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Encyclopedia > Adenoma
Adenoma
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 D12., D35.0, D34., D35.2, and others
ICD-9 211.3, 211.5,223.0, 226, 227.0,
ICD-O: M8140/0

An adenoma is a collection of growths (-oma) of glandular origin. Adenomas can grow from many organs including the colon, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid, etc. These growths are benign, although over time they may progress to become malignant (at which point they are called adenocarcinomas). Though adenomas are benign, they can cause serious health complications by compressing other structures (mass effect) and by producing large amounts of hormones in an unregulated manner (paraneoplastic syndrome). The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ... In mammals, the adrenal gland (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... Look up Benign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... When normal cells are damaged or old they undergo apoptosis; cancer cells, however, avoid apoptosis. ... Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ... Mass Effect is an action role-playing game under development by BioWare exclusively for the Xbox 360, which will be the first installment of a planned trilogy. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ...

Contents

Histopathology

Adenoma is a benign epithelial tumor arising in epithelium of mucosa (stomach, small intestine and bowel), glands (endocrine and exocrine) and ducts. In hollow organs (digestive tract) the adenoma grows upwards into the lumen - adenomatous Polyp (medicine)polyp or polypoid adenoma. Depending on the type of the insertion base, adenoma may be pedunculated lobular head with a long slender stalk, covered by normal mucosa or sessile (broad base).


The adenomatous proliferation is characterized by different degrees of cell dysplasia (atypia or loss of normal differentiation of epithelium) irregular cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, (pseudo)stratified nuclei, nucleolus, decreased mucosecretion and mitosis. The architecture may be tubular, villous or tubulo-villous. Basement membrane and muscularis mucosae are intact.


Locations

Colon

Adenomas of the colon are quite prevalent. They are found commonly at colonoscopy. They are removed because of their tendency to become malignant and lead to colon cancer.


Renal

This is a tumor which is most often small and asymptomatic and its derived from renal tubules. It may be a precursor lesion to renal carcinoma.


Adrenal

Adrenal adenomas are common, 1 in 10 people have them benign and asymptomatic. They are often found on of the abdomen, usually not as the focus of investigation; they are usually incidental findings. About one in 10,000 is malignant. Thus, a biopsy is rarely called for, especially if the lesion is homogeneous and smaller than 3 centimeters. Follow-up images in three to six months can confirm the stability of the growth.


While some adrenal adenomas do not secrete hormones at all , often some secrete cortisol causing Cushing's syndrome, aldosterone causing Conn's syndrome or androgens causing hyperandrogenism. Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... Conns syndrome is overproduction of the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates. ... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, also known clinically as Stein-Leventhal syndrome), is an endocrine disorder that affects 5–10% of women. ...


Thyroid

About one in 10 people are found to have solitary thyroid nodules. Investigation is required because a small percentage of these are malignant. Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells found at biopsy are of the follicular type.


Pituitary

Pituitary adenomas are commonly seen in 10% of the neurological patients. A lot of them remain undiagnosed. Treatment is usually surgical, to which patients generally respond well. The most common subtype, prolactinoma, is seen more often in women, and is frequently diagnosed during pregnancy as the hormone progesterone increases its growth. Medical therapy bromocriptine generally suppresses prolactinomas; progesterone antagonist therapy has not proven to be successful.


Liver

Hepatocellular adenoma, Hepatic adenomas are a rare benign tumour of the liver, which may present with hepatomegaly or other symptoms.


Breast

Boob

 adenomas are called fibroadenomas. They are often very small and difficult to detect. Often there are no symptoms. Treatments can include a needle biopsy, and/or removal. 

Appendix

Adenomas can also appear in the appendix. The condition is extremely rare and most physicians will never encounter an actual case, but they do happen. The most common version is called cystadenoma. They are usually discovered in the course of examination of the tissue following an appendectomy. If the appendix has ruptured and a tumor is present this presents challenges, especially if malignant cells have formed and thus spread to the abdomen. Former Vice President Dan Quayle was recently found to have cystadenoma in the appendix. James Danforth Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ...


External links

  • Photos at Atlas of Pathology
  • Adrenal adenoma description at 00007 at CHORUS
  • What is adenoma?

  Results from FactBites:
 
adenoma - definition of adenoma in Encyclopedia (315 words)
Adenomas can grow from many organs including the colon, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid, etc. These growths are benign, but some are known to have the potential, over time, to transform to malignancy.
Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells found at biopsy are of the follicular type.
Pituitary adenomas are commonly seen in 10% of the population.
Adenoma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (413 words)
Adenoma is a benign epithelial tumor arising in epithelium of mucosa (stomach, small intestine and bowel), glands (endocrine and exocrine) and ducts.
Depending on the type of the insertion base, adenoma may be pedunculated (lobular head with a long, slender stalk, covered by normal mucosa) or sessile (broad base).
Pituitary adenomas are commonly seen in 10% of the neurological patients.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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