is said to have travelled throughout India, from the South to Kashmir, preaching to the local populaces and debating philosophy (apparently successfully, though no documentation exists) with other Hindu and Buddhist scholars and monks along the way.
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