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Encyclopedia > Acute myelogenous leukemia
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Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells. The median age of patients with AML is 70; it is rare among children. Leukemia (leukaemia in Commonwealth English) is a group of blood diseases characterized by malignancies (cancer) of the blood-forming tissues. ... Jump to: navigation, search When normal cells are damaged or old they undergo apoptosis; cancer cells, however, avoid apoptosis. ... A blood cell is any cell of any type normally found in blood. ...


Myeloid leukemias are characterized as "acute" or "chronic" based on how quickly they progress if not treated. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is often without symptoms and can remain dormant for years before transforming into a blast crisis, which is markedly similar to AML. Acute may refer to: An acute accent is a diacritic character. ... The word chronic has uses in many fields. ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia (or CML) is a form of chronic leukemia characterised by increased production of myeloid cells in the bone marrow. ...

Contents


Pathophysiology

Specific chromosomal abnormalities are seen in patients with some forms of AML. These chromosomal abnormalities tend to disrupt genes that encode for transcription factors needed for myeloid stem cells to differentiate into specific blood components. Without differentitation occurring, these myeloid precursor cells fill the bone marrow and spill out into the blood. The overpopulation of the bone marrow with myeloid precursors also results in supression of normal marrow stem cells, giving rise to the symptoms of anemia (lack of red blood cells), thrombocytopenia (lack of platelets), and neutropenia (lack of neutrophils). In the context of genetics, a transcription factor is a regulatory protein that initiates the transcription of certain genes upon binding with DNA. The binding of a transcription factor to a specific DNA sequence can result in either an increased rate of transcription of the gene, known as activated transcription... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. ... Neutropenia is a haematological disorder characterised by an abnormally low number of neutrophil granulocytes (a type of white blood cell). ...


Subtypes

Acute myelogenous leukemia have been divided into 8 subtypes, M0 through to M7 under the French-American-British (FAB) classification system based on the type of cell from which the leukemia developed and degree of maturity. This is done by examining the appearance of the malignant cells under light microscopy or cytogenetically by characterization of the underlying chromosomal abnormality. Each subtype is characterised by a particular pattern of chromosomal translocations and have varying prognoses and responses to therapy. Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye. ... A metaphase cell positive for the bcr/abl rearrangement using FISH Cytogenetics is the study of the structure of chromosome material. ... Chromosomal translocation of the 4th and 20th chromosome. ...


The eight different subtypes are:

  • M0 (undifferentiated AML)
  • M1 (myeloblastic, immature)
  • M2 (myeloblastic, mature)
  • M3 (promyelocytic), or acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)
  • M4 (myelomonocytic)
  • M5 (monocytic)
  • M6 (erythrocytic)
  • M7 (megakaryoblastic)

Subtype M2 is the most common among AML patients and comprises approximately 25% of adult AML patients, it also carries a favourable prognosis. Subtype M3 (acute promyelocytic leukemia) carries the best prognosis, whilst M0, M6, and M7 carry the worst prognoses. APL has a unique treatment with ATRA (see below) compared to the other subtypes of AML Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of white blood cells. ... Atra or ATRA can refer to: Stachybotrys chartarum All-trans retinoic acid This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Symptoms

Most signs and symptoms of AML are due to the increased numbers of malignant white blood cells and a lack of normal blood cell production in the bone marrow. The early signs of AML may be similar to those of influenza or other common illnesses, and often have many different signs and symptoms. Some generalized symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss or loss of appetite
  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
  • Anemia
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Petechiae - flat, pin-head sized spots under the skin caused by bleeding
  • Bone and joint pain
  • Persistent infections

Some patients of AML with subtype M5 may experience swelling of the gums due to the spread of the disease there. Occasionally, a person may show no symptoms and the leukemia is discovered during a routine blood test. Usually, the symptoms of AML appear within a few weeks and experience sudden onset of illness. Jump to: navigation, search Hyperthermia: Characterized on the left. ... Jump to: navigation, search Fatigue is a state, following a period of mental or bodily activity, characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency of accomplishment, usually accompanied by a feeling of weariness, sleepiness, or irritability. ... Dyspnea (Latin dyspnoea, Greek dyspnoia from dyspnoos - short of breath) or shortness of breath (SOB) is perceived difficulty breathing or pain on breathing. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... A petechia (puh-TEE-kee-uh, plural petechiae puh-TEE-kee-eye) is a small red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor hemorrhage (broken capillary blood vessels). ...


Diagnosis

Patients with AML usually present with symptoms such as fatigue, bleeding, infection, prompting medical attention. An abnormal blood test reading will then result in further testing in a hospital with a hematologist to determine AML. Most patients with AML will experience a high count of malignant white blood cells, and low counts of red blood cells and platelets. Hematology is the branch of medicine that is concerned with blood and its disorders. ...


A bone marrow aspiration or biopsy is then conducted to identify the type of abnormal blood cells and determine the best treatment plan for the patient. The marrow is taken from the back of the hipbone. Jump to: navigation, search A bone marrow biopsy is a medical procedure used as part of a test in the diagnosis of several conditions including leukemia. ...


Because acute promyelocytic leukemia has the highest curability and has a unique form of treatment, it is important to establish or exclude the diagnosis of this subtype of leukemia. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of white blood cells. ...


Causes

There is ongoing research into the causes of acute myelogenous leukaemia however it is not known for sure what causes it.


It is thought that in very rare cases, excessive exposure to harmful chemicals such as benzene and radiation such as atomic bomb explosions may trigger abnormal DNA mutations, resulting in leukemia. Patients who have received previous treatment with certain drugs (alkylating agents) are also at higher risk of developing AML. A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... Alkylating agents are so named because of their ability to add alkyl groups to many electronegative groups under conditions present in cells. ...


Because of inherited genetic defects, some individuals are born with an abnormal immune system, which causes them to be at higher risk of developing leukemia.


Treatment

Chemotherapeutic treatment is divided into two phases: induction and postremission therapy. In all FAB subtypes except M3, the usual initial treatment includes cytarabine (ara-C) and an anthracycline (such as daunorubicin or idarubicin). Because of the toxicity of therapy (from myelosuppression and increased risk of infection), induction chemotherapy is not generally offered to the very elderly. Cytarabine is a shortened form of cytosine arabinoside, a commonly used chemotherapy agent used mainly in the treatment of leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ... Anthracycline - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Daunorubicin is chemotherapy that is given as a treatment for some types of cancer. ... Idarubicin chemical structure Idarubicin or 4-demethoxydaunorubicin is an anthracycline drug that is used in the treatment of cancer. ... Bone marrow suppression is a serious side effect of chemotherapy and certain drugs affecting the immune system such as azathioprine. ...


Complete remission is obtained in about 50-75% of newly diagnosed adults. The bone marrow is examined for malignant cells following induction chemotherapy. Complete remission does not mean that the disease has been cured, but rather, signifies that no disease can be detected (i.e. <5% leukemic blasts in the bone marrow).


Once complete remission is achieved, additional therapy is necessary to eliminate non-detectable disease to prevent relapse of disease and achieve a cure. Postremission therapy can include more intensive chemotherapy, known as consolidation chemotherapy, or bone marrow transplant. However, despite aggressive therapy, only 20-30% of patients enjoy long term disease free survival. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology that involves transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). ...


The M3 subtype, also known as acute promyelocytic leukemia, is almost universally treated by the drug ATRA (all-trans-retinoic acid). For relapsed APL, arsenic trioxide has been tested in trials and approved by the FDA. Like ATRA, arsenic trioxide does not work with other sub-types of AML. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of white blood cells. ... Atra or ATRA can refer to: Stachybotrys chartarum All-trans retinoic acid This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...



Health science - Medicine - Hematology
Hematological malignancy and White blood cells
Leukemia (ALL, AML, CLL, CML) - Lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease, NHL) - Multiple myeloma - MDS - Myelofibrosis - Myeloproliferative disease (Essential thrombocytosis, Polycythemia) - Neutropenia
Red blood cells
Anemia - Hemochromatosis - Sickle-cell disease - Thalassemia - G6PD - other hemoglobinopathies
Coagulation and Platelets
Thrombosis - Deep vein thrombosis - Pulmonary embolism - Hemophilia - ITP - TTP

  Results from FactBites:
 
Acute myelogenous leukemia - acute mylogenous leukemia (1305 words)
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells.
Acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage (also known as mixed phenotype acute leukemia) occur when the leukemic cells can not be classified as either myeloid or lymphoid cells or where both types of cells are present.
Because acute promyelocytic leukemia has the highest curability and has a unique form of treatment, it is important to establish or exclude the diagnosis of this subtype of leukemia.
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia -- Lawcore.com (903 words)
Acute myelogenous leukemia is one of the forms of leukemia associated with exposure to benzene.
Acute myelogenous leukemia is often called acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute myelocytic leukemia and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
If you have been diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia because of an exposure to benzene at your workplace, there are lawyers that specialize in this legal field to help you claim compensation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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