FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Adderall" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Adderall
Adderall XR 15 mg capsule
Adderall XR 15 mg capsule

Adderall is a brand-name pharmaceutical psychostimulant composed of mixed amphetamine salts. The drug is used primarily to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. Adderall has also been used successfully to manage severe cases of treatment-resistant depression. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... A psychostimulant is a substance that enhances locomotor behavior. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... This article is about the term salt as referred to in chemistry. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... For other uses, see Narcolepsy (disambiguation). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ...

Contents

History

Shire Pharmaceuticals introduced the Adderall brand in 1996 in the form of a multi-dose, instant-release tablet derived from an original formula of the weight management drug Obetrol. In 2006, Shire agreed to sell rights to the Adderall name for this instant-release medication to Duramed Pharmaceuticals[1] and this instant-release medication has since become available in a generic formulation of "mixed amphetamine salts"[citation needed]. The active ingredients of Adderall include a combination of dextroamphetamine and racemic DL-amphetamine salts.[citation needed] In 2006, Shire Pharmaceuticals introduced an extended-release preparation of these ingredients in a variety of dosages under the brand name "Adderall XR" (extended release), on which Shire retains exclusive patent rights until the patent expiry, expected in 2009. Shire Pharmaceuticals is British manufacturer of pharmaceuticals products including Adderall and Carbatrol. ... Obetrol is a pharmaceutical stimulant amphetamine used as an anoretic to treat exogenous obesity and ADHD, and is available today under the brand name Adderall. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... This article is about the term salt as referred to in chemistry. ... Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... In chemistry, a racemate is a mixture of equal amounts of left- and right-handed stereoisomers of a chiral molecule. ... Shire Pharmaceuticals is British manufacturer of pharmaceuticals products including Adderall and Carbatrol. ... Sustained-release (SR), extended-release (ER, XR, or XL), time-release or timed-release, controlled-release (CR), or continuous-release (CR or Contin) tablets are pills formulated to dissolve slowly and release a drug over time. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Chemistry

Specifically, Adderall XR is composed of the following proportions of active ingredients[2]:

These four salts are metabolized at different rates and possess diverse half lives, therefore resulting in a less dramatic onset and termination of therapeutic action; as compared to single-salt amphetamine preparations.[citation needed] Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... In chemistry, a racemate is a mixture of equal amounts of left- and right-handed stereoisomers of a chiral molecule. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Aspartic acid, also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. ... In chemistry, a racemate is a mixture of equal amounts of left- and right-handed stereoisomers of a chiral molecule. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...


The average elimination half-life in adults for dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine is 10 hours and 13 hours respectively. Breakdown rates are affected by many factors including urinary and stomach pH, weight, gender, other medications being taken, and age. The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...


Urinary and stomach pH levels can have the strongest effect on DL-amphetamine excretion and absorption. Co-administration of acidic substances (e.g. citric acid) causes an accelerated excretion of DL-amphetamine while co-administration of alkaline agents (e.g. antacids) causes a marked increase in both retention and absorption of amphetamines potentially resulting in dangerously high serum amphetamine levels. Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... An antacid is any substance that counteracts stomach acidity. ... Look up Serum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Adderall's effects are similar to other CNS stimulants of the same class and preparation (see amphetamine for details). A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ...


Dosing and administration

Adderall is marketed as either an immediate-release tablet, Adderall, or an extended-release capsule, Adderall XR ("Extended Release"). Doses for both Adderall XR and Adderall are 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 milligram strengths with instant-release Adderall having two extra ones, 7.5 and 12.5 milligrams and Adderall XR having a 25 milligram dose.[citation needed] The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ...


Adderall XR utilizes the Microtrol extended-release delivery system, incorporating two types of beads. The first dissolves immediately, releasing half of the medication, while the second type dissolves much more slowly releasing the remaining medication four hours later. Maximum plasma concentration is achieved in seven hours, compared to instant-release Adderall, which reaches maximum plasma concentration within three hours. As a result of its high bioavailability, Adderall XR's effectiveness is not altered by food absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. However, mean plasma concentration is prolonged by 2.5 hours (using a standard high-fat meal as the control).[2] Medications that alter urinary pH will cause variations in amount and method of excretion and usage should be monitored when taken concurrently with Adderall.[citation needed] Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ...


Manufacturer's claims of instant release have been disputed. A US patent granted for Adderall[3] was a pharmaceutical composition patent listing a rapid immediate release oral dosage form. No claim of increased or smooth drug delivery was made. A recent double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, conducted among children, indicated that patients behaved similarly to other immediate release amphetamines. The authors found that sustained-release dexamphetamine (the main isomeric-amphetamine component of Adderall) had a longer duration of action, though D-amphetamine was less effective in the first few hours.[4] The double blind is ray charles is ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesof the scientific method, used to prevent research... For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ... A crossover trial is one where patients are given all of the medications to be studied in random order. ...


Generic equivalents/alternatives

The closest generic equivalent to Adderall is dextroamphetamine sulfate also known as Dexadrine and available in a sustained release form called Dexedrine ER. It should be noted that Adderall uses "mixed amphetamine salts" and Dexadrine is a single salt therefore Dexedrine ER is not a strict generic equivalent for Adderall XR, though it may, in terms of physiological and psychological effects, be a de facto generic alternative. The savings between Adderall XR and generic Dexedrine ER are significant: 90 dextroamphetamine extended-release capsules cost $20 at a retail pharmacy in the United States, while the equivalent 90 Adderall XR capsules cost $270. The difference is due to the fact that Adderall is still protected under patent in the United States. Until this patent expires, generic versions of Adderall XR will not become available. Dextroamphetamine is a psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... Sustained-release (SR), extended-release (ER, XR, or XL), time-release or timed-release, controlled-release (CR), or continuous-release (CR or Contin) pills are tablets or capsules formulated to dissolve slowly and release a drug over time. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ...


Vyvanse is a derivative of Dexedrine, yet it behaves differently in the body (see Dextroamphetamine at "Formulations"). The manufacturer has added extra ingredients (in the case of Adderall) or created a prodrug (a precursor) of dextroamphetamine (in the case of Vyvanse) in order to patent allegedly "improved" products that are similar to Dexedrine yet cannot be produced generically for the time being. Lisdexamfetamine (L-lysine-d-amphetamine) is a prodrug consisting of the psychostimulant d-amphetamine coupled with the essential amino acid L-lysine. ... Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... A prodrug is a pharmacological substance (drug) which is administered in an inactive (or significantly less active) form. ...


Mechanism of action

Main article: Dextroamphetamine#Mixed_amphetamine_salts

Adderall’s inclusion of levoamphetamine provides the pharmaceutical with a quicker onset and longer clinical effect compared to pharmaceuticals exclusively formulated of dextroamphetamine.[5] Although it seems that where the human brain has a preference for dextroamphetamine over levoamphetamine, it has been reported that certain children have a better clinical response to levoamphetamine.[6] Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ...


Side effects

In children

A mood disorder is a condition where the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ...

In adults

  • Dry mouth[2]
  • Loss of appetite[2]
  • Difficulty falling asleep[2]
  • Weight loss
  • Symptoms of depression/anxiety
  • Nicotine cravings

From overdose

These symptoms require immediate medical assistance:

Tourettism refers to tics associated with conditions other than Tourette syndrome. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... EEG redirects here. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Adderall abuse

Tolerance, extreme psychological dependence, and severe social disability can occur when amphetamines are abused. The manufacturer warns against exceeding the prescribed dosage, injecting the drug, or insufflation of the drug. Prolonged high doses of amphetamines followed by an abrupt cessation can result in extreme fatigue and mental depression. Chronic abuse of amphetamines can manifest itself as psychosis, often indistinguishable from schizophrenia.[2] Insufflation (Latin insufflatio blowing on or into) is the practice of inhaling substances into a body cavity. ...


Contraindications, interactions, and precautions

The following provides only general guidelines and is not comprehensive. Please refer to a more comprehensive list for further information regarding co-administration of amphetamine with other substances.

  • SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, e.g., Fluoxetine, Citalopram, Paroxetine, etc.) — While rare, the possibility for serotonin syndrome exists with this combination. Use only when it is directed.
  • NRIs (norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, e.g., Atomoxetine, Strattera, etc.) — NRI medications and amphetamine both enhance noradrenergic activity. Possible augmentation/potentiation of effects. Use only when directed.
  • SNRIs (selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) — See SSRIs and NRIs.
  • Bupropion (Zyban, Wellbutrin IR, ~SR, ~XL, etc.) — Both bupropion and amphetamine have noradrengic and dopaminergic activity. Possible augmentation/potentiation of effects. Bupropion has pro-convulsant properties that may be enhanced or cumulatively potentiated by amphetamine. Use only when directed.
  • MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors, e.g., Phenelzine, Nardil, Selegiline, Emsam, Iproniazid, Iprozid, etc.) — Do not administer amphetamines for a minimum of two weeks after last use of MAOI type drug. Possible hypertensive crises, dangerously elevated amphetamine levels. Preliminary trials of low dose amphetamine and MAOIs being administered together are in progress. However, this is to only be done under strict supervision of the prescribing parties.
  • Tricyclics (tricyclic antidepressants, e.g., Imipramine, Tofranil, Janamine, etc.) — See SNRIs and SSRIs. Possible potentiation of 5htp (serotonin), dopamine and norepinephrine related drug effects. Use only when indicated.

SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ... Prozac redirects here. ... Citalopram is an antidepressant drug used to treat depression associated with mood disorders. ... Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat, Pexeva) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant. ... Serotonin syndrome is a rare, but potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction that results from intentional self-poisoning, therapeutic drug use, or inadvertent interactions between drugs. ... Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) are compounds that increase amounts of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine in the brain by inhibiting its reuptake at synapses. ... Atomoxetine is the first non-stimulant drug approved for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Serotonin Norepinephrine Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant used in the treatment of clinical depression and other affective disorders. ... Bupropion (INN; also amfebutamone,[1] brand names Wellbutrin, Zyban, Budeprion and Buproban) is an atypical antidepressant, which acts as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and dopamine reuptake inhibitor,[2] and a nicotinic antagonist. ... MAOI redirects here. ... Phenelzine (brand name Nardil) is an antidepressant drug that belongs to the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) class of drugs. ... Selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl® or Anipryl® [veterinary]) is a drug used for the treatment of early-stage Parkinsons disease and senile dementia. ... Iproniazid is a monamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that was developed as the first anti-depressant (Also first psychiatric drug). ... Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. ... Imipramine (sold as Antideprin, Deprenil, Deprimin, Deprinol, Depsonil, Dynaprin, Eupramin, Imipramil, Irmin, Janimine, Melipramin, Surplix, Tofranil) is an antidepressant medication, a tricyclic antidepressant of the dibenzazepine group. ...

Performance-enhancing use

Due to side effects including appetite suppression and weight loss, Adderall has also been used as an off-label drug for obesity.[7] Off-label use is the practice of prescribing drugs for a purpose outside the scope of the drugs approved label, most often concerning the drugs indication. ...


Professional poker player Paul Phillips claimed that the use of Adderall and other medications prescribed to him for ADHD treatment made him a much better player and helped him earn more than $2.3 million in poker. The drugs improved his concentration during high-stakes tournaments, he said, allowing him to better track all the action at his table.[8]


Adderall is also reportedly widely used as a "study drug" at most major American universities. Adderall is reported to help focus energy and concentration to a much higher level than normal. It is an amphetamine and works similarly to cocaine, enabling the user to focus and stay awake.[9] Stories of students writing papers for an unusual number of continuous hours [(e.g., 14 hours], or cramming all night for an exam with no loss of energy or concentrations are common. However, the user reportedly can suffer from drastic side effects the following day if Adderall was used to avoid a normal sleep pattern. These reported side effects include temporary loss of vision, sleeping over 14 hours, muscle spasms, vomiting, mental confusion, etc. William Frankenberger, psychology professor at University of Wisconsin at Eau Claire, led at a study at the university in 2004 that reported 14% of the campus had abused some form of ADHD drug, including Adderall.[10]. College campuses known to be highly competitive or have a high rate of binge drinking had up to 25% of students who misused an ADHD medication within one year, a survey of students at 119 colleges across the country concluded.[11]. Other forms of ADHD medication used as a performance enhancing drug include Ritalin, Concerta, and Dexedrine.[12].


Government warnings

On February 9, 2005, Health Canada suspended all sales of Adderall XR after data collected by manufacturer Shire Pharmaceuticals linked the drug to 12 sudden deaths in American children.[13] Further research, found data suggesting use of Adderall resulted in an increased risk of cardiac defect. Given the more than 37,000,000 prescriptions for Adderall filled during the four years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration could find no increased risk of sudden death among Adderall users beyond the normal rate of the general population.[14][15] In August 2005, Health Canada followed the committee report of three independent physicians and lifted the ban on Adderall XR.[16][17] Given that persons with ADHD are more likely to engage in risky or dangerous behavior, it has been suggested that stimulant medications for persons with ADHD may actually result in lower incidence of premature death.[18] The use of Adderall is generally not advised in those persons with pre-existing cardiac or mental illnesses. It is also not advised in persons who have a history of drug abuse.[19] Although FDA safety advisors voted 8 to 7 to issue a black box warning, the FDA's pediatric advisory committee refused to give the drug its most severe black box warning in March 2006.[20] A Black Box Warning regarding amphetamine abuse potential is in place, however. is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... sex Canada (French: Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health. ... Shire Pharmaceuticals is British manufacturer of pharmaceuticals products including Adderall and Carbatrol. ... FDA redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Black_Box_Warning. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ Press Release: Barr and Shire Sign Three Agreements, August 14, 2006, Accessed May 1, 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Shire US Inc., "Prescribing Information" sheet (PDF) for Adderall XR, March, 2007. Accessed May 1, 2008
  3. ^ US6,384,020 (PDF version) (2002-05-07) Flanner, Henry H., et al. A pharmaceutical composition comprising lactitol and one or more amphetamine salts in a rapid release formulation 
  4. ^ http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/pediatrics/pharma-news/v8n3.pdf
  5. ^ Glaser, et al. (2005). "Differential Effects of Amphetamine Isomers on Dopamine in the Rat Striatum and Nucleus Accumbens Core". Psychopharmacology 178: 250-258 (Pages: 255,256). 
  6. ^ Arnold (2000). "Methylphenidate vs Amphetamine: Comparative Review". Journal of Attention Disorders 3 (4): 200-211. doi:10.1177/108705470000300403. 
  7. ^ Quick-fix diet drugs: Effective or harmful? - Eating Well - MSNBC.com
  8. ^ Drugs to build up that mental muscle - Los Angeles Times
  9. ^ Twohey, Megan. "Pills become an addictive study aid: At colleges, students take a deadly risk by abusing ADHD drug." Knight Rider Tribune Business News. 26 March 2006: 1.
  10. ^ Twohey, Megan. "Pills become an addictive study aid: At colleges, students take a deadly risk by abusing ADHD drug." Knight Rider Tribune Business News. 26 March 2006: 1.
  11. ^ Twohey, Megan. "Pills become an addictive study aid: At colleges, students take a deadly risk by abusing ADHD drug." Knight Rider Tribune Business News. 26 March 2006: 1.
  12. ^ Monson, PharmD, Kristi and Schoenstadt, MD, Arthur. "Alternatives to Adderall." 10 April 2008. http://adhd.emedtv.com/adderall/alternatives-to-adderall-p2.html
  13. ^ Public Health Advisory for Adderall and Adderall XR
  14. ^ Ibid.
  15. ^ Sudden Death in 12 Kids on ADHD Drug Adderall
  16. ^ Report of the Adderall XR New Drug Committee
  17. ^ Canada Reverses Ban On ADHD Medication - Rosack 40 (19): 2 - Psychiatr News
  18. ^ Resources for Information about ADD/ADHD and Related Disorders
  19. ^ Patient Information Sheet for Adderall
  20. ^ Dire Warning Not Urged for ADHD Drugs - washingtonpost.com

is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • Hanna, Mohab "Making the Connection: A Parent's Guide to Medication in ADHD" Ladner-Drysdale 2006

  Results from FactBites:
 
WhatMeds.com - Adderall (580 words)
An advantage of Adderall is that it is effective for most patients when taken once or twice a day.
Adderall may help some patients for whom other medications, such as Ritalin have not been effective.
Adderall is used to treat Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD).
adderall. Best Quality. Best service. Best Prices. (1571 words)
adderall correlation with wealthy areas adderall and wellbutrin taken together weight loss on adderall, adderall alternative, adderall test, adderall patch adderall amphetamine, tca's and adderall xr - adderall vs strattera, preparing adderall for smoking dexedrine adderall.
adderall dependence adderall and urine analysis, concerta vs adderall, is there a generic brand of adderall - adderall bird eggs.
adderall adult weight loss adderall blog, order adderall online no prior prescription, adderall drug tests what is the street value for adderall adderall for adhd, adderall xr, effects of adderall.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m