In 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January 3 - One of the predecessor papers to the Herald Sun of Melbourne, Australia, The Port Phillip Herald, is founded by George Cavanaugh. January 10 - Uniform penny postage introduced in the UK. January 19 - Captain...
1840 Charles Babbage Charles Babbage (December 26, 1791 – October 18, 1871) was an English mathematician, analytical philosopher and (proto_) computer scientist who was the first person to come up with the idea of a programmable computer. Parts of his uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the London Science Museum. In...
Charles Babbage was invited to give a seminar at the The University of Turin (Università degli Studi di Torino, UNITO) is the university of Turin in the Piedmont region of north-western Italy. It consists currently of 12 faculties. History It was founded as a studium in 1404. From 1427 to 1436 the seat of the university was transferred to...
University of Turin about his The analytical engine, an important step in the history of computers, is the design of a mechanical, modern general purpose computer by the British professor of mathematics Charles Babbage. It was first described in 1837, but Babbage continued to work on his design throughout his life, which ended in 1871...
analytical engine. Luis Menabrea, a young The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. It comprises a boot-shaped peninsula and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia, and shares its northern alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent countries of San...
Italian An engineer may be someone who practices the engineering profession, or the driver of a rail locomotive. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back...
engineer wrote up Babbage's lecture in French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. In 1999 French was the 11th most spoken language in the world being spoken by about 77 million people (called Francophones) as a mother tongue, and...
French, and this transcript was subsequently published in the Bibliothèque Universelle de Genève in Events February 21 - John J. Greenough patents the sewing machine. March 5 - Over 500 Mexican troops led by Rafael Vasquez invade Texas briefly occupy San Antonio and then head back to the Rio Grande. This is the first such invasion since the Texas Revolution. March 30 - Anesthesia is used for...
1842. Babbage asked **Ada Byron** (also known as Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (December 10, 1815 - November 27, 1852) is mainly known for having written a description of Charles Babbages early mechanical general_purpose computer, the analytical engine. Ada was the only legitimate child of the poet Lord Byron and his wife, Annabella Milbanke, a cousin of...
Ada Lovelace) to translate Menabrea's paper into English. He then further asked Lady Ada to augment the notes she had added to the translation, and she spent most of a year doing this. These notes, which are more extensive than Menabrea's paper, were then published in *The Ladies Diary* and *Taylor's Scientific Memoirs* (under the pseudonym A.A.L.). Her notes were labelled A, B, C, D, E, F and G, the last one being the longest. In note G Ada describes an Flowcharts are often used to represent algorithms. An algorithm is a finite set of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task which, given an initial state, will result in a corresponding recognisable end-state (contrast with heuristic). Algorithms can be implemented by computer programs, although often in restricted forms; an...
algorithm for the The analytical engine, an important step in the history of computers, is the design of a mechanical, modern general purpose computer by the British professor of mathematics Charles Babbage. It was first described in 1837, but Babbage continued to work on his design throughout his life, which ended in 1871...
analytical engine to compute In mathematics, the Bernoulli numbers Bn were first discovered in connection with the closed forms of the sums for various fixed values of n. The closed forms are always polynomials in m of degree n+1 and are called Bernoulli polynomials. The coefficients of the Bernoulli polynomials are closely related...
Bernoulli numbers. It is generally considered the first algorithm ever specifically tailored for implementation on a The tower of a personal computer. A computer is a device or machine for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms. Computers are constructed from components that perform simple well-defined functions. The complex interactions of these components endow computers with the ability to...
computer, and for this reason she is considered by many to be the first In computing, a programmer is someone who does computer programming and develops computer software. A programmer can be one who develops and maintains software on a large mainframe system or one who develops software primarily for use on personal computers. In this sense, a programmer may be considered a software...
computer programmer. Note G could possibly also be said to be the first expression of the modern computer phrase " 1. Garbage In, Garbage Out. A reference to the fact that computers, unlike humans, will unquestioningly process the most nonsensical of input data and produce nonsensical output. Of course a properly written program will reject input data that is obviously erroneous but such checking is not always easy to specify...
Garbage In, Garbage Out". Lovelace writes: *"The Analytical Engine has no pretensions whatever to originate anything. It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. It can follow analysis; but it has no power of anticipating any analytical relations or truths.*" On the other hand, proponents of This article is about intelligence exhibited by manufactured systems, typically computers. For other uses of the term AI, see Ai. For the influential Warp Records series, see Artificial Intelligence (series). Artificial intelligence, also known as machine intelligence, is defined as intelligence exhibited by anything manufactured (i.e. artificial) by humans...
Artificial intelligence would dismiss the above quote as nonsense: Automated theorem proving (currently the most important subfield of automated reasoning) is the proving of mathematical theorems by a computer program. Depending on the underlying logic, the problem of deciding the validity of a theorem varies from trivial to impossible. For the frequent case of propositional logic, the problem is...
Automated theorem proving could be cited as a counterexample. According to Linda Talisman on [1] (*http://www.cs.yale.edu/homes/tap/Files/ada-lovelace-notes.html*) "Baum cites: - Perl, Teri. The Ladies Diary or Woman's Almanac, 1704-1841, Historica Mathematica 6 (1979): 36-53
- Wallis, Ruth and Peter. Female Philomaths, Historica Mathematica 7, (1980), 57-64
There were indeed women in mid-century England who signed their names to mathematical articles in popular journals, and there were influential periodicals, such as the The Edinburgh Review was one of the most influential magazines of the 19th century. It took for its motto judex damnatur ubi nocens absolvitur (The judge is condemned when the guilty is acquitted.) from Publilius Syrus. Started in 1802 by Francis Jeffrey, Sydney Smith and Henry Brougham it was published...
Edinburgh Review, that lent intellectual women psychological support.... Although the Ladies Diary ..., the most popular of the mathematical periodicals, encouraged women to join wit with beauty, it attracted serious amateurs of both sexes... [it] was a respectable place to pose mathematical problems and sustain debate... since there were few science periodicals in England until the 1830s, technical articles often appeared in general periodicals like the Ladies Diary. It may have been something similar that originally sparked Mary Somerville Mary Somerville (December 26, 1780 – November 28, 1872) was a British scientific writer. She was the daughter of Admiral Sir William George Fairfax, and was born at the manse of Jedburgh, the house of her mothers sister, wife of Dr Thomas Somerville (1741–1830), author...
Mrs. Somerville's interest in mathematics. At a tea party one afternoon, she recalled years later, young Mary Fairfax had been given a ladies' fashion magazine that contained a puzzle, the answer to which was given in strange symbols. These symbols turned out to be Algebra (from the Arabic al-jabr meaning reunion, connection or completion) is a branch of mathematics which may be roughly characterized as a generalization and extension of arithmetic; it also refers to a particular kind of abstract algebra structure, the algebra over a field. Algebra may be roughly divided into...
algebra. And that magazine became her introduction to the world of In mathematics, Euclidean geometry is the familiar kind of geometry on the plane or in three dimensions. Mathematicians sometimes use the term to encompass higher dimensional geometries with similar properties. Euclidean geometry sometimes means geometry in the plane which is also called plane geometry. Plane geometry is the topic of...
Euclidean geometry and number. Baum, p. 35" Submitted to [2] (*http://www.cs.yale.edu/homes/tap/Files/ada-lovelace-notes.html*) by Linda Talisman
## External links
*Sketch of The Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage* by L. F. Menabrea with notes upon the Memoir by the translator Ada Augusta, Countess of Lovelace (*http://www.fourmilab.ch/babbage/sketch.html*) * Ada Lovelace's Notes and The Ladies Diary* (*http://www.cs.yale.edu/homes/tap/Files/ada-lovelace-notes.html*) |