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Encyclopedia > Adenoviridae
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Adenoviruses
Virus classification
Group: Group I (dsDNA)
Family: Adenoviridae
Genera

Aviadenovirus
Atadenovirus
Mastadenovirus
Siadenovirus Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... An avian adenovirus is an adenovirus that infects birds. ...

Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. They infect both humans and animals. Adenoviruses were first isolated in human adenoids (tonsils), from which the name is derived. Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Animalia redirects here. ... Adenoids (or pharyngeal tonsils, or nasopharyngeal tonsils) are a mass of lymphoid tissue situated at the very back of the nose, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the mouth. ...


Adenoviruses are classified as group I under the Baltimore classification scheme. They are medium-sized (60-90 nm), nonenveloped icosahedral viruses containing double-stranded DNA. Adenoviruses represent the largest nonenveloped viruses, because they are the maximum size able to be transported through the endosome (i.e. envelope fusion is not necessary). The virion also has a unique "spike" or fibre associated with each penton base of the capsid (see picture below) that aids in attachment to the host cell via the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor on the surface of the host cell. There are 51 immunologically distinct human adenovirus serotypes (6 species: Human adenovirus A through F) that can cause human infections ranging from respiratory disease (mainly species HAdV-B and C), and conjunctivitis (HAdV-B and D), to gastroenteritis (HAdV-F serotypes 40 and 41). Adenoviruses are unusually stable to chemical or physical agents and adverse pH conditions, allowing for prolonged survival outside of the body and water. Adenoviruses are primarily spread via respiratory droplets, however they can also be spread by fecal routes as well. Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Viral envelope. ... An icosahedron [ˌaıkəsəhiːdrən] noun (plural: -drons, -dra [-drə]) is a polyhedron having 20 faces. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Diseases of the mamalian Respiratory system are classified physiologically into obstructive (i. ... Gastroenteritis involves diarrhea or vomiting, with noninflammatory infection of the upper small bowel, or inflammatory infection of the colon, both part of the gastrointestinal tract. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... The correct title of this article is . ... Feces (also spelled faeces in British English, or fæces) are semi-solid waste products from the digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ...

Contents

Genome

The adenovirus genome is linear, non-segmented double stranded (ds) DNA which is around 30–38 Kbp. This allows the virus to theoretically carry 30 to 40 genes. Although this is significantly larger than other viruses in its Baltimore group it is still a very simple virus and is heavily reliant on the host cell for survival and replication. An interesting feature of this viral genome is that it has a terminal 55 kDa protein associated with each of the 5' ends of the linear dsDNA, these are used as primers in viral replication and ensure that the ends of the virus' linear genome are adequately replicated. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... The atomic mass unit (amu), unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ...

Adenovirus, compared to other types of viruses.
Adenovirus, compared to other types of viruses.

This family contains the following genera: Image File history File links Description: Adenovirus structure Source: [1] (file) License: All of the illustrations in the Talking Glossary of Genetics are freely available and may be used without special permission. ... Image File history File links Description: Adenovirus structure Source: [1] (file) License: All of the illustrations in the Talking Glossary of Genetics are freely available and may be used without special permission. ...

  • Genus Aviadenovirus; type species: Fowl adenovirus A
  • Genus Atadenovirus; type species: Ovine adenovirus D]]
  • Genus Mastadenovirus; type species: Human adenovirus C; others include AD-36
  • Genus Siadenovirus; type species: Frog adenovirus

An avian adenovirus is an adenovirus that infects birds. ... AD-36 is one of 51 types of adenoviruses known to infect humans. ...

Replication

Adenoviruses possess a linear dsDNA genome and are able to replicate in the nucleus of mammalian cells using the host’s replication machinery. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Self-replication is the process by which some things make copies of themselves. ... The eukaryotic cell nucleus. ... Subclasses Subclass Allotheria* Order Docodonta (extinct) Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata Subclass Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals are a class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of...


Entry of adenoviruses into the host cell involves two sets of interactions between the virus and the host cell. Entry into the host cell is initiated by the knob domain of the fiber protein binding to the cell receptor. The two currently established receptors are: CD46 for the group B human adenovirus serotypes and the coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor (CAR) for all other serotypes. There are some reports suggesting MHC molecules and sialic acid residues functioning in this capacity as well. This is followed by a secondary interaction, where a specialized motif in the penton base protein interacts with an integrin molecule. It is the co-receptor interaction that stimulates internalization of the adenovirus. This co-receptor molecule is αv integrin. Binding to αv integrin results in endocytosis of the virus particle via clathrin-coated pits. Attachment to αv integrin stimulates cell signalling and thus induces actin polymerisation resulting in entry of the virion into the host cell within an endosome.[1] An integrin, or integrin receptor, is an integral membrane protein in the plasma membrane of cells. ... It has been suggested that Endocytic cycle be merged into this article or section. ... In biology an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside cells. ...


Once the virus has successfully gained entry into the host cell the endosome acidifies, which alters virus topology by causing capsid components to disassociate. These changes as well as the toxic nature of the pentons results in the release of the virion into the cytoplasm. With the help of cellular microtubules the virus is transported to the nuclear pore complex whereby the adenovirus particle disassembles. Viral DNA is subsequently released which can enter the nucleus via the nuclear pore.[2] After this the DNA associates with histone molecules. Thus viral gene expression can occur and new virus particles can be generated. A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ... Microtubules are protein structures found within cells. ... Nucleus usually refers to the center of something, but can mean: In science: Atomic nucleus, the collection of protons and neutrons in the center of an atom that carries the bulk of the atoms mass and positive charge Cell nucleus, the membrane-bound subcellular organelle found in eukaryotes, visible... Nuclear pore. ... Schematic representation of the assembly of the core histones into the nucleosome. ...


The adenovirus life cycle is separated, by the DNA replication process, into two phases: an early and a late phase. In both phases a primary transcript is generated which is alternatively spliced to generate monocistronic mRNAs compatible with the host’s ribosome, allowing for the products to be translated. A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... It has been suggested that DNA replicate, Replisome, Replication fork, Lagging strand, Leading strand be merged into this article or section. ... Primary transcript is an RNA molecule that has not yet undergone any modification after its synthesis. ... Various modes of alternative splicing Alternative splicing is the process that occurs in eukaryotes in which the splicing process of a pre-mRNA transcribed from one gene can lead to different mature mRNA molecules and therefore to different proteins. ... Monocistronic is an adjective used in genetics which usually refers to messenger RNA (mRNA) and means that a single polypeptide chain will result from its translation. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ...


The early genes are responsible for expressing mainly non-structural, regulatory proteins. The goal of these proteins is three-fold: to alter the expression of host proteins that are necessary for DNA synthesis; to activate other virus genes (such as the virus-encoded DNA polymerase); and to avoid premature death of the infected cell by the host-immune defenses (blockage of apoptosis, blockage of interferon activity, and blockage of MHC class I translocation and expression). A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... 3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ... A cell undergoing apoptosis. ... Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. ... MHC class I molecules are cell surface proteins found on most cells of the body. ...


Some adenoviruses under specialised conditions can transform cells using their early gene products. E1a (binds retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein) has been found to immortalise primary cells in vitro allowing E1b (binds p53 tumor suppresor) to assist and stably transform the cells. Nevertheless, they are reliant upon each other to successfully transform the host cell and form tumours. // Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. ... TP53 bound to a short DNA fragment. ... Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ...


DNA replication separates the early and late phases. Once the early genes have liberated adequate virus proteins, replication machinery and replication substrates, replication of the adenovirus genome can occur. A terminal protein that is covalently bound to the 5’ end of the adenovirus genome acts as a primer for replication. The viral DNA polymerase then uses a strand displacement mechanism, as opposed to the conventional Okazaki fragments used in mammalian DNA replication, to replicate the genome. A primer is a nucleic acid strand, or a related molecule that serves as a starting point for DNA replication. ... An Okazaki fragment is a relatively short fragment of DNA created on the lagging strand during DNA replication. ...


The late phase of the adenovirus life cycle is focused on producing sufficient quantities of structural protein to pack all the genetic material produced by DNA replication. Once the viral components have successfully been replicated the virus is assembled into its protein shells and released from the cell as a result of virally induced cell lysis. Lysis (Greek lusis from luein = to separate) refers to the death of a cell by bursting, often by viral or osmotic mechanisms that compromise the integrity of the cellular membrane. ...


Adenoviruses in humans

Adenovirus infections most commonly cause illness of the respiratory system; however, depending on the infecting serotype, they may also cause various other illnesses, such as gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and rash illness. ...

Adenoviruses in animals

Two types of canine adenoviruses are well known, type 1 and 2. Type 1 causes infectious canine hepatitis, a potentially fatal disease involving vasculitis and hepatitis. Type 1 infection also can cause respiratory and eye infections. Canine adenovirus 2 (CAdV-2) is one of the potential causes of kennel cough. Core vaccines for dogs include attenuated live CAdV-2, which produces immunity to CAdV-1 and CAdV-2. CAdV-1 was initially used in a vaccine for dogs, but corneal edema was a common complication.[3] A canine may refer to: a canine tooth. ... Infectious canine hepatitis is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1). ... In medicine, vasculitis (plural: vasculitides) is a group of diseases featuring inflammation of the wall of blood vessels due to leukocyte migration and resultant damage. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Kennel cough or tracheobronchitis is a highly contagious canine illness characterized by inflammation of the upper respiratory system. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... Edema (American English) or oedema (British English), formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy, is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess lymph fluid, without an increase of the number of cells in the affected tissue. ...


Adenoviruses are also known to cause respiratory infections in horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Equine adenovirus 1 can also cause fatal disease in immunocompromised Arabian foals, involving pneumonia and destruction of pancreatic and salivary gland tissue.[3] Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... This article is about the pig genus. ... Species See text. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... In medicine, immune deficiency (or immunodeficiency) is a state where the immune system is incapable of defending the organism from infectious disease. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... The pancreas is an organ in the digestive and endocrine system (of vertebrates[2]). It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ...


See also

AD-36 is one of 51 types of adenoviruses known to infect humans. ... Infectious canine hepatitis is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1). ...

References

  1. ^ Wu and Nemerow (2004). "Virus yoga: the role of flexibility in virus host cell recognition". Trends Microbiol 12: 162-168. PubMed. 
  2. ^ Meier and Greber (2004). "Adenovirus endocytosis". J Gene Med 6: S152-S163. PubMed. 
  3. ^ a b Fenner, Frank J.; Gibbs, E. Paul J.; Murphy, Frederick A.; Rott, Rudolph; Studdert, Michael J.; White, David O. (1993). Veterinary Virology (2nd ed.). Academic Press, Inc. ISBN 0-12-253056-X. 

Sources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--National Center for Diseases--Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aviadenovirus - Health Encyclopedia (0 words)
Diagnosis of Aviadenovirus is the same as for all Adenoviruses, by viral isolation and serotyping also ELISA assay.
Aviadenovirus(Aviadenovirus) (a”ve-adə-no-vi”rəs) [L. com - # 50 d Aviadenovirus 32 36 Adenovirus, Avian; Aviadenoviruses; Avian Adenovirus 2f 8a A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds.
No Strain Country Dilution Enveloped DNA /RNA Disease Organism Group Comments Adenoviridae Aviadenovirus Adenovirus 51 Italy 1:100 no dsDNA Resistant to ether, bile, detergents, trypsin and acid.
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Adenoviridae are rare causes of meningoencephalitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts.
The Adenoviridae and Polyomaviridae families comprise a wide diversity of viruses which may be excreted for long periods in feces or urine.
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