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Encyclopedia > Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty

The Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty is a post-Cold War adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), signed on November 19, 1999 during the OSCE's 1999 Istanbul summit. The main difference with the earlier treaty is that the troop ceilings on a bloc-to-bloc basis (NATO vs. the Warsaw Pact) would be replaced with a system of national and territorial ceilings.[1] Furthermore, the adapted treaty would provide for more inspections and new mechanisms designed to reinforce States Parties’ ability to grant or withhold consent for the stationing of foreign forces on their territory. The post-Cold War era is a time period following the end of the Cold War. ... The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) from 1989 to 1992 established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The 1999 Istanbul Summit was the 6th OSCE summit and was held in Istanbul, Turkey from November 18 until November 19, resulting in the adoption of the Istanbul Summit Declaration and the signing of the Charter for European Security. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


The Adapted Treaty will enter into force when all 30 states-parties have ratified the agreement. As of August 2006, only Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine have done so. NATO member-states link their ratification of the Adapted CFE Treaty with the fulfillment by Russia of the political commitments it undertook at the 1999 OSCE Istanbul Summit (so called "Istanbul commitments") to withdraw its forces from Georgia and Moldova. Russia has heavily criticized this linkage, which it considers artificial, and has on several occasions questioned the relevance of the Adapted CFE Treaty, given its continued non-ratification by NATO states.

Contents

Linkage between Russia's withdrawal and NATO's ratification

In the run-up to the OSCE’s 1999 Istanbul summit, NATO members were concerned by three Treaty compliance problems.[1] First of all, they emphasized that the continuing existence of Russian equipment holdings in the "flank" region were well in excess of agreed Treaty limits. Secondly, they were opposed to a Russian military presence in Georgia - a presence which was beyond the level authorised by the Georgian authorities. Thirdly, they were concerned about the Russian military presence in Moldova which lacked the explicit consent of the Moldovan authorities. NATO members insisted on a package of measures designed to address these issues. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The 1999 Istanbul Summit was the 6th OSCE summit and was held in Istanbul, Turkey from November 18 until November 19, resulting in the adoption of the Istanbul Summit Declaration and the signing of the Charter for European Security. ...


During the summit, 30 OSCE member states - including NATO member states and Russia - signed the adapted CFE treaty. Russia agreed to withdraw from the Republic of Moldova, reduce her equipment levels in Georgia and agree with the Georgian authorities on the modalities and duration of the Russian forces stationed on the territory of Georgia, and reduce their forces in the flanks to the agreed levels of the Adapted CFE Treaty.[1] These agreements became known as the "Istanbul Commitments" and are contained in 14 Annexes to the CFE Final Act and within the 1999 Istanbul Summit Declaration. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


Concerning Moldova, the Declaration states that CFE states-parties "welcome the commitment of the Russian Federation to complete withdrawal of the Russian forces from the territory of Moldova by the end of 2002" (emphasis added).[1] Russia, while fulfilling the other obligations, steadily denied since 2002 that it ever made a clear commitment to withdraw its troops,[2] but Russia did withdraw 58 trainloads of equipment and ammunition from Transdniestria. No further withdrawals have occurred since 2004. Russia argues that it has fulfilled all of its obligations by signing the agreements with Georgia to close the Batumi and Akhalkalaki bases and withdraw the Russian troops stationed there by the end of 2008.[3] As long as not all troops are withdrawn from Georgia and Moldova, NATO members refuse to ratify the treaty.[1] This includes the dismantling of the one remaining base (after 2008) in Georgia: the Gudauta base located in Abkhazia. Transnistria or Transdniester (Russian: Приднестровье (Pridnestrovye), Romanian Transnistria, referred to as Stânga Nistrului (Left Bank of the Nistru) by official Moldovan sources). ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Akhalkalaki (Georgian for New City) is a small Armenian (and old) city in the Georgias southern region of Javakheti. ... Gudauta is a town in Georgia’s breakaway region Abkhazia. ... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab...


Timeline

  • November 1999 - Russia and Georgia signed a treaty about the Russian soldiers who were in Georgia.
  • November 1999 - Russia and Moldova signed a deal that this problem would be solved at the Second Conference to Review the Operation of the Treaty in 2001.
  • 2000 - Russia ratified the agreement.
  • 2001 - Until the Second Conference to Review the Operation of the Treaty in 2001, no NATO state had ratified the agreement.
  • 2007 - Russian president Vladimir Putin declares that the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty is dead because NATO has not ratified the agreement.
  • 2007 - NATO countries demand that Russia do not raise the number of soldiers and that Russia withdraw Russian soldiers home from Moldova and Georgia before they will ratify this agreement. They have not explained why they did not ratify the treaty in the period of 1999 - 2001, when there were no problems with Russia in relation to these two states.
  • July 2007 - Russia leaves the treaty.

Image File history File links Acap. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of Russia. ...

Status

Signed

Signed on November 19, during the OSCE's 1999 Istanbul summit by 30 states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Luxembourg, Moldova, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and the United States.


Ratified

Ratified by 4 of the 30 signatories:

Suspension

Russia suspended its ratification on July 14, 2007 amids cooling relations between the US and Russia.


See also

  • Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
  • 1999 Istanbul summit

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The 1999 Istanbul Summit was the 6th OSCE summit and was held in Istanbul, Turkey from November 18 until November 19, resulting in the adoption of the Istanbul Summit Declaration and the signing of the Charter for European Security. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e NATO, Questions and Answers on CFE, n.d., p. 2, [1]
  2. ^ On July 8, 2004, the European Court of Human Rights stated in a ruling that the Russian army "stationed in Moldovan territory [is] in breach of the undertakings to withdraw them completely given by Russia at the OSCE summits in 1999 and 2001." See: ECHR, Grand Chamber judgment in the case of Ilasu and other vs. Moldova and Russia, July 8, 2004, [2]
  3. ^ V. SOCOR, Moscow presses for CFE ratification in run-up to NATO and OSCE summits, October 31, 2006, [3]

European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ...

External links

  • The Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty at a Glance — Arms Control Association
  • History of NATO – the Atlantic Alliance - UK Government site

 
 

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