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Encyclopedia > Adam
Michelangelo's The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. While not strictly true to the Genesis account, this is one of the most famous depictions of the creation of Adam and Eve in Western art.
Michelangelo's The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. While not strictly true to the Genesis account, this is one of the most famous depictions of the creation of Adam and Eve in Western art.

Adam (Standard Hebrew אָדָם, masculine proper noun;[1][2][3] Arabic آدم) was the first man created by God, according to Genesis, and noted in subsequent Jewish, Christian and Islamic commentary.[4] He is considered a prophet by the Jewish, Islamic, Mormon, Mandaean and Bahá'í faiths.[citation needed] He is also commemorated as a patriarch in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod with Eve on December 19. [citation needed] Look up Adam, adam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... God creates Adam by Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. ... God creates Adam by Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... The Creation of Adam prior to the 1980 restoration of the Sistine Chapel ceiling The Creation of Adam is a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo Buonarroti circa 1511. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... The iconic image of the Hand of God giving life to Adam. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Various creation stories have a first man, the first human being. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ... The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which details the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by the Lutheran Church. ... LCMS redirects here. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Eve, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Eve from the side of Adam. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Hebrew Bible

The story is told in the book of Genesis, contained in the Torah and Bible, chapters 2 and 3, with some additional elements in chapters four and five.[citation needed] Several apocryphal books, such as the Book of Jubilees, Life of Adam and Eve and Book of Enoch also contain details of Adam's life, though these books are not regarded as Scripture by the vast majority of Jews and Christians.[citation needed] For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ... The Life of Adam and Eve is a Jewish pseudepigraphical writing, the original of which was perhaps written around 70 BC. The story begins immediately after Adam and Eves exile from the Garden of Eden and continues to their deaths. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Scripture” redirects here. ...

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Account of creation

Two accounts of the story of creation are told in the book of Genesis. Historians and academics in the fields of linguistics and source criticism believe that these stories belong to the two strata of J, or Yahwist source, and the P, or Priestly source (See Documentary hypothesis).[4] This article is about the occupation of studying history. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Source Criticism is an aspect of historical criticism, a method of literary study used especially in the field of biblical criticism that seeks to understand a literary piece better by attempting to establish the sources used by the author and/or redactor who put the literary piece together. ... The Priestly Source (P) is the most recent of the four sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ...


According to the first account of creation (viewed by historians of source criticism as Priestly dating back to the 5th or 6th century BC), God (or Yahweh) created all living creatures human beings on the sixth day of Creation. He created man in his image, after his likeness, both male and female, blessed them to be "fruitful and multiply" and ordained that they should have "dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth" (Gen. 1.26-27, KJV).[4] For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... THIS IS A FACT Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that a single God, or a group of or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...


The lengthier account (viewed by historians of source criticism as Yahwist dating back to the 10th century BC), records that the creation of Adam happened when the earth was still void. God first formed Adam out of "the dust of the ground" and then "breathed into his nostrils the breath of life", causing him to "become a living soul" (Gen. 2. 7, KJV). God then placed Adam in the Garden of Eden, giving him the commandment that "Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" (Gen. 2.16-17, KJV). For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... In the Bibles Book of Genesis, the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil was the tree in the middle of the Garden of Eden from which God forbade Adam and Eve to eat. ...


God then noted that "It is not good that the man should be alone" (Gen. 2.18, KJV). He then brought every "beast of the field and every fowl of the air" (Gen. 2.19, KJV) before Adam and had Adam name all the animals. However, among all the animals, there was not found "a helper suitable for" Adam (Gen. 2.20, NASB), so God caused "a deep sleep to fall upon Adam" and took one of his ribs, and from that rib, formed a woman (Gen. 2.21-22), subsequently named Eve.[4] The Adamic language is a term for the hypothetical proto-language believed spoken by Adam in paradise, either identical with the language used by God to address Adam, or invented by Adam as nomothete (name-giver, Genesis 2:19). ...


Adam and Eve were subsequently expelled from the Garden of Eden, were ceremonially separated from God, and lost their immortality after they broke God's law about not eating of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. This occurred after the serpent (understood to be Satan in many Christian traditions) told Eve that eating of the tree would result not in death, but in Adam and Eve's eyes being opened, resulting in them being "as gods, knowing good and evil" (Gen. 3.4-5). Convinced by the serpent's argument, Eve eats of the tree and has Adam do likewise (Gen. 3.6). For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ...


As a result, both immediately become aware of the fact that they are naked, and thus cover themselves with garments made of fig leaves (Gen. 3.7). Then, finding God walking in the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve hide themselves from His presence (Gen. 3.8). God calls to Adam "Where art thou?" (Gen. 3.9, KJV) and Adam responds "I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself" (Gen. 3.10, KJV). When God then asks Adam if he had eaten of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, Adam responds that his wife had told him to (Gen. 3.11-12). Herein is the first sin that Adam committed. Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


As a result of their breaking God's law, the couple is removed from the garden (Gen. 3.23) (the Fall of Man) and both receive a curse. Adam's curse is contained in Gen. 3.17-19: "Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field: In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return" (KJV). In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... Raised thorns on the stem of the wait-a-bit climber Prickles on rose stems Thorns of the Ocotillo A spine is a rigid, pointed surface protuberance or needle-like structure on an animal, shell, or plant, presumably serving as a defense against attack by predators. ... Species See text Thistles are perennial flowering plants of the genus Cirsium. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə()b, or əb; see pronunciation differences) are seed-bearing plants without woody stems, which die down to the ground after flowering. ...


After they were removed from the garden, Adam was forced to work hard for his food for the first time. He and Eve had many children although only three are named in Genesis: Cain, Abel, and Seth. The Book of Jubilees, in addition, names two of his daughters: Azura, who married her brother Seth, and Awan, who married her brother Cain. In stories common to the Abrahamic religions, Cain or Káyin (קַיִן / קָיִן spear Standard Hebrew Qáyin, Tiberian Hebrew Qáyin / Qāyin; Arabic قايين Qāyīn in the Arabic Bible; قابيل Qābīl in Islam) is the eldest son of Adam and Eve, and the first man born in creation... In the Book of Genesis, Abel (Hebrew הֶבֶל / הָבֶל, Standard Hebrew Hével / Hável, Tiberian Hebrew Héḇel / Hāḇel; Arabic هابيل Hābīl) was the second son of Adam. ... This article is about the Biblical Seth. ... The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ... Seth (Hebrew: שֵׁת, Standard Šet, Tiberian ; Arabic: شيث Shith or Shiyth; Placed; appointed), in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, is the third listed son of Adam and Eve and brother of Cain and Abel and is the only other son mentioned by name. ... There are several references to Awan: Awan was an Elamite dynasty of Iran. ...


According to the Genealogies of Genesis, Adam died at the age of 930. With such numbers, calculations such as those of Archbishop Ussher would suggest that Adam would have died only about 127 years before the birth of Noah, nine generations after Adam. In other words, Adam's lifespan would have overlapped Lamech (the father of Noah) at least fifty years. The genealogies of Genesis record the descendents of Adam and Eve as given in the first book of the Bible, Genesis. ... James Ussher (also spelled Usher) (January 4, 1581–March 21, 1656) was Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625–1656 and a prolific religious scholar who most famously published a chronology which dated creation from 4004 BC. Ussher was born in Dublin, Ireland into a... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Lamech (in Hebrew לֶמֶך Lemmech) is the name of two men appearing in the genealogies of Adam in the book of Genesis. ...


According to the book of Joshua, the City of Adam was still a recognizable place at the time that the Israelites crossed the Jordan River on entering Canaan. Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...


He appears to an extent in both Eastern and Western Christian liturgies.[5]


Adam in rabbinic literature

Adam in rabbinic literature. ...

Islamic view

Main article: Islamic view of Adam

In Islam, Adam is considered the first Prophet of God and the husband of Eve (Arabic: Hawwa) who was created from Adam by the "will of God". Satan had lured Adam and Eve into disobeying God by tasting from the forbidden tree (although no reference is necessary as to what he may have tasted). This was the first act of revenge from Satan for being banished from the kingdom of heaven due to mankind. An important point to note here is that the Qur'an does not state or imply that it was Eve who tempted Adam to disobey God. They were both tempted by Satan and therefore equally guilty: Adam is the first Prophet of Islam and mentioned in the Quran as the husband of Eve (Hawwa). ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ...

"Then began Satan to whisper suggestions to them, bringing openly before their minds all their shame that was hidden from them (before): he said: "Your Lord only forbade you this tree, lest ye should become angels or such beings as live for ever. And he swore to them both, that he was their sincere adviser. So by deceit he brought about their fall: when they tasted of the tree, their shame became manifest to them, and they began to sew together the leaves of the garden over their bodies. And their Lord called unto them: "Did I not forbid you that tree, and tell you that Satan was an avowed enemy unto you?" [Qur'an 7:20] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

The Qu'ran also mentions that Adam was misled by deception and was in fact pardoned by God after much repentance. The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book...

"Then Adam received (some) words from his Lord, so He turned to him mercifully; surely He is Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful." [Qur'an 2:37] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

Islam indicates that because Adam was the first human, as a prophet he was also the first Muslim ("one who submitted to God"), thus teaching that the "word of God" is the oldest such religion that Islam has represented. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Bahá'í view

In the Bahá'í view, Adam was the first Manifestation of God in recorded history.[6] He is believed by Bahá'ís to have started the Adamic cycle 6000 years ago, which was culminated by Muhammad.[7][8] The Biblical story of Adam and Eve, according to Bahá'í belief, is allegorical and is explained by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Some Answered Questions.[8] The Baháí Faith refers to what are commonly called prophets as Manifestations of God, or simply Manifestations (mazhar) who are directly linked with the concept of Progressive revelation. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... `Abdul-Bahá `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ... Some Answered Questions was first published in 1908. ...


Latter Day Saint (LDS) view

Main article: Adam and Eve (LDS Church)

Latter Day Saint religion holds that Adam and Michael the archangel are the same individual. Michael the archangel fought against and cast out Satan, "that old serpent", at the conclusion of the "war in heaven" during pre-mortal existence (see Book of Revelation 12:7-9). "Michael" was born into this mortal existence as the man "Adam, the father of all, the prince of all, the ancient of days" (see Doctrine and Covenants 27:11 and 107:54). Mormons also consider Adam to be the first among all the prophets on earth. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Biblical account of Adam and Eve is believed to be partly literal and partly symbolic, with much meaning and clarification added in the Book of Moses[1] and in the Book of Mormon. ... A Latter Day Saint is an adherent of the Latter Day Saint movement, a group of denominations tracing their heritage to the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Santa Maria della Concezione, Rome) tramples Satan. ... Archangels are superior or higher-ranking angels. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. ...


Druze religion

In the Druze religion, Adam and Eve are seen as dualistic cosmic forces and are complementary to one another. Adam represents the universal mind and Eve, the universal soul.[citations needed] Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; ‎, Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion is said to have begun as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of... Universal mind is a generic term for the universal consciousness or source of being in some forms of esoteric or New Age thought and spiritual philosophy. ...


Historicity

Etymology

The word "adam" is the neuter-gender Hebrew word meaning 'humanity.' It encompasses both male and female, relating to the initial creation of man and woman simultaneously rather than sequentially. This particular motif appears in the Yahwist (or J) portion of the Old Epic Tradition of the Tanakh as opposed to the Priestly (or P) version of the creation story, which depicts the woman being created from man.


The name Adam is a masculine form related to the Hebrew word adamah meaning "ground". Related words are adom, red (or brown) and dam, blood.


Some say that the word is primarily used in the generic sense of "mankind," and not as the name of an individual.[9] In Gen. i. its use is wholly generic.[9] In Gen. ii. and iii. the writer weaves together the generic and the personal senses of the word.[9] In all that pertains to the first man as the passive subject of creative and providential action the reference is exclusively generic.[9] Indeed, it is doubtful whether "Adam" as a proper name is used at all before Gen. iv. 25 and v. 3 .[9] Here the same usage is manifest: for in the two opening verses of chap. v. the word is used generically.[9] It may also be observed that the writer in Gen. ii., iii. always says "the man" instead of "Adam", even when the personal reference is intended, except after a preposition.[9]


Gen. ii. 7 explains the origin of the name thus: "God formed man of the dust of the ground."[9] That is to say, the man was called "Adam" because he was formed from the ground (adamah).[9] Compare Gen. iii. 19.[9] This association of ideas is more than an explanation of the word: it is also suggestive of the primitive conception of human life in which men not only came from and returned to the earth, but actually partook of its substance.[9] The same notion declares itself in the Latin homo and humanus, as compared with humus and the Greek χαμαί, in the German gam (in Bräutigam), and the English groom (in "bridegroom"); also in the Greek έπιχθόνιος and similar expressions.[9]


However in the case of Adam the usage of the word as personal name appears to predate the generic usage. The name is attested in the Assyrian King List in the form Adamu showing that it was a genuine name from the early history of the Near East. The generic usage in Genesis meaning "mankind" reflects the view that Adam was the ancestor of all men. The Assyrian king list is not merely a list of kings of Assyria, but is a very specific ancient list of supposed Assyrian kings recorded in several ancient locations, and related to the Sumerian king list. ...


Other

  • After his exile from the Garden of Eden he is fabled to have first set foot on earth at a mountain known as Adam's Peak or Al-Rohun, a mountain found in Sri Lanka.[citation needed]
  • Adam's name is a reference to red earth or red clay; in Biblical Hebrew, as in other ancient languages, there is no distinction between red and brown. Note that the reddish clay suggests the presence of iron oxide, which is the mineral that makes blood red. The same root word turns up in the Biblical Hebrew as "admoni" in subsequent descriptions of Esau and King David, where the description is commonly interpreted as 'red-haired' and/or 'ruddy' (1 Samuel 16-17).

Adams Peak, also known as Sri Pada, is a 2,243 metre (7,360 feet) tall conical mountain in central Sri Lanka. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... Esau (Hebrew ‎, Standard Hebrew Esav, Tiberian Hebrew Ēśāw) is the oldest son of Isaac and Rebekah and the twin brother of Jacob in the biblical Book of Genesis. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... Ruddy is a reddish or rosy colour, usually considered a dirty, dusty or dark-coloured reddish orange. ... (Redirected from 1 Samuel) The Books of Samuel, also referred to as [The Book of] Samuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל), are (two) books in the Hebrew Bible (Judaisms Tanakh and originally writtten in Hebrew) and the Old Testament of Christianity. ...

See also

Banu Adam is a Arabic term, not exclusivly Islamic, that denotes all the children of Adam. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... In the religious writings of Kabbalah, Adam Kadmon is a phrase meaning Primordial Man, or Primal Man, comparable to the Anthropos of Gnosticism and Manichaeism. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Brown Driver Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon, ISBN 1-56563-206-0, p. 9.
  2. ^ Ibid. 1. a man 2. man, mankind.
  3. ^ Ibid. From same root adm (אדם), adamah — ground or land.
  4. ^ a b c d "Adam and Eve." Encyclopædia Britannica.
  5. ^ Adam in Early Christian Liturgy and Literature - Catholic Encyclopedia article
  6. ^ Taherzadeh, Adib (1972). The Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh. Oxford, UK: George Ronald, pp. 32. ISBN 0-85398-344-5. 
  7. ^ Letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to an individual believer, March 13, 1986. Published in Effendi, Shoghi; The Universal House of Justice (1983). in Hornby, Helen (Ed.): Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India, pp. 500. ISBN 81-85091-46-3. 
  8. ^ a b Taherzadeh, Adib (1977). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 2: Adrianople 1863-68. Oxford, UK: George Ronald, pp. 352. ISBN 0-85398-071-3. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=758&letter=A&search=Adam%20and%20Eve#1868
Prophets of Islam in the Qur'an
Adam Idris Nuh Hud Saleh Ibrahim Lut Ismail Is'haq Yaqub Yusuf Ayub
آدم ادريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط اسماعيل اسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب
Adam Enoch Noah Eber Shelah Abraham Lot Ishmael Isaac Jacob Joseph Job

Shoaib Musa Harun Dhul-Kifl Daud Sulayman Ilyas Al-Yasa Yunus Zakariya Yahya Isa Muhammad
شعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود سليمان إلياس اليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى محمد
Jethro Moses Aaron Ezekiel David Solomon Elijah Elisha Jonah Zechariah John Jesus
v  d  e

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