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Encyclopedia > Ad hoc
Look up Ad hoc in
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Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means "for this purpose". It generally signifies a solution that has been custom designed for a specific problem, is non-generalizable, and cannot be adapted to other purposes. Examples include a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol or a purpose-specific equation. Ad hoc can also have connotations of a makeshift solution, inadequate planning, or improvised events. In technical papers the orthography varies to AdHoc, adhoc, ad-hoc, and other derivates. Please consider when searching the term. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... ADHOC (Cambodia Human Rights and Deveopedment Organization) is a Cambodian human rights organisation, founded in 1991. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... Purpose in its most general sense is the anticipated aim which guides action. ... In networking, a communications protocol or network protocol is the specification of a set of rules for a particular type of communication. ... An equation is a mathematical statement, in symbols, that two things are the same (or equivalent). ...

Contents

Ad hoc committee

One which is formed to deal with a particular issue, and disbanded after the issue is resolved. These committees provide stop gap or temporary measures to solve problems that are not resolved by ordinary processes of the organization to which the committee belongs. The GATT, for example, was controlled by an ad-hoc committee before the WTO was established. A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ... General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (usually abbreviated GATT) functions as the foundation of the WTO trading system, and remains in force, although the 1995 Agreement contains an updated version of it to replace the original 1947 one. ... “WTO” redirects here. ...


Ad hoc computer network

Main article: Mobile ad-hoc network

ad hoc is a network connection method which is most often associated with wireless devices. The connection is established for the duration of one session and requires no base station. Instead, devices discover others within range to form a network for those computers. Devices may search for target nodes that are out of range by flooding the network with broadcasts that are forwarded by each node. Connections are possible over multiple nodes (multihop ad hoc network). Routing protocols then provide stable connections even if nodes are moving around. Sony's PlayStation Portable uses ad hoc connections for wireless multiplayer gaming, as does the Nintendo DS (although Nintendo does not officially use the term). Technically, all of the Game Boys used this method for linking up to each other in a wired (Game Link Cable) or wireless (Game Boy Color IR Port) mode. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANet) is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links – the union of which form an arbitrary topology. ... A mobile ad-hoc network (MANet) is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links – the union of which form an arbitrary topology. ... The PlayStation Portable , officially abbreviated as PSP) is a handheld game console released and currently manufactured by Sony Computer Entertainment. ... NDS redirects here. ...


See IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth, or ultra-wide band. The alternative is infrastructure, with a base station that manages the network for its range. The theory behind ad hoc networks falls within the Distributed Transient Network-paradigm. IEEE 802. ... Bluetooth logo This article is about the electronic protocol named after Harald Bluetooth Gormson. ... Ultra-wideband (also UWB, and ultra-wide-band, ultra-wide band, etc. ... Distributed Transient Network (DTN) is defined as: the type of network which is inherently decentralized by nature and consists mainly of nodes which are not per se constantly a part of the network and are able to join or leave at any time at any place in the network. ...


The term ad hoc network can also refer to an independent basic service set (IBSS). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ad hoc mode. ...


Mobile Ad Hoc and Social Network

Mobile ad hoc social network describe the new social networks constructed by the combination of computation, communication, reputation, and location awareness. More precisely, p2p computing and wireless networking technologies make it possible to design ad hoc networks of mobile devices to support the ad hoc social networks of the people who wear them. It could be understood as a longer yet more technical term for “smart mob”.


Ad hoc means that the organizing among people and their devices is done informally and on the fly (the way texting young people everywhere coordinate meetings after school). Social network means that every individual in a smart mob is a “node” in the jargon of social network analysis, with social “links” to other individuals, while social links means channels of communication and social bonds. The mobile thus is already self-evident as thousands and millions of people now are using mobile phones and SMS. Altogether, the fundamental elements of social networks formed by humans and communication networks constructed from optical cables and wireless devices, the nodes and links, is the answer why new communication technologies make possible profound social changes.


In some sense, an ad hoc mobile information system is the ultimate peer-to-peer system. It is self-organizing, fully decentralized, and highly dynamic. It was argued that ad hoc social network opens the opportunity for many new invented devices to take part in our everyday soial interactions with people. "Their ability to establish communication links among devices during face-to-face encounters can be used to facilitate, augment or even promote human social interactions" [1].


Examples of Mobile Ad Hoc and Social Network

  • Ad hoc meetings,
  • Mobile patient monitoring,
  • Distributed command and Control systems
  • Ubiquitous computing

Ad hoc hypothesis

In philosophy and science, ad hoc often means the addition of corollary hypotheses or adjustment to a philosophical or scientific theory to save the theory from being falsified by compensating for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form. Philosophers and scientists are often suspicious or skeptical of theories that rely on continual, inelegant adjustments, and ad hoc hypotheses are often a characteristic of pseudoscientific subjects. See Skeptic's Dictionary: Ad hoc hypothesis. Much of scientific understanding relies on the modification of existing hypotheses or theories, but these are distinguished from ad hoc hypotheses in that the anomalies being explained propose a new means of being falsified. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Falsifiability (or refutability or testability) is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment. ... An anomaly is something which deviates from the standard or expected. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ...


Theories that have been empirically tested and rather than being confirmed they seem either to have been falsified or to require numerous ad hoc hypotheses to sustain them include applied kinesiology, astrology, biorhythms, creationism, facilitated communication, plant perception, and ESP.[1] Despite evidence contrary to the theories, adherents do not give them up. For example, ESP researchers have been known to blame the hostile thoughts of onlookers for unconsciously influencing pointer readings on sensitive instruments. See also: Kinesiology (academic) Applied kinesiology (AK) is related to diagnostic kinesiology. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... Facilitated communication (FC) is an augmentative communication strategy, that is, a communication strategy used by people without functional speech. ... This article is about theories regarding emotion and paranormal perceptions in plants especially as applies to the work of Cleve Backster. ... Extra-sensory perception (ESP) is defined in parapsychology as the ability to aquire information by paranormal means. ...


An interesting example of an ad hoc hypothesis is Albert Einstein's addition of the cosmological constant to relativity in order to allow a steady-state universe. Although he later referred to it as his "greatest blunder," it has been found to correspond quite well to the theories of dark energy. “Einstein” redirects here. ... In physical cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) was proposed by Albert Einstein as a modification of his original theory of general relativity to achieve a stationary universe. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... For alternative meanings see steady state (disambiguation). ... In physical cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. ...


Ad hoc pronunciation

Many reference works employ ad hoc pronunciation schemas as a way of indicating how words are pronounced. These are especially popular in U.S. published works[citation needed], such as the Merriam-Webster dictionary. An example of an ad hoc pronunciation would be "DIK-shuh-nair-ee", where the capitalization shows which syllable is stressed. This is in contrast to systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet, which attempt to put pronunciation schemes on a scientific footing, though at the cost of being indecipherable to laymen. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Critics of ad hoc schemes point out that such schemas are inherently self-referential, since they rely on the ability of the reader to already know how a large number of words are commonly pronounced. In addition, such schemas often assume a certain language, dialect or accent on the part of the reader, and due to its popularity in the US, this is very often a US accent.


As its name suggests, there is no "standard" ad hoc schema, and so examples will vary considerably according to the publication's whim. In contrast, the IPA seeks to base pronunciation solely on vocal tract configurations and on the phonemes produced, though very often neo-common simple words are used to illustrate how the IPA applies in a specific language. Sagittal section of human vocal tract The vocal tract is that cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...


Proponents of ad hoc claim that it is much easier to use than IPA, though will often concur that this is usually only because the pronunciation is already known.


Ad hoc querying

Ad hoc querying is a term in information science. Not to be confused with informatics or information theory. ...


Many application software systems have an underlying database which can be accessed by only a limited number of queries and reports. Typically these are available via some sort of menu, and will have been carefully designed, pre-programmed and optimized for performance by expert programmers. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By contrast, "ad hoc" reporting systems allow the users themselves to create specific, customized queries. Typically this would be via a user-friendly GUI-based system without the need for the in-depth knowledge of SQL, or database schema that a programmer would have. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ... SQL (IPA: or ), commonly expanded as Structured Query Language, is a computer language designed for the retrieval and management of data in relational database management systems, database schema creation and modification, and database object access control management. ... This article is about computing. ... The word schema comes from the Greek word σχήμα (skhēma) that means shape or more generally plan. ...


Because such reporting has the potential to severely degrade the performance of a live system, it is sometimes provided only on a regularly-refreshed copy of the "live" database. Depending on the context, such a copy might be referred to as a data warehouse and the querying as data mining. A data warehouse is the main repository of an organizations historical data, its corporate memory. ... Kurt Thearling, An Introduction to Data Mining (also available is a corresponding online tutorial) Dean Abbott, I. Philip Matkovsky, and John Elder IV, Ph. ...


See also

Adhocracy is a type of organization being an opposite of bureaucracy. ... A just-so story is a term used in academic anthropology, biological sciences, and social sciences for a narrative explanation for a cultural practice or a biological trait or behavior of humans or animals which is unverifiable and unfalsifiable. ...

References

  1. ^ Howard 2002, pp.169-171

Citations

  • Howard, R, (2002). "Smart Mobs: the Next Social Revolution", Perseus.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ad hoc - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (835 words)
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means "for this [purpose]." It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose and is makeshift and non-general, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol or a specific-purpose equation, as opposed to general solutions.
In philosophy and science, ad hoc often means the addition of corollary hypotheses or adjustment to a philosophical or scientific theory to save the theory from being falsified by compensating for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form.
Philosophers and scientists are often suspicious or skeptical of theories that rely on continual, inelegant ad hoc adjustments, and ad hoc hypotheses are often a characterisitic of pseudoscientific subjects.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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