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Encyclopedia > Ada (programming language)
Ada
Paradigm: multi-paradigm: concurrent, distributed, generic-programming, imperative, object-oriented
Appeared in: 1983, last revised 2005
Designed by: Jean Ichbiah, extended
by S. Tucker Taft
Typing discipline: static, strong, safe, nominative
Major implementations: GNAT
Dialects: Ada 83, Ada 95, Ada 2005
Influenced by: ALGOL 68, Pascal, C++ (Ada 95), Smalltalk (Ada 95), Java (Ada 2005)
Influenced: C++, PL/SQL

Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language. It was originally designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull under contract to the United States Department of Defense during 19771983 to supersede the hundreds of programming languages then used by the DOD. Ada addresses some of the same tasks as C or C++, but Ada is strongly-typed (even for integer-range), and compilers are validated for reliability in mission-critical applications, such as avionics software. Ada was named after Ada Lovelace, who is often credited with being the first computer programmer. Ada is an international standard; the current version (known as Ada 2005) is defined by joint ISO/ANSI standard (ISO-8652:1995), combined with major Amendment ISO/IEC 8652:1995/Amd 1:2007. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x800, 65 KB) Summary The cover of the Ada Reference Manual, a standard reference for the Ada programming language. ... A programming paradigm is a paradigmatic style of programming (compare with a methodology, which is a paradigmatic style of doing software engineering). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Concurrent programming languages are programming languages that use language constructs for concurrency. ... This article or section should be merged with Distributed computing Distributed programming falls out of the use of computers to form networks. ... Generic programming is a style of computer programming where algorithms are written in an extended grammar and are made adaptable by specifying variable parts that are then somehow instantiated later by the compiler with respect to the base grammar. ... In computer science, imperative programming, as opposed to declarative programming, is a programming paradigm that describes computation in terms of a program state and statements that change the program state. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... Jean David Ichbiah (born 25 March 1940) was the chief designer of the Ada programming language, from 1977–1983. ... In computer science, a type system defines how a programming language classifies values and expressions into types, how it can manipulate those types and how they interact. ... In computer science, a type system defines how a programming language classifies values and expressions into types, how it can manipulate those types and how they interact. ... In computer science and computer programming, the term strong typing is used to describe those situations where programming languages specify one or more restrictions on how operations involving values having different datatypes can be intermixed. ... In computer science, a programming language is type safe when the language does not permit the programmer to treat a value as a type to which it does not belong. ... A nominative type system is a major classes of type system, in which type compatibility and equivalence is determined by explicit declarations and/or the name of the types. ... Look up Implementation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term gnat is applied as a colloquial name to any of various small insects in the order Diptera and specifically within the suborder Nematocera. ... A dialect of a programming language is a (relatively small) variation or extension of the language that does not change its intrinsic nature. ... ALGOL 68 (short for ALGOrithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and a more rigorously defined syntax and semantics. ... Pascal is a structured imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ... For other uses, see Small talk. ... “Java language” redirects here. ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ... PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporations proprietary server-based procedural extension to the SQL database language. ... Structured programming can be seen as a subset or subdiscipline of procedural programming, one of the major programming paradigms. ... In computer science, a datatype (often simply type) is a name or label for a set of values and some operations which can be performed on that set of values. ... In computer science, imperative programming, as opposed to declarative programming, is a programming paradigm that describes computation in terms of a program state and statements that change the program state. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... A high-level programming language is a programming language that is more user-friendly, to some extent platform-independent, and abstract from low-level computer processor operations such as memory accesses. ... Computer programming (often shortened to programming or coding) is the process of writing, testing, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... Jean David Ichbiah (born 25 March 1940) was the chief designer of the Ada programming language, from 1977–1983. ... Groupe Bull (also known as Bull Computer or, informally, as Bull) is a French computer company based in Paris. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ... In computing, strongly-typed, when applied to a programming language, is used to describe how the language handles datatypes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (December 10, 1815 – November 27, 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron, is mainly known for having written a description of Charles Babbages early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. ...

Contents

Features

Ada was originally targeted at embedded and real-time systems. The Ada 95 revision, designed by S. Tucker Taft of Intermetrics between 1992 and 1995, improved support for systems, numerical, financial, and object-oriented programming (OOP). A router, an example of an embedded system. ... Realtime redirects here. ... Intermetrics, Inc. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ...


Notable features of Ada include: strong typing, modularity mechanisms (packages), run-time checking, parallel processing (tasks), exception handling, and generics. Ada 95 added support for object-oriented programming, including dynamic dispatch. In computing, strongly-typed, when applied to a programming language, is used to describe how the language handles datatypes. ... Modularity is a concept that has applications in the contexts of computer science, particularly programming, as well as cognitive science in investigating the structure of mind. ... Runtime checking is a mechanism of an programming language to check for errors at runtime, e. ... Parallel processing is the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli. ... Exception handling is a programming language construct or computer hardware mechanism designed to handle the occurrence of some condition that changes the normal flow of execution. ... Generic programming is a style of computer programming where algorithms are written in an extended grammar and are made adaptable by specifying variable parts that are then somehow instantiated later by the compiler with respect to the base grammar. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... In computer science, dynamic dispatch is the process of mapping a message to a specific sequence of code (method) at runtime. ...


Ada supports run-time checks in order to protect against access to unallocated memory, buffer overflow errors, off by one errors, array access errors, and other avoidable bugs. These checks can be disabled in the interest of runtime efficiency, but can often be compiled efficiently. It also includes facilities to help program verification. For these reasons, Ada is widely used in critical systems, where any anomaly might lead to very serious consequences, i.e., accidental death or injury. Examples of systems where Ada is used include avionics, weapons (including thermonuclear weapons), and spacecraft. In computer security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is a programming error which may result in a memory access exception and program termination, or in the event of the user being malicious, a possible breach of system security. ... An off-by-one error in computer programming is an avoidable error in which a loop iterates one too many or one too few times than desired. ... An anomaly is something which deviates from the standard or expected. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


Ada also supports a large number of compile-time checks to help avoid bugs that would not be detectable until run-time in some other languages or would require explicit checks to be added to the source code.


Ada's dynamic memory management is high-level and type-explicit, requiring explicit instantiation of the Unchecked_Deallocation package to explicitly free allocated memory. The specification does not require any particular implementation. Though the semantics of the language allow automatic garbage collection of inaccessible objects, most implementations do not support it. Ada does support a limited form of region-based storage management. Invalid accesses can always be detected at run time (unless of course the check is turned off) and sometimes at compile time. Memory management is the act of managing computer memory. ... In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management. ...


The syntax of Ada is simple, consistent and readable. It minimizes choices of ways to perform basic operations, and prefers English keywords (eg "OR") to symbols (eg. "||"). Ada uses the basic mathematical symbols (i.e.: "+", "-", "*" and "/") for basic mathematical operations but avoids using other symbols. Code blocks are delimited by using words such as "declare", "begin" and "end". It also enforces that each conditional statement be closed. For example, "if x > 0 then y := 0;" is not valid and must be closed with "end if"; i.e., "if x > 0 then y := 0; end if;" The rationale is that code for a complex system must be readable by reviewers and maintainers. This was also to avoid the common problem of if-else ambiguity in the grammar. Reviewers may include domain experts who are not highly software literate. Code for complex systems is typically maintained for many years, by programmers other than the original author. It can be argued that these language design principles apply to most software projects, and most phases of software development, however when applied to complex, safety critical projects, benefits in correctness, reliability, and maintainability take precedence over (arguable) costs in initial development.


Unlike most ISO standards, the Ada language definition (known as the Ada Reference Manual or ARM, or sometimes the Language Reference Manual or LRM) is free content. Thus, it is a common reference for Ada programmers, not just programmers implementing Ada compilers. Apart from the reference manual, there is also an extensive rationale document which explains the language design and the use of various language constructs. This document is also widely used by programmers. When the language was revised, a new rationale document was written. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Free content is any kind of functional work, artwork, or other creative content upon which no legal restriction has been placed that significantly interferes with peoples freedom to use, understand, redistribute, improve, and share the content. ...


History

In the 1970s, the US Department of Defense (DoD) was concerned by the number of different programming languages being used for its embedded computer system projects, many of which were obsolete or hardware-dependent, and none of which supported safe modular programming. In 1975 the Higher Order Language Working Group (HOLWG) was formed with the intent of reducing this number by finding or creating a programming language generally suitable for the department's requirements; the result was Ada. The total number of high-level programming languages in use for such projects fell from over 450 in 1983 to 37 by 1996. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The High Order Language Working Group (HOLWG) was a working group instrumental in the development of the Ada programming language. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

The working group created a series of language requirements documents—the Strawman, Woodenman, Tinman, Ironman and Steelman documents. Many existing languages were formally reviewed, but the team concluded in 1977 that no existing language met the specifications. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Steelman language requirements were a set of requirements which a high-level general-purpose programming language should meet, created by the United States Department of Defense in The Department of Defense Common High Order Language program in 1978. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Requests for proposals for a new programming language were issued and four contractors were hired to develop their proposals under the names of Red (Intermetrics led by Benjamin Brosgol), Green (CII Honeywell Bull, led by Jean Ichbiah), Blue (SofTech, led by John Goodenough), and Yellow (SRI International, led by Jay Spitzen). In April 1978, after public scrutiny, the Red and Green proposals passed to the next phase. In May of 1979, the Green proposal, designed by Jean Ichbiah at CII Honeywell Bull, was chosen and given the name Ada—after Augusta Ada, Countess of Lovelace. This proposal was influenced by the programming language LIS that Ichbiah and his group had developed in the 1970s. The preliminary Ada reference manual was published in ACM SIGPLAN Notices in June 1979. The Military Standard reference manual was approved on December 10, 1980 (Ada Lovelace's birthday), and given the number MIL-STD-1815 in honor of Ada Lovelace's birth year. Intermetrics, Inc. ... Groupe Bull (also known as Bull Computer or simply Bull) is a French computer company based in Louveciennes, France, outside Paris. ... Jean David Ichbiah (born 25 March 1940) was the chief designer of the Ada programming language, from 1977–1983. ... SRI Internationals main campus on Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California SRI International is one of the worlds largest contract research institutions. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (December 10, 1815 – November 27, 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron, is mainly known for having written a description of Charles Babbages early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. ... LIS(a Library of Iterative Solvers for linear systems) programming language is a library written in C language and Fortran 90 for solving linear equations using reiteration method. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (December 10, 1815 – November 27, 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron, is mainly known for having written a description of Charles Babbages early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. ...

Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace.
Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace.

In 1987, the US Department of Defense began to require the use of Ada (the Ada mandate) for every software project where new code was more than 30% of result, though exceptions to this rule were often granted. This requirement was effectively removed in 1997, as the DoD began to embrace COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) technology. Similar requirements existed in other NATO countries. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (631x786, 45 KB) From The Ada Picture Gallery. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (631x786, 45 KB) From The Ada Picture Gallery. ... Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (December 10, 1815 – November 27, 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron, is mainly known for having written a description of Charles Babbages early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) is a term for software or hardware products that are ready-made and available for sale to the general public. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ...


Because Ada is a strongly-typed language, it has been used outside the military in commercial aviation projects, where a software bug can mean fatalities. The fly-by-wire system in the Boeing 777 runs software written in Ada. The Canadian Automated Air Traffic System (completed in year 2000 by Raytheon Canada) was written in 1 million lines of Ada (SLOC count). It featured advanced (for the time) distributed processing; a distributed Ada database; and object-oriented design. The Boeing 777 is an American long-range wide-body twin-engine airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ... Source lines of code (SLOC) is a software metric used to measure the amount of code in a software program. ...


The language became an ANSI standard in 1983 (ANSI/MIL-STD 1815A), and without any further changes became an ISO standard in 1987 (ISO-8652:1987). This version of the language is commonly known as Ada 83, from the date of its adoption by ANSI, but is sometimes referred to also as Ada 87, from the date of its adoption by ISO. The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced an-see) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


Ada 95, the joint ISO/ANSI standard (ISO-8652:1995) is the latest standard for Ada. It was published in February 1995 (making Ada 95 the first ISO standard object-oriented programming language). To help with the standard revision and future acceptance, the US Air Force funded the development of the GNAT Compiler. Presently, the GNAT Compiler is part of the GNU Compiler Collection. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Seal of the Air Force. ... The term gnat is applied as a colloquial name to any of various small insects in the order Diptera and specifically within the suborder Nematocera. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ...


Work has continued on improving and updating the technical content of the Ada programming language. A Technical Corrigendum to Ada 95 was published in October 2001, and a major Amendment, ISO/IEC 8652:1995/Amd 1:2007, was published on March 9, 2007. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


"Hello, world!" in Ada

A common example of a language's syntax is the Hello world program: For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... A hello world program is a computer program that prints out Hello, World! on a display device. ...

 with Ada.Text_IO; procedure Hello is begin Ada.Text_IO.Put_Line("Hello, world!"); end Hello; 

There are shortcuts available for Ada.Text_IO.Put_Line, needing less typing; however, they are not used here, for better understanding. For a detailed explanation, see Wikibooks:Ada Programming/Basic.


See also

Image File history File links Information. ...

Online tutorials

The following sites have link collections to Ada tutorials:

Organizations

The Ada Information Clearinghouse is a website with reference information about the Ada programming language, including the Language Reference Manual and other standards documents, case studies, details of compilers and software tools and more. ... The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ...

Compilers

  • AdaMagic - Proprietary Ada technology from SofCheck, including Ada 95 front end, run-time system, and tools; front end can generate conventional IL, ISO/ANSI C, or Java byte codes
  • GNAT - Free compiler based on GCC
  • GNATPro - Commercially supported version of GNAT from AdaCore
  • JGNAT - GNAT-based compiler for the Java Runtime Environment
  • MGNAT - GNAT-based compiler for the .NET Framework Environment (A# project)
  • ObjectAda - Proprietary Ada compiler from Aonix
  • PowerAda - Proprietary Ada Compiler from OC Systems
  • AdaMulti - Proprietary Ada Compiler and Integrated Development Environment from Green Hills Software
  • SCORE - Proprietary multi language Integrated Development Environment from DDC-I, Inc. including a compiler for Ada as one of its supported languages
  • Rational Apex (now owned and sold by IBM)

AdaMagic[1] is a retargetable Ada 95 compiler technology available from SofCheck. ... The term gnat is applied as a colloquial name to any of various small insects in the order Diptera and specifically within the suborder Nematocera. ... The GNU logo The GNAT Modified General Public License (short: Modified GPL, MGPL) is a version of the GNU General Public License specificly modified for the generic feature found in the Ada programming language. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... The term gnat is applied as a colloquial name to any of various small insects in the order Diptera and specifically within the suborder Nematocera. ... For the German Naval Acoustic Torpedo see G7es torpedo. ... The term gnat is applied as a colloquial name to any of various small insects in the order Diptera and specifically within the suborder Nematocera. ... Java Logo The Java Runtime Environment, or JRE, or J2RE is a software bundle from Sun Microsystems that allows a computer system to run a Java application. ... The term gnat is applied as a colloquial name to any of various small insects in the order Diptera and specifically within the suborder Nematocera. ... It has been suggested that Com interop be merged into this article or section. ... A# is a port of the Ada programming language to the Microsoft . ... PowerAda is a commercial Ada compiler by OC Systems, Inc. ... Green Hills Software, headquartered in Santa Barbara, California, USA, is a company that markets operating systems and development tools for embedded systems. ...

Tools

  • A# (A port of Ada to the Microsoft .NET Platform, [1])
  • Aunit
  • Ada Mode (Complete Ada-Mode for Vim, [2])
  • AdaAllegro (Ada Interface to Allegro Game Library)
  • AdaBrowse (Javadoc-like HTML generator for Ada 95 library unit specifications, [3])
  • AdaDoc ([4])
  • AdaCL (Ada Class Library, [5])
  • AdaGIDE (A free GNAT Ada Integrated Development Environment for Windows)
  • Ada OpenGL ([6])
  • Cairo bindings for Ada95 ([7])
  • AdaControl (ASIS_GNAT the Ada Rule Checker, [8])
  • Gnade (Ada Database Interface, [9])
  • GNAT Programming Studio (GPS)
  • GNATCOM (Ada binding for Microsoft COM spec.)
  • GNAVI (Ada Visual RAD)
  • GtkAda (Ada binding for GTK+, [10])
  • OGLAda ([11])
  • PolyORB
  • QTAda (Older QT bindings for Ada)
  • QT4ADA (QT4 bindings for Ada, [12])
  • SofCheck Inspector (Static Error Detection tool, [13])
  • Tartan Ada (Cross compilers for TI TMS320C3x and TMS320C4x DSPs)
  • TextTools (Ncurses-based Mouse-Windows Toolkit for Ada, [14])
  • Visual Ada Developer
  • XML/Ada and XML4Ada95
  • XIA/XPath In Ada (An Ada binding to the XPath 1.0 spec.)

Another list of Ada bindings can be found at [15]. A# is a port of the Ada programming language to the Microsoft . ... Adagide is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) designed for use with GNAT Ada on the Microsoft Windows platform. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The GNAT Programming Studio or GPS (formerly known as the GNAT Programming System) is a free multi-language IDE for GNU/Linux, MS Windows and Solaris/Sparc. ... Component Object Model (COM) is a platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ... GNAVI is an open source visual software development environment, like Delphi and Visual Basic. ... GTK+, or the GIMP Toolkit, is one of the two most popular widget toolkits for the X Window System for creating graphical user interfaces. ... // Excerpt from PolyORB homepage. ... SofCheck, Inc. ... XPath (XML Path Language) is an expression language for addressing portions of an XML document, or for computing values (strings, numbers, or boolean values) based on the content of an XML document. ... In computing, a binding from a language to a library or OS service is an API providing that service in the language. ...


Related programming languages

  • SPARK - High integrity language based on an Ada subset
  • VHDL - A hardware description language for representing digital hardware, with many concepts and much syntax borrowed from Ada.
  • PL/SQL - Stored procedure language in Oracle Corporation's RDBMS product, has many similarities to Ada and was historically based on Ada syntax

SPARK is a secure, formally-defined language designed to support the development of software used in applications where correct operation is vital either for reasons of safety or business integrity. ... VHDL, or VHSIC Hardware Description Language, is commonly used as a design-entry language for field-programmable gate arrays and application-specific integrated circuits in electronic design automation of digital circuits. ... PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporations proprietary server-based procedural extension to the SQL database language. ... A stored procedure is a subroutine available to applications accessing a relational database system. ... Oracle Corporation (NASDAQ: ORCL) is one of the major companies developing database management systems (DBMS), tools for database development, middle-tier software, enterprise resource planning software (ERP), customer relationship management software (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM) software. ... A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by Edgar F. Codd. ...

Others

The Ravenscar profile is a subset of the Ada tasking features. ... Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine (often a computer). ...

References

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Ada Programming

International Standards

  • ISO/IEC 8652: Information technology — Programming languages — Ada
  • ISO/IEC 15291: Information technology — Programming languages — Ada Semantic Interface Specification (ASIS)
  • ISO/IEC 18009: Information technology — Programming languages — Ada: Conformity assessment of a language processor (ACATS)
  • IEEE Standard 1003.5b-1996, the POSIX Ada binding
  • Ada Language Mapping Specification, the CORBA IDL to Ada mapping

Rationale

(These documents have been published in various forms including print.) Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... ISO 8652 (technically, the current full name is ISO/IEC 8652:1995(E), for the 1995 version) is the international standard for the computer programming language Ada. ... Ada Semantic Interface Specification ASIS is a layered, open architecture providing vendor-independent access to the Ada Library Environment. ... Ada Conformity Assessment Test Suite (ACATS) The Ada Conformity Assessment Test Suite (ACATS) is the test suite used for Ada processor conformity testing. ... The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems to qualify for the name Unix. The SUS is developed and maintained by the Austin Group, based on earlier work by the IEEE and The Open Group. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... In computing, Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a standard for software componentry, created and controlled by the Object Management Group (OMG). ... An interface description language (or alternately, interface definition language), or IDL for short, is a computer language used to describe a software components interface. ...

  • Jean D. Ichbiah, John G. P. Barnes, Robert J. Firth and Mike Woodger, Rationale for the Design of the Ada® Programming Language, 1986.
  • John G. P. Barnes, Ada 95 rationale : the language : the standard libraries, 1995.
  • John Barnes, Rationale for Ada 2005, 2005, 2006.

Books

  • Jan Skansholm: Ada 95 From the Beginning, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-40376-5
  • Geoff Gilpin: Ada: A Guided Tour and Tutorial, Prentice hall, ISBN 978-0-13-004045-9
  • John Barnes: Programming in Ada 2005, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-321-34078-7
  • John Barnes: Programming in Ada plus Language Reference Manual, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-56539-0
  • John Barnes: Programming in Ada 95, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-34293-6
  • John Barnes: High Integrity Ada: The SPARK Approach, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-17517-7
  • John Barnes: High Integrity Software: The SPARK Approach to Safety and Security, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-321-13616-0
  • John Beidler: Data Structures and Algorithms: An Object-Oriented Approach Using Ada 95, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-94834-1
  • Dean W. Gonzalez: Ada Programmer's Handbook, Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8053-2529-8
  • M. Ben-Ari: Ada for Software Engineers, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-97912-0
  • Norman Cohen: Ada as a Second Language, McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, ISBN 0-07-011607-5
  • Alan Burns, Andy Wellings: Real-Time Systems and Programming Languages. Ada 95, Real-Time Java and Real-Time POSIX., Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-72988-1
  • Alan Burns, Andy Wellings: Concurrency in Ada, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-62911-X
  • Colin Atkinson: Object-Oriented Reuse, Concurrency and Distribution: An Ada-Based Approach, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-56527-7
  • Grady Booch, Doug Bryan: Software Engineering with Ada, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-8053-0608-0
  • Daniel Stubbs, Neil W. Webre: Data Structures with Abstract Data Types and Ada, Brooks Cole, ISBN 0-534-14448-9
  • Pascal Ledru: Distributed Programming in Ada with Protected Objects, Dissertation.com, ISBN 1-58112-034-6
  • Fintan Culwin: Ada, a Developmental Approach, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-264680-3
  • John English, Fintan Culwin: Ada 95 the Craft of Object Oriented Programming, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-230350-7
  • David A. Wheeler: Ada 95, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-94801-5
  • David R. Musser, Alexander Stepanov: The Ada Generic Library: Linear List Processing Packages, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-97133-5
  • Michael B. Feldman: Software Construction and Data Structures with Ada 95, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-88795-9
  • Simon Johnston: Ada 95 for C and C++ Programmers, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-40363-3
  • Michael B. Feldman, Elliot B. Koffman: Ada 95, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-36123-X
  • Nell Dale, Chip Weems, John McCormick: Programming and Problem Solving with Ada 95, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, ISBN 0-7637-0293-5
  • Nell Dale, John McCormick: Ada Plus Data Structures: An Object-Oriented Approach, 2nd edition, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, ISBN 0-7637-3794-1
  • Bruce C. Krell: Developing With Ada: Life-Cycle Methods, Bantam Dell Pub Group, ISBN 0-553-09102-6
  • Judy Bishop: Distributed Ada: Developments and Experiences, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-39251-9
  • Bo Sanden: Software Systems Construction With Examples in Ada, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-030834-X
  • Bruce Hillam: Introduction to Abstract Data Types Using Ada, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-045949-6
  • David Rudd: Introduction to Software Design and Development With Ada, Brooks Cole, ISBN 0-314-02829-3
  • Ian C. Pyle: Developing Safety Systems: A Guide Using Ada, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-204298-3
  • Louis Baker: Artificial Intelligence With Ada, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-003350-1
  • Alan Burns, Andy Wellings: HRT-HOOD: A Structured Design Method for Hard Real-Time Ada Systems, North-Holland, ISBN 0-444-82164-3
  • Walter Savitch, Charles Peterson: Ada: An Introduction to the Art and Science of Programming, Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8053-7070-6
  • Mark Allen Weiss: Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in Ada, Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8053-9055-3
  • Henry Ledgard: ADA: AN INTRODUCTION (Second Edition), Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-90814-5

Geoff Gilpin (born September 22, 1953) is an American author of creative nonfiction and computer science books. ... John Gilbert Presslie Barnes is a British computer scientist. ... John Gilbert Presslie Barnes is a British computer scientist. ... John Gilbert Presslie Barnes is a British computer scientist. ... John Gilbert Presslie Barnes is a British computer scientist. ... John Gilbert Presslie Barnes is a British computer scientist. ... Dean Gonzalez the son of Ivy Gonzalez (nee Colbourne) of Newfoundland, Canada and Carmelo Gonzalez of Puerto Rico. ... hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi hi matt durnell done this ... Professor Alan Burns (currently beardless) Professor Alan Burns is currently the head of the University of York Computer Science Department. ... Andy Wellings is a professor in the Computer Science department at the University of York in northern England. ... Professor Alan Burns (currently beardless) Professor Alan Burns is currently the head of the University of York Computer Science Department. ... Andy Wellings is a professor in the Computer Science department at the University of York in northern England. ... Colin Atkinson in the 1970s Colin Ronald Michael Atkinson CBE - Cricketer and Schoolmaster. ... Grady Booch (born February 27, 1955) is a software designer, a software methodologist and a design pattern enthusiast. ... Danny Stubbs (born January 3, 1965 in Long Beach, New Jersey) is a former professional American football player who played defensive end for ten seasons for the San Francisco 49ers, Dallas Cowboys, Cincinnati Bengals, Philadelphia Eagles, and Miami Dolphins. ... Dr. John English is a Canadian academic who has also been very active in Canadian public life. ... Categories: People stubs | 1965 births | Wikipedians with article ... Alexander Stepanov (born November 16, 1950 in Moscow) is the key person behind the C++ Standard Template Library. ... , born May 7, 1942 in Boston, Massachusetts, has been a professor in the computer science department at Temple University since 1978. ... John McCormick is Professor of Political Science at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis(IUPUI), and has been chair since July 2001. ... Professor Alan Burns (currently beardless) Professor Alan Burns is currently the head of the University of York Computer Science Department. ... Andy Wellings is a professor in the Computer Science department at the University of York in northern England. ...

External links

  • Ada World
  • AdaPower
  • ACM SIGAda
  • Ada-Europe Organization
  • Ada Information Clearinghouse
  • ISO Home of Ada Standards
  • Ada 95 Books Available Online
  • Ada Rapporteur Group (evolution of standard)
  • Ada Answers - Building better software with Ada
  • Citations from CiteSeer
  • comp.lang.ada
  • Ada Tutorial
  • Projects Using Ada
  • Conference announcements for the international Ada community
  • Ada Home

GNAT - Free Ada compiler

  • The GNU Ada Project
  • GNAVI Ada Visual RAD
  • A#: Ada on .NET

AdaCore Image File history File links Information. ...

  • GNAT
  • GNU Ada Homepage
  • "Libre" Ada Software
  • AdaGIDE, the Ada GNAT Integrated Development Environment for Windows

Ada Wikis

General Info

  • Ada@Krischik
  • wiktionary:ACATS
  • wiktionary:Ada
  • wiktionary:ASIS

Tutorials

  • Ada Programming
  • Programación en Ada
  • Programmation Ada
  • Ada 95

Projects

  • AdaCL
  • The Ada 95 Booch Components
  • The GNU Ada Compiler
  • ASIS
  • GLADE
  • Florist
  • Wikibook Ada Programming

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Introduction to the Ada Programming Language Training Class (262 words)
Introduction to the Ada Programming Language is a 5 day training class designed to show you exactly what the Ada programming language has to offer when developing complex software systems.
Programming experience and familiarity with a high-level programming language are expected.
Dr. Rehmer, has been programming in Ada for more than 20 years.
Ada programming language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1737 words)
Ada is a structured, statically typed imperative computer programming language designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull during 1977–1983.
Requests for proposals for a new programming language were issued and four contractors were hired to develop their proposals under the names of Red (Intermetrics led by Benjamin Brosgol), Green (CII Honeywell Bull, led by Jean Ichbiah), Blue (SofTech, led by John Goodenough), and Yellow (SRI International, led by Jay Spitzen).
This proposal was influenced by the programming language LIS that Ichbiah and his group had developed in the 1970s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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