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Encyclopedia > Adalbert of Prague
Saint Adalbert of Prague
Martyr and Bishop
Died 997
Feast April 23
Patronage Bohemia; Poland; Prussia
Silver coffin of St. Wojciech (Cathedral in Gniezno)
Silver coffin of St. Wojciech (Cathedral in Gniezno)

Adalbert (Polish: Wojciech, Czech: , Germanic: Adalbert) (c. 956 - April 23, 997) was a bishop of Prague who was martyred in his efforts to convert the Baltic Prussians initiated by Polish King Bolesław I the Brave. He was later made the patron saint of Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, and Prussia. The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... In several forms of the church of Christianity, but especially in Roman Catholicism, a patron saint has special affinity for a trade or group. ... Bohemia. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa, German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: PrÅ«sai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad... Image File history File links Adalberts_coffin. ... Image File history File links Adalberts_coffin. ... Motto: none Voivodship Greater Poland Municipal government Mayor Jaromir Dziel Area 40,9 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 71 040 none 1737/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1239 Latitude Longitude 52°32 N 17°36 E Area code +48 61 Car plates PGN Twin towns Anagni, Esztergom, Falkenberg, Saint... Image File history File links Cs-svaty Vojtech. ... Deaths April 8 - Gilbert of Chalon, Duke of Burgundy Categories: 956 ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Reign 992 — 1025. ... In several forms of the church of Christianity, but especially in Roman Catholicism, a patron saint has special affinity for a trade or group. ... Bohemia. ... The Province of Prussia was a province of Poland from the 15th century until 1660, consisting of Royal Prussia and Ducal Prussia. ...

Contents


Birth and youth

Vojtěch was born of a noble family of Prince Slavnik in Libice nad Cidlinou, Bohemia. His father was a rich and independent ruler of the Zličan princedom that rivaled Prague (see Slavník's dynasty). According to Cosmas' chronicle, Slavnik was a happy man all his life. Vojtěch had six brothers: Soběbor (Slavnik's heir), Spytimir, Pobraslav, Porej, Caslav and Radim (Gaudentius). The latter chose a clerical career as well as Vojtěch did. Vojtěch was a well-educated man, having studied for about ten years (970-80) in Magdeburg under Saint Adalbert. When Adalbert died, Vojtěch took on the name Adalbert Vojtěch. Another preceptor was Otterich from St. Maurice school. Gifted and industrious, Adalbert Vojtěch soon became well-known all over Europe. Slavník Founder of Slavníks dynasty FATHER:Legendary Vok WIFE:StÅ™ezislava the Pretty CHILDREN:Saint Adalbert,SobÄ›bor,Spytimír,Pobraslav,PoÅ™ej a Čáslav HEIR:SobÄ›bor Categories: People stubs ... St. ... Bohemia. ... Bohemian-like tribe settled in east of Bohemian fold. ... Libice coat of arms Slavníks dynasty (Czech: , Polish: ) - the powerful dynasty in Bohemia during the 10th century. ... Cosmas Cosmas of Prague (c. ... Gaudentius (also known as Radzim Gaudenty), a member of Slavniks dynasty, was the first archbishop of Gniezno. ... View of Magdeburg with the cathedral, from the tower of the Johanniskirche. ... Adalbert of Magdeburg ( d. ...


Religious acts

In 980 Adalbert finished his studies at Magdeburg school and returned to Prague where he became a priest.


In 981 his father, prince Slavnik, and both his mentors died.

Adalbert, part of the Wenceslas Monument on the Wenceslas Square in Prague
Adalbert, part of the Wenceslas Monument on the Wenceslas Square in Prague

In 982 Adalbert became the Bishop of Prague. However, he strongly resented the participation of formally Christian inhabitants in the slave trade. Although Adalbert descended from a rich family and could afford comfort and luxury, he lived poorly of his own free will. He was noted for charity, austerity, and zealous service to the Church. His duty was difficult even in baptized Bohemia, as the pagan creed was deeply embedded in the peoples' minds. Adalbert complained of polygamy and idolatry, which still were not unusual among the Czech. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (503x754, 207 KB) Summary Description: Adalbert of Prague. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (503x754, 207 KB) Summary Description: Adalbert of Prague. ... Wenceslas Square Wenceslas Square (Czech: Václavské námÄ›stí) is one of the main city squares and the centre of the business and cultural communities in the New Town of Prague, Czech Republic. ... Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... Events Greenland founded by Erik the Red ; first contact of Europeans with North America Births Emma of Normandy Atisha the Bengali Buddhist Saint Deaths Categories: 982 ... The following is a list of bishops and archbishops of Prague: Bishops of Prague 1. ... It has been suggested that Chattel slavery be merged into this article or section. ...


In 989 he resigned from his bishop's cloth and left Prague. He went to Rome and lived as a hermit in St. Alexis Benedictine monastery.


Four years later, in 993 the Pope sent him back to Bohemia. Adalbert became the Bishop again. That time he founded a monastery in Břevnov, near Prague, the first one for men in Czechia. According to Cosmas' chronicle, high clerical office was a burden to Adalbert, and in 994 he offered it to Strachkvas who was Přemyslid and Duke Boleslav's brother. Strachkvas, nevertheless, refused. The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Catholic Church. ... Bohemia. ... Strachkvas (Kristián) (28 Sep. ...

In 995 Slavniks' rivalry with Přemyslids resulted in a storm of Libice and a cruel murder of four (or five) Adalbert's brothers. All this was done by will of Boleslav II, and the key executors were his confederates from a powerful clan of Vršovci. Thus Zličan princedom became part of Přemyslids' estate. Download high resolution version (1002x929, 149 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Boleslaus II the Pious Boleslaus II the Pious (Czech: ) (died February 7, 999) - Duke of Bohemia, member of the PÅ™emyslid dynasty. ... Rawicz (Vrsin) Coat of Arms The VrÅ¡ovci (Vrshovici, Ursovites) are a family of Bohemian nobility which were most powerful from the 10th-12th centuries. ...


Adalbert damned Vrśovci in church and predicted that they would be severely persecuted. After the tragedy he could not stay in Bohemia any longer and escaped from Prague, despite the Pope's call for him to return to his episcopal see. Strachkvas was appointed to be his successor. However, when he was going to assume the Bishop office in Prague, he suddenly died during the ceremony itself. Circumstances of his death are still unclear.


As for Adalbert, he went to Hungary and baptized Geza of Hungary and his son Stephen. Then he went to Poland where he was cordially welcomed by Bolesław I the Brave. After the short visit Adalbert went to Prussia with a Christian mission. Géza of Hungary (born around 940-945, died in 997) (possibly Gyécsa in Old Hungarian, Gejza in Slovak), was the fejedelem (ruling prince) of the Magyars from c. ... A statue of Stephen the Great King Stephen the Great or St. ... Reign 992 — 1025. ...


Mission and martyrdom in Prussia

Saint-Adalbert is being killed by Prussians, part of Gniezno Doors
Saint-Adalbert is being killed by Prussians, part of Gniezno Doors

Adalbert Vojtěch of Prague had already in 977 entertained the idea of becoming a missionary in Prussia. After he had converted Hungary, he was sent by the Pope to convert the heathen Prussians. Boleslaus the Brave, duke of Poland, sent soldiers with Adalbert. The bishop and his followers entered Prussian territory near Gdańsk and went along the Baltic Sea coast. Image File history File links Adalb. ... The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, were Indo-European Balts inhabiting the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons (i. ... The Gniezno Doors are a set of bronze doors in Gniezno Cathedral in Gniezno, Poland. ... Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... Events Births Deaths Hunain ibn Ishaq, Egyptian physician Categories: 977 ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, were Indo-European Balts inhabiting the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons (i. ... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Catholic Church. ... The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, were Indo-European Balts inhabiting the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons (i. ... Reign From 992 until 1025 Coronation On April 18, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms OrzeÅ‚ Piastowski Parents Mieszko I Dubrawka Consorts Rikdaga Judith Enmilda Oda Children with Judith Bezprym with Enmilda Regelina Mieszko II Lambert Otton with Oda Matylda Date of Birth 966/967... A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. ... The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, were Indo-European Balts inhabiting the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons (i. ... GdaÅ„sk (Polish pronunciation: (?), German: ( ), Kashubian: GduÅ„sk, Latin: Gedania; also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodship. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


It was a standard procedure of Christian missionaries to try to chop down sacred oak trees (see Iconoclasm), which they had done in many other places, including Saxony. Because the trees were worshipped and the spirits who were believed to inhabit the trees were feared for their powers, this was done to demonstrate to the non-Christians that no supernatural powers protected the trees from the Christians. Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stata Sakska) is at a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ...


When they did not heed warnings to stay away from the sacred oak groves, Adalbert was martyred in April 997 on the Baltic Sea coast near Truso (currently Elbląg). It is recorded that his body was bought back for its weight in gold by Boleslaus the Brave. Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for their convictions or religious faith, such as during the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire. ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia-Masuria Municipal government Rada Miejska w ElblÄ…gu Mayor Henryk SÅ‚onina Area 83,32 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 130,000 none 1544,64/km² Founded City rights 9th century 1246 Latitude Longitude 54° 10 N 19° 24 E Area code +48 55 Car plates... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... Reign From 992 until 1025 Coronation On April 18, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms OrzeÅ‚ Piastowski Parents Mieszko I Dubrawka Consorts Rikdaga Judith Enmilda Oda Children with Judith Bezprym with Enmilda Regelina Mieszko II Lambert Otton with Oda Matylda Date of Birth 966/967...


Canonization and memory

St. Adalbert (Vojtech) and his brother Gaudentius (Radim) monument in Libice (Czechia)
St. Adalbert (Vojtech) and his brother Gaudentius (Radim) monument in Libice (Czechia)

A few years later Adalbert was canonized as Saint Adalbert of Prague. His life has been written about in Vita Sancti Adalberti by various writers, the earliest was traced to imperial Aachen and Liège, although it was assumed for many years that the Roman monk John Canaparius had written the first Vita in 999. Another famous biographer of Adalbert was st. Bruno of Querfurt who wrote his hagiography in 1001-1004. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1500, 187 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Adalbert of Prague Slavníks dynasty Gaudentius Libice nad Cidlinou Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1500, 187 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Adalbert of Prague Slavníks dynasty Gaudentius Libice nad Cidlinou Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Canonization is the process of declaring someone a saint and involves proving that a candidate has lived in such a way that he or she qualifies for this. ... Aachen (French Aix-la-Chapelle, Dutch Aken, Latin Aquisgranum, Ripuarian Oche) is a spa city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, on the border with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km to the west of Cologne, and the westernmost city in Germany. ... Liège (Dutch: Luik, German: Lüttich; before 1946, the citys name was written Liége, with the acute accent) is a major city located in the Belgian province of Liège, of which it is the capital. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... John Canaparius (Jan Kanaperiusz) was a Benedictine monk at Aventine monastery in Rome. ... Saint Bruno of Querfurt (c. ...


Notably, Bohemian rulers (i.e. Přemyslids) initially refused to ransom st. Adalbert's body from Prussians who murdered him, so it was purchased by Poles. This fact may be explained by st. Adalbert's belonging to Slavniks family; it highlights two clans' conflict strength. Thus Saint Adalbert's bones were stored in Gniezno and helped Boleslaus the Brave to improve Poland's position in Europe. Motto: none Voivodship Greater Poland Municipal government Mayor Jaromir Dziel Area 40,9 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 71 040 none 1737/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1239 Latitude Longitude 52°32 N 17°36 E Area code +48 61 Car plates PGN Twin towns Anagni, Esztergom, Falkenberg, Saint... Reign From 992 until 1025 Coronation On April 18, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms OrzeÅ‚ Piastowski Parents Mieszko I Dubrawka Consorts Rikdaga Judith Enmilda Oda Children with Judith Bezprym with Enmilda Regelina Mieszko II Lambert Otton with Oda Matylda Date of Birth 966/967...


There is an opinion that in 1039 Bohemian duke Bretislav I retrieved the bones of Saint Adalbert from Gniezno and moved them to Prague. By other version, he took only part of bones, while rest (including skull of St. Adalbert's relics were hidden by Poles (according to Roczniki Polskie) found in 1127 roku. To bones in Gniezno, in 1928, was aded arm of St. Adlbert which Bolesław I gave in 1000 to Otto III. Today Saint Adalbert has two graves, and which bones are authentic is still not clear. For example, the saint has two skulls - one in Prague, other in Gniezno (stolen in 1923). Bohemia. ... Břetislav (b. ... Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... Otto III in a medieval manuscript Otto III (980 – January 23, 1002, Paterno, Italy) was the fourth ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ...


In June, 1997 was a thousandth anniversary of st. Adalbert's martyrdom. It was commemorated in Poland, Germany, Czechia, Russia and other countries. Representatives of Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Evangelical churches pilgrimaged to Gniezno, to the saint's tomb. John Paul II visited Gniezno and held a ceremonial divine service which heads of seven European states and about a million of believers took part in. In Kaliningrad Oblast, near Beregovoe village (former Tenkitten), where Adalbert's death hypothetically took place, a ten-meter cross was established. + In June, 1997 was a thousandth anniversary of st. Adalbert's martyrdom. It was commemorated in Poland, Germany, Czechia, Russia and other countries. Representatives of Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Evangelical churches pilgrimaged to Gniezno, to the saint's tomb. John Paul II visited Gniezno and held a ceremonial divine service which heads of seven European states and about a million of believers took part in. In Kaliningrad Oblast, near Beregovoe village (former Tenkitten), where Adalbert's death hypothetically took place, a ten-meter cross was established. Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Course of Pregolya River in Gvardeysk. ... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Course of Pregolya River in Gvardeysk. ...


See also

The Congress of Gniezno is one of the most important events in Polish history, though scholars disagree over the details of the decisions made at the meeting, especially whether the Polish prince was pledged the kings crown or not. ... The Gniezno Doors are a set of bronze doors in Gniezno Cathedral in Gniezno, Poland. ...

External links

  • Map of Prussia from c 1660 with locations

  Results from FactBites:
 
Adalbert of Prague (318 words)
Adalbert baptized Geza of Hungary and his son Stephen, and he also worked to convert the Poles.
Adalbert Vojtech of Prague had already in 977 entertained the idea of becoming a missionary in Prussia.
Adalbert became the patron saint of Prussia, Hungary, Bohemia and Poland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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