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Encyclopedia > Adenomas

Adenoma refers to a collection of growths (-oma) of glandular origin. Adenomas can grow from many organs including the colon, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid, etc. These growths are benign, but some are known to have the potential, over time, to transform to malignancy. In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon, also called the large intestine or large bowel, is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... When normal cells are damaged or old they undergo apoptosis; cancer cells, however, avoid apoptosis. ...

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Colon

Adenomas of the colon are quite prevalent. They are found commonly at colonoscopy. They are removed because of their tendency to become malignant and lead to colon cancer. Colonoscopy is the minimally invasive endoscopic examination of the large colon and the distal part of the small bowel with a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...


Histopathology

Adenoma is a benign epithelial tumor arising in epithelium of mucosa (stomach, small intestine and bowel), glands (endocrine and exocrine) and ducts. In hollow organs (digestive tract) the adenoma grows upwards into the lumen - adenomatous polyp or polypoid adenoma. Depending on the type of the insertion base, adenoma may be pedunculated (lobular head with a long, slender stalk, covered by normal mucosa) or sessile (broad base). The adenomatous proliferation is characterized by different degrees of cell dysplasia (atypia or loss of normal differentiation of epithelium): irregular cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, (pseudo)stratified nuclei, nucleolus, decreased mucosecretion and mitosis. The architecture may be tubular, villous or tubulo-villous. Basement membrane and muscularis mucosae are intact.

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Colonic adenoma

Adrenal

Adrenal adenomas are common (1 in 10 people have them), benign and asymptomatic. They are often found on CAT scans of the abdomen, usually not as the focus of investigation; they are usually incidental findings (incidentalomas). About one in 10,000 is malignant. Thus, a biopsy is rarely called for, especially if the lesion is homogenous and smaller than 3 centrimeters. Follow-up images in three to six months can confirm the stability of the growth. CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... In anatomy, the abdomen is a part of the body, In humans, it is the region between the thorax and the pelvis. ... In medicine, an incidentaloma is a tumor (-oma) found by coincidence (incidental) without clinical symptoms and suspicion. ...


Malignant growth of the adrenal is called adrenal adenocarcinoma.


In patients with symptoms of Cushing's syndrome, adrenal adenomas are frequently the focus of glucocorticoid secretion. Surgical resection may be indicated; those unfit for surgery benefit from suppression of the cortisol production with ketoconazole or metyrapone. Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Ketoconazole is a synthetic antifungal drug used to prevent and treat skin and fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. Due to its side-effect profile, it has been superseded by newer antifungals, such as fluconazole and itraconazole. ... Metyrapone (Metopirone™) is a drug used in the diagnosis, and occasionally the treatment, of Cushings syndrome (hypercortisolism). ...


Thyroid

About one in 10 people are found to have solitary thyroid nodules. Investigation is required because a small percentage of these are malignant. Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells found at biopsy are of the follicular type. // Solitary Thyroid Nodule Risks for Cancer Solitary thyroid nodules are worrisome in patients who have had prior radiation to the head and neck, and in those who have a family history of thyroid cancer. ... A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... A typical modern surgery operation For other meanings of the word, see Surgery (disambiguation) Surgery (from the Greek cheirourgia meaning hand work) is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. ...


Pituitary

Pituitary adenomas are commonly seen in 10% of the neurological patients. A lot of them remain undiagnosed. Treatment is usually surgical, to which patients generally respond well. The most common subtype, prolactinoma, is seen more often in women, and is frequently diagnosed during pregnancy as the hormone progesterone increases its growth. Medical therapy (bromocriptine) generally suppresses prolactinomas; progesterone antagonist therapy has not proven to be successful. Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 10% of intracranial neoplasms. ... A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces a hormone called prolactin. ... Bromocriptine is an ergoline derivative dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors and Parkinsons disease. ...


External links

Photos at: Atlas of Pathology


  Results from FactBites:
 
adenoma - definition of adenoma in Encyclopedia (315 words)
Adenomas can grow from many organs including the colon, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid, etc. These growths are benign, but some are known to have the potential, over time, to transform to malignancy.
Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells found at biopsy are of the follicular type.
Pituitary adenomas are commonly seen in 10% of the population.
Adenoma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (413 words)
Adenoma is a benign epithelial tumor arising in epithelium of mucosa (stomach, small intestine and bowel), glands (endocrine and exocrine) and ducts.
Depending on the type of the insertion base, adenoma may be pedunculated (lobular head with a long, slender stalk, covered by normal mucosa) or sessile (broad base).
Pituitary adenomas are commonly seen in 10% of the neurological patients.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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