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Encyclopedia > Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Mickiewicz. Portrait by Walenty Wańkowicz, 1827-28.

Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (pronounced: [miʦ'kʲɛviʧ]; December 24, 1798November 26, 1855) was one of the best-known Polish poets and writers, considered the greatest 19th-Century Polish poet alongside Zygmunt Krasiński and Juliusz Słowacki (the three prophets). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (528x650, 703 KB) Summary Adam Mickiewicz by Walenty WaÅ„kowicz 1827-1828 (painter died in 1842) source http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (528x650, 703 KB) Summary Adam Mickiewicz by Walenty WaÅ„kowicz 1827-1828 (painter died in 1842) source http://www. ... Walenty WaÅ„kowicz (died 1842) was a Polish painter. ... Naval Battle of Navarino by Carneray 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A poet is some one who writes poetry. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) The 19th century lasted from 1801 to 1900 in the Gregorian calendar. ... Noble Family KrasiÅ„ski Coat of Arms Åšlepowron Parents Wincenty KrasiÅ„ski Maria Urszula RadziwiÅ‚Å‚. Consorts Eliza Branicka Children with Eliza Branicka Wladyslaw KrasiÅ„ski Zygmunt Jerzy Krasinski Maria Beatrix Krasinska Eliza Krasinska Date of Birth February 19, 1812 Place of Birth Paris Date of Death February 23, 1859 Place... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents


Biography

Mickiewicz was born in the Zaosie manor of his uncle near Navahradak (Polish: Nowogródek, Belarusian: Наваградак, Lithuanian: Naugardukas, Russian: Новогрудок) of the Russian Empire (formerly in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, now in Belarus). His father, Mikołaj Mickiewicz, belonged to the szlachta (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth nobility, coat of arms Poraj). The poet was educated at the University of Vilnius; becoming involved in a secret Polish-Lithuanian freedom organization there. After his studies he worked as a tutor in a regional school in Kaunas in 1819-1823. Navahradak (Нава́градак in Belarusian; Russian: Novogrudok; Polish: Nowogródek; Lithuanian: Naugardukas) is a city in western Belarus. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Polish szlachcic. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Poraj - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Vilnius University (Lithuanian Vilniaus Universitetas, Polish Uniwersytet Wileński, formerly Stefan Batory University) is the oldest and biggest university in Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Kaunas city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 11 Coordinates General information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population (rank) 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1823 he was arrested and put under investigation for his political activity. Subsequently he was banished to live in central Russia. He had already published two small volumes of miscellaneous poetry at Vilnius, which had been favorably received by the Slavic public, and on his arrival at St. Petersburg he found himself admitted to the leading literary circles, where he was a great favorite both for his agreeable manners and his extraordinary talent of improvisation. In 1825 he visited the Crimea, which inspired a collection of sonnets (Sonety Krymskie — The Crimean Sonnets) with their admirably elegant rhythm and rich Oriental coloring. The most beautiful are "The Storm," "Bakchiserai," and "The Grave of Countess Potocka." Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 20 Coordinates General information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population (rank) 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Vilnius ( (help· info), see also... The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ...

Mickiewicz's family coat-of-arms Poraj.
Mickiewicz's family coat-of-arms Poraj.

In 1828 appeared his Konrad Wallenrod, a narrative poem describing the battles of the Teutonic Knights with the heathen Lithuanians. Here, under a thin veil, Mickiewicz represented the sanguinary passages of arms and burning hatred which had characterized the long feuds of the Russians and Poles. The objects of the poem, though obvious to many, escaped the Russian censors, and the poem was allowed to be published, complete with the telling motto, adapted from Machiavelli: "Dovete adunque sapere come sono duo generazioni da combattere - bisogna essere volpe e leone" — "Ye shall know that there are two ways of fighting - you must be a fox and a lion." This is a striking poem, and contains two beautiful lyrics. Poraj Clan This work is copyrighted. ... Poraj Clan This work is copyrighted. ... Coat of arms of Monaco. ... Poraj - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Konrad Wallenrod, published in 1828, is a famous work by the great Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Heathen is a term used both to describe a person who does not follow an organized religion, and also a modern practitioner of Heathenry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


After a five years' exile in Russia the poet obtained leave to travel; he had secretly made up his mind never to return to that country, or to his native land so long as it remained under the government of Imperial Russia. Wending his way to Weimar, he there made the acquaintance of Goethe, who received him cordially, and, pursuing his journey through Germany, he entered Italy by the Splügen Pass, visited Milan, Venice and Florence, and finally took up his abode at Rome. There he wrote the third part of his poem, Dziady (Forefathers Eve, lit. Vėlinės), the subject of which is the religious commemoration of their ancestors practiced among Slavic and Baltic peoples, and Pan Tadeusz, his longest poem, considered as his masterpiece. A graphic picture is drawn of Lithuania on the eve of Napoleon's expedition to Russia in 1812. In this village idyll, as Aleksander Brückner calls it, Mickiewicz gives a picture of the homes of the Commonwealth magnates, with their somewhat boisterous but very genuine hospitality. They are seen just as the knell of their nationalism, as Brückner says, seemed to be sounding, and therefore there is something melancholy and dirge-like in the poem in spite of the pretty love story which forms the main incident. Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ... Splügen pass The Splügen Pass (Italian Passo dello Spluga) connects on a height of 2113 m the Swiss Hinterrhein valley in the canton of Graubünden with Chiavenna in the Italian province of Sondrio and the Lake Como. ... Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese: Milán) is the main city of northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed region in Italy, being often mistaken with the capital of the country. ... Country Italy Region Veneto Province Venice (VE) Mayor Massimo Cacciari (since April 18, 2004) Elevation m Area 412 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 271,251  - Density 646/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Veneziani Dialing code 041 Postal code 30100 Frazioni Chirignago, Favaro Veneto, Mestre... Country Italy Region Tuscany Province Florence (FI) Mayor Leonardo Domenici Elevation 50 m Area 102 km² Population  - Total (as of 2006-06-02) 366,488  - Density 3,593/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Fiorentini Dialing code 055 Postal code 50100 Frazioni Galluzzo, Settignano Patron St. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) coordinates: 41°54′N 12°29′E Time Zone: UTC+1 Administration Subdivisions 19 municipi Province Rome Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni ( The Union ) Characteristics Area 1,285 km² Population 2,547,677 (2005 estimate) Density 1983... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dziady. ... Lithuanian is the official language of Lithuania, spoken by about 4 million native speakers (Lithuanians). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples (Latvian: balti, Lithuanian: baltai), defined as speakers of one of the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, are descended from a group of Indo-European tribes who settled the area between lower Vistula and upper Dvina and Dneper. ... Pan Tadeusz (full title - ) is an epic poem by the Polish writer Adam Mickiewicz. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... An idyll is a short poem, descriptive of rustic life, written in the style of Theocrituss short pastoral poems, the Idylls. ... Aleksander Brückner (1856 - 1939) was a Polish Slavic scholar, philologist, lexicographer and historian of literature. ...


Mickiewicz turned to Lithuania, firmly stating it as his "Fatherland" — in so doing, he was actually referring to his native former Grand Duchy of Lithuania — with the loving eyes of an exile, and gives some of the most delightful descriptions of "Lithuanian" skies and "Lithuanian" forests. He describes the weird sounds to be heard in the primeval woods in a country where the trees were sacred. The cloud-pictures are equally striking. There is nothing finer in Shelley or Wordsworth. The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Percy Bysshe Shelley Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets who wrote in the English language. ... William Wordsworth, English poet Wordsworth redirects here. ...


In 1832 Mickiewicz left Rome for Paris, where his life was for some time spent in poverty and unhappiness. He had married a Polish lady, Celina Szymanowska (her parents came from Jewish Frankist families), who became insane. In 1840 he was appointed to the newly founded chair of Slavic languages and literature in the College de France, a post which he was especially qualified to fill, as he was now the chief representative of Slavic literature, Aleksandr Pushkin having died in 1837. He was, however, only destined to hold it for a little more than three years, his last lecture having been given on May 28, 1844. His mind had become more and more disordered under the influence of religious mysticism. 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) coordinates: 41°54′N 12°29′E Time Zone: UTC+1 Administration Subdivisions 19 municipi Province Rome Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni ( The Union ) Characteristics Area 1,285 km² Population 2,547,677 (2005 estimate) Density 1983... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur Tossed by the waves, she does not founder Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Coll ge de France is a higher education teaching and research establishment located in Paris, France. ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин ) (June 6 [O.S. May 26] 1799 – February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1837) was a Russian Romantic author whom many consider the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. ... | Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mystikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (mysteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is an...

Mickiewicz monument, Kraków.
Mickiewicz monument, Kraków.

He had fallen under the influence of a strange mystical philosopher Andrzej Towiański. His lectures became a medley of religion and politics, and thus brought him under the censure of the government. A selection of them has been published in four volumes. They contain some good sound criticism, but the philological part is defective, for Mickiewicz was no scholar, and it is clear that he is only well-acquainted with two of the literatures, Polish and Russian, and the latter only till the year 1830. A very sad picture of his declining days is given in the memoirs of Herzen. At a comparatively early period the unfortunate poet exhibited all the signs of premature old age; poverty, despair and domestic affliction had wrought their work upon him. In 1849 he founded a French newspaper, La Tribune des Peuples (Peoples' Trubune), but it only existed a year. The restoration of the French Empire seemed to kindle his hopes afresh; his last composition is said to have been a Latin ode in honour of Napoleon III. On the outbreak of the Crimean War (1855) he went to Turkey to organise Polish forces to be used in the war against Russia. With his friend, Armand Levy, he set about organising a Jewish Legion, the Hussars of Israel, composed of Russian and Palestinian Jews. During a visit to a military camp near Constantinople he caught cholera and died suddenly in 1855. His body was removed to France and buried at Montmorency. In 1900 his remains were disinterred and buried in the cathedral of Kraków, where rest, besides many of the kings, the greatest of Poland's worthies. Image File history File links Pomnik_Mickiewicza. ... Image File history File links Pomnik_Mickiewicza. ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Alexander Herzen in 1867 Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) (April 6, 1812 - January 21, 1870) was a major Russian pro-Western writer and thinker known as the father of Russian socialism. He is held responsible for creating a political climate leading to the emancipation of the serfs in 1861. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The La Tribune des Peuples (Polish: Trybuna Ludów, English: Peoples Trubune) was a Polish political weekly magazine, published in Paris in the French language, from March until November 1849, with a break from 14 April to 31 August, because of censorship. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 2,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 110,000 killed, wounded and died... The Jewish Legion was the name for five battalions of Jewish volunteers established as the British Armys 38th through 42nd (Service) Battalions of the Royal Fusiliers. ... Map of Constantinople. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Montmorency is a town and commune of the Val-dOise département, in France, located in the northern sububurbs of Paris. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ...


Works

Mickiewicz is held to have been the greatest Slavic poet, with the exception of Alexander Pushkin. Mickiewicz is little known elsewhere in Europe, where it is no longer the fashion to learn the Polish language. There were both pathos and irony in the expression used by a Polish lady to a foreigner, "Nous avons notre Mickiewicz--nous." He is one of the best products of the Romantic school. Aleksandr Pushkin was a Russian poet and a founder of modern Russian literature Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин) (June 6 (May 26, O.S.), 1799 - February 10 (January 29, O.S.), 1837), Russian author, whom many consider the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. ... Romantic poetry was part of the Romantic movement of European literature during the 18th-19th centuries. ...


The political situation in Poland in the 19th century was often reflected in Polish literature which, since the days of Poland's partitions took a powerful upward swing and reached its zenith during the period between 1830 and 1850 in the unsurpassed patriotic writings of Mickiewicz, among others. The writings of Mickiewicz have had such a tremendous influence upon the Polish mind that they can not be underestimated. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Because of the greater simplicity of his style and the directness of presentation, Mickiewicz reached more Polish hearts than either Krasinski or Słowacki and came to be regarded as the greatest interpreter of the people's hopes and ideals. He is the Zeus of the Polish Olympus and the immortal incarnation of Polish national spirit. He wrote at a time when Romanticism prevailed in European literature. His works bear the impress of that literary epoch, but they deal with intense and palpable realities. His two monumental works, marking the zenith of his power, are: Dziady ("Ghosts") and Pan Tadeusz. The latter is universally recognized as "the only successful epic which the 19th century produced." George Brandes says that Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Georg Brandes, a scetch for a painting, by P.S. Krøyer, 1900 Georg Morris Cohen Brandes (February 4, 1842 - February 19, 1927) was a Danish critic and scholar who had great influence on Scandinavian literature from the 1870s through the turn of the 20th century. ...

"Mickiewicz alone approached those great names in poetry which stand in history as above all healthy, far healthier than Byron, healthier, even than Shakespeare, Homer and Goethe." Lord Byron, Anglo-Scottish poet George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (January 22, 1788–April 19, 1824) was an Anglo-Scottish poet and a leading figure in Romanticism. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Homère Caetani bust at the Louvre, a 2nd century Roman copy of a 2nd century BC Greek original. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. ...

The poetic serenity of the description of Lithuanian life at the opening of the 19th century is the more remarkable when considered in the light of the poet's volcanic nature and his intense suffering over the tragic fate of his native land to which he could never return. His passionate nature finds its truest expression in Dziady, which undoubtedly constitutes the acme of poetic inspiration. It deals with the transformation of the soul from individual to a higher national conception. The hero, Gustavus, who has suffered great misfortune, wakes up one morning in his prison cell and finds himself an entirely changed man. His heart, given over to individual pain and individual love, dies. Gustavus, bewailing his lost personal happiness, lives no more, and Konrad, his divine ego, takes his place. All the creative powers of his nation are concentrated in him. Here Mickiewicz bares his own soul. He is filled with enough moral strength to challenge even God. He feels for millions and is pleading before God for their happiness and spiritual perfection. It is the Promethean idea, no doubt, but greatly deepened in conception and execution and applied to but one part of humanity, the Polish nation whose intensity of suffering was the greatest in all mankind. A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... God is the deity believed by monotheists to be the supreme reality. ... In Greek mythology, Prometheus, or Prometheas (Ancient Greek, Προμηθεύς, forethought) is the Titan chiefly honored for stealing fire from the gods in the stalk of a fennel plant and giving it to mortals for their use. ...


In 1835 Mickiewicz came under the influence of Towianski, a mystic, and ceased to write. Toward the end of his days he freed himself again of this peculiar thrall which Towianski was able to exert over him, as over the two other poets, and became again a man of reality. As a young man, Mickiewicz took a leading part in the literary life of the university circles at Vilnius. When the societies were closed in 1823 by order of the Russian government he was arrested and exiled to Russia. While in the Crimea he wrote his exquisite sonnets. Subsequently he emigrated to France, where he spent most of his life, and died in Constantinople in 1855, while organizing a Polish (Jewish) legion against Russia during the Crimean war. His spirit was ever imbued with exalted patriotism and his genius was active in pointing toward a means of freeing the country from foreign oppression. He was a champion of action and it is characteristic of the greatness of his soul that he was ever above the petty strifes that were tearing apart the Polish emigrants, and which absorbed their thoughts and energies. At the time of the greatest intensity of that strife he wrote the celebrated Books of the Pilgrims a work of love, wisdom and good will written in exquisite style. They have been called "Mickiewicz's Homilies" and have exercised a soothing and elevating influence. Despite the fact that Mickiewicz's themes and heroes are connected with Polish life, his writings still touch upon most of the problems and motives of the world at large, thus assuring to his works everlasting value and universal interest. The same in an equal measure is true of the other two poets. They dealt with the most profound problems of existence, looking at them always through the prism of their ardent patriotism. Like Mickiewicz, the two other great Polish poets - Sŀowacki and Krasinski, were compelled to live outside their own country. | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 20 Coordinates General information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population (rank) 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Vilnius ( (help· info), see also... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Francesco Petrarca or Petrarch, one of the best-known of the early Italian sonnet writers For the Saab automobile, see Saab Sonett, for the Japanese communications company see So-net The term sonnet is derived from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. ... Map of Constantinople. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 2,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 110,000 killed, wounded and died... Defense of the homeland is a commonplace of military patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ...


Besides Konrad Wallenrod and Pan Tadeusz, noteworthy is the poem Grażyna, describing the exploits of a Lithuanian chieftainess against the Teutonic Knights. It was said by Christien Ostrowski to have inspired Emilia Plater, a military heroine of the November 1830 Uprising who found her grave in the forests of Lithuania. A fine vigorous Oriental piece is Farys. Very good too are the odes to Youth and to the historian Joachim Lelewel; the former did much to stimulate the efforts of the Poles to shake off their Russian conquerors. It is enough to say of Mickiewicz that he has obtained the proud position of the representative poet of his country; her customs, her superstitions, her history, her struggles are reflected in his works. It is the great voice of Poland appealing to the nations in her agony. Konrad Wallenrod, published in 1828, is a famous work by the great Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz. ... Pan Tadeusz (full title - ) is an epic poem by the Polish writer Adam Mickiewicz. ... Emilia Plater in a skirmish at Szawle, during the November Uprising of 1830-1831. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Joachim Lelewel (Warsaw, March 22, 1786- May 29, 1861), was a Polish historian and politician, from a naturalized Polish family of Prussian background. ...


His son, Władysław Mickiewicz, wrote Vie d'Adam Mickiewicz (Poznań, 1890-1895, 4 vols.), also Adam Mickiewicz, sa vie et son œuvre (Paris, 1888) Translations into English (1881-1885) of Konrad Wallenrod and Pan Tadeusz were made by Miss Biggs. See also Œuvres poétiques de Michiewicz, trans. by Christien Ostrowski (Paris, 1845). PoznaÅ„ (?· i; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur Tossed by the waves, she does not founder Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Konrad Wallenrod, published in 1828, is a famous work by the great Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz. ... Pan Tadeusz (full title - ) is an epic poem by the Polish writer Adam Mickiewicz. ...


Nationality

Adam Mickiewicz is generally known as a Polish poet, and all his major works are written in Polish. Although his nationality is generally not disputed among serious scholars, it is otherwise an object of endless popular controversy. Poets who wrote or write much of their poetry in the Polish language. ...


He is often regarded by Lithuanians to be of Lithuanian origin, his name being rendered into Lithuanian as Adomas Mickevičius. Similarly, many Belarusians claim his descent from a Polonized Belarusian family and call him Ада́м Міцке́віч. Also, some sources say that Mickiewicz's mother was a descendent of a converted Frankist Jewish family; however, other sources suggest the claim is "improbable" albeit possible.[1] Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Jacob Frank (1726-1791) was a Jewish merchant who claimed to be the messiah. ...


The controversy largely stems from the fact that in the 19th century the concept of nationality had not yet been fully developed and that the term "Lithuania," as used by Mickiewicz himself, had a much broader geographic extent than it does now. Mickiewicz had been brought up in the culture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a multicultural state that had encompassed most of what today are the separate countries of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. His most famous poem, Pan Tadeusz, begins with the invocation, "O Lithuania, my country, thou art like good health,"). It is generally accepted that in Mickiewicz's time the term "Lithuania" still carried a strong association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, part of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and that Mickiewicz used it in a political rather than an ethnic sense. The resultant confusion that is sometimes engendered today is illustrated by a waggish report about a Russian encyclopedia that describes Mickiewicz as a Belarusian poet who wrote about Lithuania in Polish. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Pan Tadeusz (full title - ) is an epic poem by the Polish writer Adam Mickiewicz. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


See also

Great Emigration (Polish: Wielka Emigracja), Polish political (1831–1870). ... The Polish Legion or Mickiewiczs Legion was a military unit formed on March 29, 1848 in Rome by one of the the most notable Polish poets Adam Mickiewicz, to take part in the liberation of Italy. ... 200px coat_of_arms_Pozza Pucić (Pozza), Medo (Conte Orsato) (12. ... The history of philosophy in Poland parallels the evolution of philosophy in Europe generally. ...

Related reading:

  • Pan Tadeusz, Adam Mickiewicz; Hippocrene Books, 1992. Paperback, 598 pages. ISBN 0-7818-0033-1
  • Treasury of Love Poems by Adam Mickiewicz, transl. Kenneth R. MacKenzie; Hippocrene Books, 1998. Hardcover, 137 pages, bilingual edition. ISBN 0-7818-0652-6
  • The sun of liberty: Bicentenary anthology, 1798-1998, Energeia, Warsaw, 1998. Paperback, 223 pages, bilingual edition. ISBN 83-8511-8748
  • Konrad Wallenrod and Grażyna, Adam Mickiewicz, transl. Irene Suboczewski; Rowman & Littlefield, 1989. ISBN 0-8191-7556-0

1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Kenneth R. Mackenzie (1908-1990) was a British scholar and parliamentary clerk. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Gallery of Mickiewicz monuments in Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian cities

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Adam Mickiewicz

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Tomas Venclova (born on September 11, 1937 in Klaipeda) - Lithuanian poet, author and translator of literature. ...

References

  1. ^ "Mickiewicz's mother, descended from a converted Frankist family": Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. Mickiewicz, Adam. "Mickiewicz's Frankist origins were well-known to the Warsaw Jewish community as early as 1838 (according to evidence in the AZDJ of that year, p. 362). The parents of the poet's wife also came from Frankist families." Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. Frank, Jacob, and the Frankists. "Her (Barbara Mickiewicz) maiden name was Majewska. In old Lithuania, every baptised Jew became ennobled, and there were Majewskis of Jewish origin. That must have been the reason for the rumours, repeated by some of the poet's contemporaries, that Mickiewicz's mother was a Jewess by origin. However, genealogical research makes such an assumption rather improbable."(Wiktor Weintraub, "The Poetry of Adam Mickiewicz")
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
The Three Bards

Adam MickiewiczJuliusz Słowacki • Zygmunt Krasiński Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Three Bards (Polish trzej wieszcze) are the three national poets of Polish literature. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Noble Family KrasiÅ„ski Coat of Arms Åšlepowron Parents Wincenty KrasiÅ„ski Maria Urszula RadziwiÅ‚Å‚. Consorts Eliza Branicka Children with Eliza Branicka Wladyslaw KrasiÅ„ski Zygmunt Jerzy Krasinski Maria Beatrix Krasinska Eliza Krasinska Date of Birth February 19, 1812 Place of Birth Paris Date of Death February 23, 1859 Place...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Adam Mickiewicz - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2536 words)
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (December 24, 1798 – November 26, 1855) was one of the best-known Polish poets and writers, considered the greatest 19th-Century Polish poet alongside Zygmunt Krasiński, Juliusz Słowacki and Cyprian Norwid (four prophets).
Adam Mickiewicz is generally known as a Polish poet, and all his major works are written in Polish.
Mickiewicz's Lithuania and Mickiewicz in Lithuania by Tomas Venclova
Adam Mickiewicz (928 words)
Messianism was condemned; Mickiewicz became the apostle of a false doctrine, and lost his chair of literature.
Mickiewicz has much in common with Schiller; he is also like Byron, but above him both in moral tone and in objectivity, in which he recalls Goethe.
Since Mickiewicz, Poland can boast of having one of the world's great literatures, while of all Polish poets he is the most talented, the most intensely patriotic, and the most potent factor in the national life of Poland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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