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Encyclopedia > Acts of Union 1707
 Formation of the United Kingdom 
  Laws in Wales Acts (153542)
  Crown of Ireland Act (1542)
Flag of Scotland   Union of the Crowns (1603)
Flag of Scotland   Acts of Union (1707)
  Act of Union (1801)
Flag of United Kingdom   Government of Ireland Act (1920)
Flag of United Kingdom Flag of Republic of Ireland   Anglo–Irish Treaty (1921)
Flag of United Kingdom   Royal & Parliamentary Titles Act (1927)

The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The acts were the implementation of the Treaty of Union negotiated between the two kingdoms. The Acts created a new state, the Kingdom of Great Britain, by merging the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland together. The two countries had shared a monarch since 1603, but had retained sovereign parliaments. The Acts of Union dissolved both Parliaments and replaced them with a new Parliament of Great Britain, based at Westminster, the former home of the English Parliament. Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England_(bordered). ... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England_(bordered). ... Image File history File links St_Patrick's_saltire. ... The Crown of Ireland Act 1542 was an act of the Parliament of Ireland, declaring that King Henry VIII of England and his successors would also be Kings of Ireland. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... The Union of Crowns refers to the accession to the thrones of England and Ireland of King James VI of Scotland in March 1603, following the death of his unmarried and childless cousin, Elizabeth I, the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Image File history File links Flag_of_England_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Image File history File links St_Patrick's_saltire. ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links St_Patrick's_saltire. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic which concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Passed on April 12, 1927, the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 () was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that formed a significant landmark in the constitutional history of the UK and British Empire as a whole. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... English parliament in front of the king c. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... Scotland, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom see British Isles (terminology). ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital Winchester, then London from 11th century. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one strikes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the Crowns March 24, 1603  - Act of Union... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ...

Contents

Background

 Walter Thomas Monnington's 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster, depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Walter Thomas Monnington's 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster, depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the Kingdom of Great Britain.

While there had been three attempts in 1606, 1667 and 1689 to unite the two countries by Acts of Parliament, these were the first Acts that had the will of both political establishments behind them, albeit for rather different reasons. In the English case, the purpose was to establish the Royal succession along Protestant lines in the same manner as provided for by the English Act of Settlement 1701, rather than that of the Scottish Act of Security 1704. The two countries had shared a king for much of the previous century. The English were now concerned that an independent Scotland with a different king, even if he were a Protestant, might make alliances against England. Image File history File links UK House of Commons image of the The Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 by Walter Thomas Monnington, completed in 1925. ... Image File history File links UK House of Commons image of the The Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 by Walter Thomas Monnington, completed in 1925. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Electress Sophia The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Act of Security 1704 (also referred to as the Act for the Security of the Kingdom) was a response by the Parliament of Scotland to the Parliament of Englands Act of Settlement 1701. ...


In the Scottish case, union enabled Scotland to recover from the financial disaster wrought by the Darién scheme through English assistance and the lifting of measures put in place through the Alien Act to force the Scottish Parliament into compliance with the Act of Settlement. The Darién scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Panama. ... For the US Alien Act of 1798, see Alien and Sedition Acts. ...


The treaty consisted of 25 articles, 15 of which were economic in character. In Scotland, each article was voted on separately and several clauses in articles were delegated to specialised subcommittees. Article 1 of the treaty was based on the political principle of an incorporating union and this was secured by a majority of 116 votes to 83 on 4 November 1706. In order to minimise the opposition of the Church of Scotland, an act was also passed to secure the Presbyterian establishment of the Church, after which the Church stopped its open opposition, although hostility remained at lower levels of the clergy. The treaty as a whole was finally ratified on 16 January 1707 by a majority of 110 votes to 69.[1] November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


The ultimate securing of the treaty in the Scottish Parliament can be attributed more to the weakness and lack of cohesion between the various opposition groups in the House as opposed to the strength of pro-incorporationists[citation needed]. The combined votes of the Court party with a majority of the Squadrone Volante were sufficient to ensure the final passage of the treaty through the House. Many members had invested heavily in the Darién Scheme and they believed that they would receive compensation for their losses; Article 14, the Equivalent granted GBP398,085 10s to Scotland to offset future liability towards the English national debt. In essence, it was also used as a means of compensation for investors in the Darién Scheme. The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom Inflation 2. ... Before decimalisation in 1971, a shilling had a value of 12d (old pence), and was equal to 1/20th of a pound: there were 240 (old) pence to the pound. ... Darien is the name of several places in the United States of America: Darien, Connecticut Darien, Georgia Darien, Illinois - a suburb of Chicago Darien, New York Darien, Wisconsin Darien (town), Wisconsin Darién can also refer to places in Panama: Darién Province The town of Darién, founded by...


Financial persuasion were also prevalent. £20,000 (£240,000 Scots) was dispatched to Scotland for distribution by the Earl of Glasgow. James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry, the Queen's Commissioner in Parliament, received £12,325, the majority of the funding. To many Scots, this amounted to little more than a bribe. Robert Burns describing it as Pound Scots was the national unit of currency in the Kingdom of Scotland before the country entered into a political and currency union with England in 1707. ... Robert Burns, foremost Scottish poet Robert Burns (January 25, 1759 – July 21, 1796) was a poet and a lyricist. ...

"We were bought and sold for English Gold/Sic a Parcel of Rogues in a Nation"

Some of this was used to hire spies, such as Daniel Defoe; his first reports were of vivid descriptions of violent demonstrations against the Union. "A Scots rabble is the worst of its kind," he reported, "for every Scot in favour there is 99 against". Years later John Clerk of Penicuik, a leading Unionist, wrote in his memoirs that, Espionage is the practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential (spying) without the permission of the holder of the information. ... Daniel Defoe Daniel Defoe (1660 [?] â€“ April 1731) was an English writer, journalist and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... Sir John Clerk, known as John Clerk of Penicuik, 1676 - 1755, was a Scottish politician, lawyer, judge, composer and architect, The son of a member of the Parliament of Scotland, Clerk went on to serve in that capacity himself, for the Whig party. ...

"(Defoe) was a spy among us, but not known as such, otherwise the Mob of Edinburgh would pull him to pieces".

Defoe recalls that he was hired by Robert Harley. Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer (5 December 1661 – 21 May 1724), was an English statesman of the Stuart and early Georgian periods. ...


The Acts of Union were far from universally popular in Scotland, particularly amongst the general population. Many petitions were sent to the Scottish Parliament against union, and there were massive protests in Edinburgh and several other Scottish towns on the day it was passed [citation needed], as threats of widespread civil unrest resulted in the imposition of martial law by the Parliament. Sir George Lockhart of Carnwath, a Jacobite and the only member of the Scottish negotiating team who was not pro-incorporation, noted that `The whole nation appears against the Union'. Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, an ardent pro-unionist and Union negotiator, observed that the treaty was `contrary to the inclinations of at least three-fourths of the Kingdom'. Public opinion against the Treaty as it passed through the Scottish Parliament was voiced through petitions from Scottish localities. Anti-union petitions were received from shires, burghs, presbyteries and parishes. The Convention of Royal Burghs also petitioned against the Union and not one petition in favour of an incorporating union was received by Parliament. On the day the treaty was signed, the carilloner in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, rang the bells in the tune "Why should I be so sad on my wedding day?"[2] Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... Sir George Lockhart of Lee, also known as Lockhart of Carnwath, (1673 - 1731) of Carnwath, South Lanarkshire, was a Scottish writer, spy and politician. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Sir John Clerk, known as John Clerk of Penicuik, 1676 - 1755, was a Scottish politician, lawyer, judge, composer and architect, The son of a member of the Parliament of Scotland, Clerk went on to serve in that capacity himself, for the Whig party. ... The Netherlands Carillon in Arlington, Virginia, USA. A carillon is a musical instrument composed of at least 23 cup-shaped bells played from a baton keyboard using fists and feet (such an instrument with fewer than this number of bells is known as a chime). ... St Giles Cathedral A prominent feature of the Edinburgh skyline, St Giles Cathedral decorates the midpoint of the Royal Mile with its rounded hollow-crown tower. ...


The two Acts incorporated provisions for Scotland to send representative peers from the Peerage of Scotland to sit in the House of Lords. It guaranteed that the Church of Scotland would remain the established church in Scotland, that the Court of Session would "remain in all time coming within Scotland", and that Scots law would "remain in the same force as before". Other provisions included the restatement of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the ban on Roman Catholics from taking the throne. It also created a customs union and monetary union. In the United Kingdom, representative peers were individuals elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to represent them in the British House of Lords. ... The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ... Scots law (or Scottish law) is the law of Scotland. ... The Electress Sophia The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them, for example, the East Caribbean dollar. ...


The Act provided that any "laws and statutes" that were "contrary to or inconsistent with the terms" of the Act would "cease and become void."


Short term problems and long term benefits

For the very simple reason that the two parliaments had evolved along different lines, contradictions and teething troubles were frequent. For example, the English doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty in all aspects of national life did not exist in Scotland, and the Scottish parliament was unicameral, not bicameral. Most of the pre-Union traditions of Westminster continued, while those of Scotland were forgotten or ignored. Parliamentary sovereignty, parliamentary supremacy, or legislative supremacy is a concept in constitutional law that applies to some parliamentary democracies. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ...


Defoe drew upon his Scottish experience to write his Tour thro' the whole Island of Great Britain, published in 1726, where he actually admitted that the increase of trade and population in Scotland, which he had predicted as a consequence of the Union, was "not the case, but rather the contrary", and that the hostility towards his party was, "because they were English and because of the Union, which they were almost universally exclaimed against". A tour thro the Whole Island of Great Britain is an account of his travels by English author Daniel Defoe. ...


Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun, a vehement critic of the Union, said in An Account of a Conversation, that Scotland suffered "...the miserable and languishing condition of all places that depend upon a remote seat of government." Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun (1653 - September 1716) was a Scottish writer, politician and patriot. ...


During the Scottish Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution, Scotland was transformed from a poor country into one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. However, there is little evidence that this was a direct consequence of union with England. The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... A Watt steam engine. ... Europe at its furthest extent, reaching to the Urals. ...


A new Scottish Parliament

In 1999, after almost three centuries, a Scottish Parliament was opened after a referendum in Scotland. The new parliament does not have the same powers as the old parliament, as Scotland remains a constituent member country of the United Kingdom. 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Scottish Parliaments logo in English and Gaelic. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I...


300th anniversary

A commemorative two-pound coin will be issued to mark the 300th anniversary of the Union, which occurs 2 days before the Scottish Parliament's election.[3] // Obverse of the commemorative £2 coin The British commemorative two pound (£2) coin was minted from the same composition as the £1 coin, i. ... The Scottish Parliament election, 2007, will be the third general election[1] to the devolved Scottish Parliament since it was created in 1999. ...


The Scottish Executive have announced plans for a year-long commemoration including an education project led by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland, an exhibition of Union-related objects and documents at the National Museums of Scotland and an exhibition of portraits of people associated with the Union at the National Galleries of Scotland.[4] The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS) is an executive non-departmental public body financed by the Scottish Parliament through the Architecture Policy Unit of the Tourism, Culture and Sport Group of the Education Department of the Scottish Executive. ... The National Museums of Scotland are: The Royal Museum of Scotland - a general museum encompassing geology, archaeology, natural history, science, technology and art. ... The National Galleries of Scotland are: The National Gallery of Scotland The Royal Scottish Academy Building The Scottish National Portrait Gallery The Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art The Dean Gallery The Partner Galleries are: Duff House Paxton House See Also The Playfair Project ...


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Daniel Defoe Daniel Defoe (1660 [?] â€“ April 1731) was an English writer, journalist and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun (1653-1716) was a Scottish writer, politician and patriot. ... This is a chronological list of international treaties, agreements, peaces, etc. ... The history of democracy traces back from its origins in ancient world to its re-emergence and rise from the 17th century to the present day. ... The Scottish Parliaments logo in English and Gaelic. ... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the Acts of Union, the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... A Political Union is a type of state which is composed of smaller states. ... MacCormick v. ...

Notes

  1. ^ PJW Riley, The English Historical Review, Vol. 84, nº 332. (Jul., 1969), pp. 523–4.
  2. ^ Notes by John Purser to CD Scotland's Music, Facts about Edinburgh.
  3. ^ House of Lords - Written answers, 6 November 2006, TheyWorkForYou.com
  4. ^ Announced by the Scottish Culture Minister, Patricia Ferguson, 9th November 2006

Dr John Purser, born in 1942 in Glasgow, Scotland, is an eminent composer, musicologist, historian and writer. ...

References

  • Defoe, Daniel. A tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain, 1724–27
  • Defoe, Daniel. The Letters of Daniel Defoe, GH Healey editor. Oxford: 1955.
  • Fletcher, Andrew (Saltoun). An Account of a Conversation
  • Herman, Arthur. How the Scots Invented the Modern World. Three Rivers Press, 2001. ISBN 0-609-80999-7

A tour thro the Whole Island of Great Britain by Daniel Defoe, 1724-27 A non-fiction work that gives a matter-of-fact account of Defoes visits to various places, at a time when there were no ready reference works. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
MSN Encarta - Act of Union (519 words)
Introduction; Act of Union of 1536; Act of Union of 1707; Act of Union of 1800; Act of Union of 1840
The Act of Union passed in 1536, during the reign of King Henry VIII, the second English monarch descended from the Welsh House of Tudor.
The Act of Union, which was passed in 1800 and went into effect on January 1, 1801, joined the Kingdom of Great Britain and all of Ireland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Act of Union 1707 - definition of Act of Union 1707 in Encyclopedia (523 words)
The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (going into effect on 26 March) in the Scottish and the English Parliaments.
In the Scottish case, the purpose was partly to use English subsidies to recover from the financial problems caused by the failure of the Darién scheme and partly to remove English trade sanctions put in place through the Alien Act to force the Scottish Parliament into compliance with the Act of Settlement.
The Acts of Union were not universally popular in Scotland, particularly amongst the general population.
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