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Encyclopedia > Adaptive radiation
Four of the 13 finch species found on the Galápagos Archipelago, and thought to have evolved by an adaptive radiation that diversified their beak shapes to adapt them to different food sources.

Adaptive radiation describes the rapid speciation of a single or a few species to fill many ecological niches. This is an evolutionary process driven by mutation (heritable/genetic variation) and natural selection. Image File history File links Darwin's_finches. ... Image File history File links Darwin's_finches. ... Darwins finches (also known as the Galápagos Finches) are 13 or 14 different closely related species of finches Charles Darwin discovered on the Galápagos Islands, 13 reside on the Galápagos Islands, one on the Cocos Islands. ... Orthographic projection centred over the Galápagos. ... The beak—otherwise known as the bill or rostrum—is an external anatomical structure which serves as the mouth in some animals. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Two lichenes species on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...

Contents

Causes of adaptive radiation

Adaptive Radiation is a lie.


Opportunity

Isolated ecosystems, such as archipelagos and mountain areas, can be colonized by a species which, upon establishing itself, undergoes rapid divergent evolution. Monotremes and marsupials are examples of geographic isolation. Monotremes evolved before the evolution of placental mammals, and they are found today only in Australia, an island. Marsupials, which also evolved before the appearance of placental mammals are also common in Australia. In Australia, marsupials evolved to fill many ecological niches that placental mammals fill on other continents. An ecosystem, a contraction of ecological and system, refers to the collection of biotic and abiotic components and processes that comprise and govern the behavior of some defined subset of the biosphere. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... Lyskamm, 4 527 m, Pennine Alps A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Divergent evolution occurs when a biological characteristic (such as a structure in two or more species or two or more genes) has a common evolutionary origin, but that characteristic has diverged over evolutionary time. ... Families Kollikodontidae (extinct) Ornithorhynchidae - Platypus Tachyglossidae - Echidnas Steropodontidae (extinct) Monotremes are mammals that are best known for laying eggs, instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials and placental mammals (Eutheria). ... Orders Superorder Ameridelphia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Superorder Australidelphia Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ... Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of land on the planet Earth. ...


Extinction

Adaptive radiation can also occur after mass extinctions. The best example of this is after the Permian-Triassic extinction event, where biodiversity increased massively in the Triassic. The end of the Ediacaran and the beginnings of multicellular life lead to adaptive radiations and the genesis of new phyla in the Cambrian period. An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) is a period in time when a large number of species die out. ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... The Ediacaran Period is the last geological period of the Neoproterozoic Era, just before the Cambrian. ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1. ...


Adaptive radiation in popular culture

In science fiction sometimes adaptive radiation of humans is imagined. This often makes for interesting multi-species worlds. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... A fictional universe is a cohesive fictional world that serves as the setting or backdrop for one or (more commonly) multiple works of fiction. ...


References

  • Wilson, E. et al. Life on Earth, by Wilson,E.; Eisner,T.; Briggs,W.; Dickerson,R.; Metzenberg,R.; O'brien,R.; Susman,M.; Boggs,W.; (Sinauer Associates, Inc., Publishers, Stamford, Connecticut), c 1974. Chapters: The Multiplication of Species; Biogeography, pp 824-877. 40 Graphs, w species pictures, also Tables, Photos, etc. Includes Gal├ípagos Islands, Hawaii, and Australia subcontinent, (plus St. Helena Island, etc.).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Adaptive radiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (398 words)
Adaptive radiation often occurs when a species is introduced to a new ecosystem, or when a species can survive in an environment that was unreachable before.
An example of adaptive radiation as the result of an environmental change is the rapid spread and development of mammalian species after the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Darwin's finches are examples of adaptive radiation occurring in an archipelago.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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