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Encyclopedia > Adenine

Adenine Adenine, named after the nucleic acid adenine, is a script language, which is developed in the context of the Haystack project and the Oxygen project of the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) in collaboration with NTT. A substantial characteristic of adenine is that this language possesses native... Download high resolution version (1163x1429, 7 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Systematic (IUPAC) name
7H-purin-6-amine
Synonyms
6-aminopurine
Identifiers
CAS number 73-24-5
EINECS 200-796-1
PubChem         190
Chemical data
Formula C5H5N5 
Molar mass 135.127
SMILES Nc1ncnc2[nH]cnc12
Physical data
Melt. point 360 - 365 °C (-265 °F)
Complete data

Adenine is a purine with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. IUPAC nomenclature is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... The EINECS number (for European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances) is a registry number given to each chemical substance commercially available in the European Union between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ or in older notation DPN+) is an important coenzyme found in cells. ... For other uses, see FAD (disambiguation). ... An overview of protein synthesis. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions...

Contents

Structure

It forms several tautomers, compounds that can be rapidly interconverted and are often considered equivalent. In organic chemistry, a keto-enol tautomerism is an equilibrium between a ketone or aldehyde (the keto form) and an enol. ...


Biosynthesis

The Purine metabolism involves the formation of Adenine and Guanine. Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleoside inosine monophosphate (IMP), which is synthesised on a pre-existing ribose through a complex pathway using atoms from the amino acids glycine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, as well as formate ions transferred from the coenzyme tetrahydrofolate. Many organisms have metabolic pathways to synthesise and break down purines. ...


Function

Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids. In DNA, adenine binds to thymine via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. In RNA, which is used in the cytoplasm for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil. Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the similarly-spelled vitamin compound, see Thiamine Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ... In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... Organelles. ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... Uracil is a pyrimidine which is common and naturally occurring. ...


Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose. It forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between chemical reactions. Adenosine is a nucleoside comprised of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Nucleosides are glycosylamines made by attaching a nucleobase (often reffered to simply as bases) to a ribose ring. ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... The chemical structure of adenosine Adenosine is a nucleoside formed when adenine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... In chemistry, a chemical bond is the force which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. ... Chemical reactions are also known as chemical changes. ...


History

In older literature, adenine was sometimes called Vitamin B4[1]. It is no longer considered a true vitamin nor part of the Vitamin B complex. However, two B vitamins, niacin and riboflavin, bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors NAD and FAD respectively. Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... NAD can refer to: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme used in glycolysis National Appeals Division, an agency within the United States Department of Agriculture National Association of the Deaf, a non-profit advocacy organization New Acoustic Dimension, a Canadian audio equipment manufacturer Namibian dollar, the currency of the African nation... For other uses, see FAD (disambiguation). ...


Some think that, at the origin of life on Earth, the first adenine was formed by the polymerization of five hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecules. However, this has been criticized by some chemists.[2] This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ...


External links

References

  1. ^ Vera Reader (1930). "The assay of vitamin B4". Biochem J. 24 (6): 1827–31.. 
  2. ^ Shapiro, Robert (June, 1995). "The prebiotic role of adenine: A critical analysis". Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 25: 83-98. DOI:10.1007/BF01581575. 


Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

v  d  e
Major families of biochemicals
Peptides | Amino acids | Nucleic acids | Carbohydrates | Lipids | Terpenes | Carotenoids | Tetrapyrroles | Enzyme cofactors | Steroids | Flavonoids | Alkaloids | Polyketides | Glycosides
Analogues of nucleic acids: Types of Nucleic Acids Analogues of nucleic acids:
Nucleobases: Purine (Adenine, Guanine) | Pyrimidine (Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine)
Nucleosides: Adenosine/Deoxyadenosine | Guanosine/Deoxyguanosine | Uridine | Thymidine | Cytidine/Deoxycytidine
Nucleotides: monophosphates (AMP, UMP, GMP, CMP) | diphosphates (ADP, UDP, GDP, CDP) | triphosphates (ATP, UTP, GTP, CTP) | cyclic (cAMP, cGMP, cADPR)
Deoxynucleotides: monophosphates (dAMP, TMP, dGMP, dCMP) | diphosphates (dADP, TDP, dGDP, dCDP) | triphosphates (dATP, TTP, dGTP, dCTP)
Ribonucleic acids: RNA | mRNA | piRNA | tRNA | rRNA | ncRNA | gRNA | shRNA | siRNA | snRNA | miRNA | snoRNA
Deoxyribonucleic acids: DNA | mtDNA | cDNA | plasmid | Cosmid | BAC | YAC | HAC
Analogues of nucleic acids: GNA | PNA | TNA | Morpholino | LNA

  Results from FactBites:
 
Adenine: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library (1279 words)
Adenine combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding the three nucleotides adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate.
Adenine is one of four nitrogenous bases utilized in the synthesis of nucleic acids.
...dehydrogenase (ADH) in the liver with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as the cofactor.
Adenine - Education - Information - Educational Resources - Encyclopedia - Music (360 words)
Adenine is one of the two purine bases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA.
In DNA, adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures.
Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose, and it forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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